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E. J. THOMAS, M.A., 


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II l ' ' , . 11 


, I t 

D , J JO 

Cambridge : 

at the University Press 


T1LDEN r i DNS. 








A young man picks up a dead mouse which he sells, and works up his 
capital till he becomes rich. 


A king refuses to recognise his son by a chance amour; the mother 
throws the child into the air, praying that, if he be not the king's son, he 
may be killed by his fall. The child rests in mid-air, and the king recognises 
him as his son. 


A king, finding a grey hair in his head, renounces his throne to prepare 
as a hermit for death. He is re-born as a king and again becomes a hermit. 


A tiger and a lion dispute whether it is the dark or the light half of the 
month which is cold. 


A goat, which was to be sacrificed by a brahmin, shews signs of great joy 
and of great sorrow. It explains the reason for each emotion. 


Thirsty monkeys come to : 'sV pool" haunted by an "ogre. Their leader 
miraculously blows knots out of canes, with which they safely slake their 
thirst. , , - . , . . 


Carriage-straps having been jn&.ved by palace dogs, a king orders all 
other dogs to be killed. The leader of a pack 01 dogs reveals the truth by 
causing an emetic to be applied to the royal dogs. 


A young ox, seeing a lazy pig being fattened, is discontented with his 
hard fare. Another ox explains that the pig is being fattened to be eaten, 
and the discontented ox accepts his position. 

1 In Pali c is pronounced as ch in church ; kh, th, etc. as in inkhorn, pothook ; t, th, 
d, dh, n are pronounced with the tip of the tongue further back in the mouth than t, etc. ; 
a as u in but ; other vowels as in Italian. 




The daughter of the Golden Mallard, king of birds, chooses the peacock 
for her husband. In dancing for joy the peacock exposes himself and is 


Quails caught in a net rise up in a body with the net and escape several 
times. After a time they quarrel and are caught. 


A partridge, a monkey, and an elephant decide to obey the eldest of 
them. To prove seniority each gives his earliest recollection. 


A crane, pretending that he was taking them to a big lake, devours all 
the fish of a pond. A wise crab nips the bird's head off. 


A slave is made to tell where his master's father had buried his hoard. 


A pigeon lives in a kitchen with a greedy crow, which attacks the 
victuals. It is tortured to death by the cook, and the pigeon flies away. 


A mosquito settles on a man's head. To kill it his foolish son strikes the 
man's head with an axe and kills him. 


Monkeys employed to water a pleasaunce pull up the trees to judge 
by the size of the roots how much water to give. The trees die. 


Captured by robbers a brahmin makes treasure rain from the sky ; a 
second band kills him 'because- .hv /caynpt. 1 repeat; the miracle. Mutual 
slaughter leaves only two jrpljbjiss with th&tr&aatihg,' '.One poisons the other's 

food and is himself slain by his fe*llow. 


A good king meets evil with good^ RefusJRg to fight he is captured and 
buried alive in a charnel-grov'eV ' t i5e; 4^kj)es^he jackals, acts as umpire for 
ogres, and regains his kingdom. * " 


Prince Five-weapons fights with the ogre Hairy-grip, and though 
defeated subdues him through fearlessness. 


A girl is bred up among women only, without ev 3r seeing any man but 
her husband. Her innocence gives him luck in gaming. The story of her 
intrigue with a lover and of her trick at the ordeal to test her innocence. 




A woman's husband, son, and brother are condemned to death. She 
chooses and saves her brother, and gives her reason. 


The ingratitude of a prince, and the gratitude of a snake, rat, and parrot. 


A king dreams sixteen dreams, and the brahmins say he must offer 
sacrifices to avert the evil. His queen advises him to consult Buddha who 
shews that the evil will not be in the king's time. 


A miser is cured by his father reappearing on earth and distributing the 
son's wealth in the exact semblance of the son. 


A dwarf makes an alliance with a huge weaver, who gets the credit of the 
dwarf's achievements, until his cowardice is discovered. 


A queen's jewels are stolen, and several innocent persons confess to the 
theft. Monkeys are proved to be the real culprits, and the jewels are 


A trader tries to cheat his partner, and puts his father in a hollow tree 
to speak as the tree sprite and decide the dispute. The father is burnt out 
and exposed. 


A skilful markman reduces a talkative brahmin to silence by flicking 
pellets of goat's dung down the tatter's throat. 


Of three fishes two through folly are caught in a net ; the third and wiser 
fish rescues them. 


Effects of two sneezes. One lost a sword-tester his nose, whilst the other 
won a princess for her lover. 


A jackal, under guise of saintliness, eats the rats of a troop with which he 
consorts. His treachery is discovered and avenged. 


The father of a family dies, and is re-born as a bird with golden plumage. 
Finding his family poor he goes and gives them a feather at a time to sell. 
The widow in greed plucks all the feathers out, and they grow again as plain 
white ones. 




A mouse caught by successive cats buys them off by daily rations of 
meat. Its protector gives it a crystal, within which it can defy the cats. 


A chameleon betrays a tribe of lizards to a hunter, who burns them out 
of their dwelling. 


In order to catch a jackal a man pretends to be dead. The jackal tugs 
at the man's stick and finds his grip tighten. 


A jackal, following a lion in the chase, imagines that he can kill a quarry 
as well as the lion. He tries to kill an elephant, and is crushed to death. 


A hen crow having been drowned in the sea, other crows try to bale out 
the sea with their beaks. 


A jackal eats his way into a dead elephant's carcass and cannot get out. 


A youth, who has learnt the charm for restoring the dead to life, tries it 
on a tiger with fatal results to himself. 


Two kings, both wise and good, meet in a narrow way, and their drivers 
dispute as to who is to give place. Each sings his master's praises, one is 
good to the good, and bad to the bad ; the other repays evil with good. 
The first acknowledges his superior, and gives place. 


Carpenters extract a thorn from the foot of an elephant, and he and his 
young one serve them out of gratitude. The young one is sold to the king, 
and on the king's death routs a hostile host and saves the kingdom. 


A man keeps a pet elephant, which turns against him and tramples him 
to death. 


A mongoose and snake are made friends, but still distrust each other, 
until the Bodhisatta reconciles them. 

A jackal brought up among lions is betrayed by his tongue. 


A monkey throws away a handful of peas to find one. 




A prince is slandered and leaves the country. He performs feats of 
archery, then returns, and saves the king. 


A man becomes king through a magic razor-axe, milk-bowl, and drum. 
Another king spoils the flavour of his mangoes. 


The ass in the lion's skin. 


A wicked wife fools her husband, and sends him prancing down the 
street in horse-trappings. 


A wicked wife tries to murder her husband, and finally with her paramour 
is brought for trial before her husband, then become king. 


Shipwrecked mariners escape from a city of goblins by aid of a flying 


A brahmin leaves two parrots to watch his wife in his absence. She kills 
one of them which rashly reproves her. The other prudently keeps silent, 
and informs the brahmin on his return. 


How a father chose a husband for his four daughters. 


A crow tries to catch fish for himself, and is drowned. 


JATAKA, 206) 171 

A woodpecker and a tortoise rescue their friend the antelope from a trap. 


A crocodile wants the heart of a monkey, who escapes by pretending that 
it is hanging on a fig-tree. 


212) 176 

A husband finds out his wife's intrigue by the state of the rice. 


A tortoise is conveyed by geese through the air, biting with his teeth 
upon a stick. He answers a taunt and falls. 




A man deposits ploughshares with a friend, who pretends that they have 
been eaten by rats. By a clever device he is exposed. 


Impossible tasks are set to a good man, who does them all with Sakka's 


A porter mourns at the death of his tyrannical master, lest he should 
prove too much for the King of Death and be sent back. 


A jackal learns the spell " Of subduing the world," and collects an army of 
wild beasts, but is discomfited. 


Four lads see a tree, and quarrel because each describes it differently. 


257) 198 

A prince is made king after being tested in giving wise judgments. 
Story of his four judgments and solution of ten problems. 


An elephant goes to catch a great crab and succeeds with the help of his 


The owl is proposed as king of birds, but because of his sour looks is not 


How luck came of eating the flesh of certain birds. 


A spendthrift has a wishing-cup given to him. He breaks it and becomes 
poor once more. 

A jackal flatters a crow and gets fruit. 


A wolf being without food decides to keep sabbath, but on seeing a goat 
prefers to keep sabbath another day. 


A king marries a poor jujube-seller, who becomes too proud to recognise 
the fruit, and nearly loses her position. 




A woodpecker extracts a bone from the throat of a lion, who afterwards 
refuses the bird a boon. 


A hare offers its own flesh to Sakka to be eaten, and is rewarded by 
having its shape impressed on the moon. 


A bird gives unasked-for advice to a monkey, who destroys its nest. 


The timid hai'e and the flight of the beasts. 


A foolish mendicant meets his death by mistaking the butting of a ram 
for a respectful salutation. 


328) 234 

A holy man finds a wife by means of a golden image, and on her death he 
neither fasts nor weeps. 


A man tests the power of virtue, and learns moral lessons from the hawk 
and piece of meat, and from the slave-girl, to whom loss of hope alone brought 


A king is saved from being killed by his son, through repeating spells at 
critical moments. 


A heron's young ones are killed by a king's sons, and in revenge she 
brings about their death. 


A jackal by slanderous words brings about a fatal quarrel between a lion 
and a bull. 


A quail with the help of a crow, a fly, and a frog, destroys an elephant 
that had killed her young ones. 


A garuda carries off a king's wife, but on being outwitted by a minstrel 
lover, brings her back. 


A woman kills her husband and goes off with a robber, who robs and 
deserts her. Sakka puts her to shame and converts her. 




A cat flatters a cock, but fails to deceive it. 


A king gets a charm from a naga by which he understands the sounds of 
all animals. His wife tries to get the charm from him, but is foiled through 
Sakka's advice. 


A brahmin is accused of stealing the smell of a flower. 


A lion makes friends with a jackal, who gives him bad advice and causes 
his death. 


Two otters, who had caught a fish, are cheated out of it by a jackal as 


An old brahmin is sent away by his wife to beg, and a snake gets into his 
meal-bag unperceived. A brahmin sage guesses that the snake is there, and 
exposes the wife's wickedness. 


Monkey's fat is prescribed as a cure for elephants by a priest who out of 
revenge wishes the monkeys to be destroyed. 

A monkey takes his followers over the Ganges at the cost of his own life. 


TAPA-JATAKA, 416) 283 

A prince understands the speech of animals. His father is murdered by 
a servant, and the murder is avenged by the prince's younger brother. 


A panther falsely accuses a goat in order to have an excuse for killing it. 


Sakka to test a parrot withers up its tree, but the bird out of gratitude 
refuses to leave it 


A boy receives from his goblin mother the power of tracing footsteps, 
and by this means a king is convicted of theft and put to death. 

A wise she-goat outwits a jackal that was plotting to kill her. 




An ungrateful son plans to murder his father, but when his own son 
overhearing shews him an object-lesson of his own ugliness, he is put to 


A girl is kept prisoner in a tower that she may marry no one, but she 
has ten sons, who plunder the land and capture all India, including a city 
that rises in the air. Finally they all die as fated. 


Two princes and their sister are sent away for twelve years through their 
step-mother's jealousy. At their father's death their step-brother goes to 
bring them back, but they refuse to return until the twelve years are up. In 
the meantime the shoes of Rama the eldest rule the kingdom. 


A queen tempts her step-son to sin, and on being refused pretends that 
he wished to force her. He is saved by the deity of the hill down which he 
is cast, and reconciled to his father. 


A brahmin learns a charm from a low-caste sage, and loses it again 
because he pretends that a world-famed teacher gave it him. 



A prince falls in love with a lady by finding a wreath which she dropped 
into a river. He marries her, becomes king, and discovers the power of the 


A family priest plots to kill his wife's paramour and fails by talking too 
soon. Another priest shews him his folly by telling him the stories of (1) a 
young man deceived by a courtesan, (2) a bird killed by two fighting rams, 
(3) four men killed in saving another, (4) a goat that finds the knife that was 
to kill her, (5) two fairies who knew when to be silent. 


Hawks make friends with an osprey, a lion, and a tortoise, through 
whom their nestlings are saved. 


A prince marries a princess on condition that he has no other wife. 
They are childless but he refuses other wives. Sakka at the wife's prayer 
gives a son, and builds a magical palace for him. The son cannot laugh 
until Sakka sends a juggler to perform tricks. 




Two men remain fast friends through many births as out-casts, who 
pretend to be brahmins, and are discovered, as deer, ospreys, and as son of 
a family priest and son of a king. The former becomes an ascetic, and is 
recognised by the king through the song that he sings. 


King Sivi vows to give anything that is asked of him. Sakka assumes 
the form of a blind brahmin and asks for his eyes. Sivi makes an Act of 
Truth and his eyes are restored. 


A forester accidentally discovers strong drink, and it leads to the ruin of 
all India. Sakka appears, exposes its evils, and dissuades a king from its 


A female elephant conceives a grudge against her husband. She pines 
away, dies, and is re-born as a queen. Remembering her grudge she orders 
the elephant's tusks to be brought to her. A hunter kills the elephant and 
brings the tusks to the queen, but she on hearing of his death is filled with 
remorse and dies. 


A king adopts three birds as children. They are educated, give good 
advice, and are promoted to high office. 


529) 418 

A prince and the sou of a family priest are brought up together. The 
prince is chosen king of Benares by the festal car, and his friend becomes 
an ascetic. Forty years afterwards the king remembers his friend, and finds 
him again by means of a soug which he causes to be sung. 


A childless king at length has two sons bestowed on him by Sakka, one 
of whom is ugly. The ugly son consents to marry, if a lady can be found like 
a golden image which he makes. His wife when found is not allowed to see 
him, but on discovering how ugly he is, she returns to her parents. He 
follows, and in various ways tries to win her affections, but fails until he 
rescues her from seven hostile kings. 


1. The piece of meat. 2. The cattle. 3. The necklace of thread. 
4. The cotton thread. 5. The son. 6. The black ball. 7. The chariot. 
8. The pole. 9. The head. 10. The snake. 11. The cock. 12. The gem. 
13. The calving. 14. The boiled rice. 15. The sand. 16. The tank. 
17. The park. 18. The ass. 19. The jewel in a crow's nest. 


INDEX 482 


PLATE To face page 


(Jdtaka 9, p. 18) 


(Jdtaka 46, p. 45) 


(Jdtaka 267, p. 211) 


(Jdtaka 324, two scenes, pp. 233, 234) 


(Jdtaka 357, three scenes, pp. 248, 249) 

VI. THE CAT AND THE COCK . . . . 258 

(Jdtaka 383, p. 258) 


(Jdtaka 400, two scenes, p. 267) 


(Jdtaka 407, three scenes, pp. 281, 282) 


T\7E find in Hesiod the story of Jason, the son of Aeson, 
who by the will of the immortal gods achieved the 
many lamentable labours imposed on him by the haughty 
king Pelias, and who after his grievous toils carried off the 
bright-eyed maiden and made her his wife. This is a form 
of the tale known as the Hero's Tasks, which exists among 
the most widely-scattered peoples. The comparative 
mythologists have explained it as a myth of the spring 
rains and the moon, but it does not fit into any of the 
theories of folktales prepared for its reception. Benfey 
held that although the impulse to invent folktales is a 
feature of general human nature, yet the existing folktales 
of Europe and Asia as a matter of fact originated in 
India. But this theory too is contradicted by the Jason 
story. Andrew Lang has compared various forms of it 
found among peoples not related either in language or 
culture the Algonquin Indians, the Samoans, and Zulus, 
besides European races. It also exists in an Indian shape 
in the present selection of birth-stories from the Jataka 
(No. 220). This instance suggests, and many more could 
be given, that it is too early to speak of a " science of folk- 
tales." The investigators are not yet even agreed upon a 
scientific method. 

The great authority of Benfey has popularised the 
view that Indian folktales originated with the Buddhists. 

F. & T. 1 


His work was done before the Jataka, the great collection 
of buddhist birth-stories, was known, and it is now possible 
to see from the stories themselves that, so far from 
Buddhism being a great source of folktales, the bulk of 
those which occur in the Jataka are prebuddhistic, and 
merely adaptations of Indian tales. 

Benfey's main argument for the buddhistic origin of 
Indian folktales was the fact that traces of Buddhism 
appeared to be found ia the Panchatantra, the Indian 
collection of tales which has become widely known in the 
West as the fables of Bidpai. From this he inferred 
that the Panchatantra was a buddhist work revised by 
Brahmins. But we now know that the work was of 
Brahmin origin, and had been revised in the versions 
which Benfey used by Buddhist or Jain editors. This has 
been proved by Dr Hertel, who has edited and translated 
a much earlier form of the Panchatantra, known as the 
Tantrakhyayika, which is purely brahmanistic and without 
any buddhist features. The question of the history of 
Indian folktales has not been simplified by this discovery, 
but it has made it impossible to look for their origin in 

The Jataka, as we possess it, occurs in the second of 
the three great divisions of the Pali Buddhist Scriptures, 
and in the Miscellaneous Collection of Discourses (Khud- 
dhaka Nikaya) of this division. It consists of 547 jatakas, 
each containing an account of the life of Gotama Buddha 
during some incarnation in one of his previous existences 
as a Bodhisatta, or being destined to enlightenment, before 
he became Buddha, the Enlightened One. This number 
does not correspond to exactly 547 stories, because some 
of the tales occur more than once in a different setting, or 
in a variant version, and occasionally several stories are 


included in one birth. Each separate story is embedded 
in a framework, which forms the Story of the Present. 
This is generally an account of some incident in the life of 
the historic Buddha, such as an act of disobedience or 
folly among the brethren of the Order, the discussion of 
a question of ethics, or an instance of eminent virtue. 
Buddha then tells a Story of the Past, an event in one of 
his previous existences which explains the present incident 
as a repetition of the former one, or as a parallel case, and 
shews the moral consequences. 

To adapt such an ancient tale was in general a simple 
matter, as it was not necessary to make the actors 
Buddhists. The tale might be told of a past time Avhen 
there was no Buddha in existence, and in which the 
ideas are those of ordinary Hinduism. The one feature 
necessary for the story is that the Bodhisatta in some 
character should appear. When the tale itself contained 
no instance of a wise person who could play the part of 
the Bodhisatta, modification was necessary; though this 
is often done by making the Bodhisatta a divinity or a 
sage who witnesses the events and recites the gdthas, the 
verses with which the tale concludes. Some of the stories 
of the past are evidently manufactured by adapting the 
circumstances in the story of the present, and building up 
a story of the past out of it. Verses occur in all the births. 
In the first division of the work there is one verse in each 
tale, in the second two, and so on in increasing number. 
It is these verses alone which are canonical, the prose 
being a commentary explaining how the verses came to 
be spoken. But even here there is evidence of adaptation. 
Some of the stories of the past contain no verses, and in 
order to make the whole correspond to one type verses 
are inserted in the frame story, and spoken by the Buddha 



after or during the recitation of the story of the past. An 
instance will be found in Jat. 206, p. 173. 

Buddhism took over the Hindu doctrine of re-birth 
and karma, but moralised it. Re-birth in heaven is no 
longer due to performing animal sacrifices, or the in- 
fliction of self-torture, but to practising the virtues 
emphasised by Buddha, almsgiving, truth-speaking, for- 
giveness of enemies. But this teaching, which is the 
prominent one in the Jataka, is not the essence of 
buddhism. Doing good actions can never lead to salva- 
tion. "Whoever shall do nothing but good works will 
receive nothing but excellent future rewards." The aim 
of the disciple is not to accumulate merit, but to win 
Insight. Yet although much of the Jataka is merely moral 
instruction to the unconverted, it also expounds teaching 
which leads to enlightenment, such as the doctrine of 
impermanence, belief in the Buddha, the rejection of 
superstitious rites, freedom from lust, hatred, and delusion, 
and other bonds which the disciple must break as he 
advances on the Noble Path. 

With regard to the question of the relation of the 
Jataka to non-buddhist Indian works, important results are 
reached by Franke in his article "Jataka Mahabharata 
Parallelen 1 ." He has shewn by the detailed examination 
of a number of parallel tales, as well as of verses common 
to the Jataka and Mahabharata that neither work is 
directly dependent on the other, but that they are con- 
nected only through common sources. 

A more difficult question is the relation of the beast 
fables to the fables of Aesop. Benfey became so firmly 
assured of the Greek origin of such fables in the 
Panchatantra that he refused to place the origin of that 

1 WZKM. (Vienna Or. Journ.) xx 317 ff. This has been fully utilised in the notes. 


work earlier than 200 B.C., on the ground that this was the 
earliest date at which a knowledge of Aesop's fables could 
have reached India. But in the Jataka we now possess 
evidence for putting the existence of these fables in India 
much earlier. On several buddhist stupas 1 in India are 
carved representations of scenes in some of the Jataka 
tales and fables. The earliest and most important of these 
monuments is the Stupa of Bharhut, a village 120 miles 
south-west of Allahabad, the remains of which were dis- 
covered by Sir A. Cunningham in 1873. Carved in relief 
on the railings are a number of scenes of jataka tales and 
fables with their titles. Twenty-eight have been identified, 
several so-called Aesopic fables being among them. The 
date of the stupa is put on epigraphical grounds between 
250 200 B.C., and we may assert the existence of jataka 
tales as early as the fourth century B.C., while the tales and 
fables which Buddhism adopted must be much older. The 
first feeling of the folklorists on the publication of the 
Jataka was one of disappointment. Benfey's investiga- 
tions had all been on the assumption of a great buddhist 
source for Indian tales, and the Jataka contained hardly 
anything which bore out current theories. It was sug- 
gested that the Pali scholars had played their best trumps, 
or were trying to win tricks with cards which they kept up 
their sleeve. But the Jataka had really left the folklorist 
without a card for the game. The stories instead of being 
" a scanty contribution to the Aesopic question " made it 
obsolete. They proved the existence of a great body of 
Indian fable independent of any Greek source. As 
Mr Jacobs has said, "it is idle to talk of a body of 
literature [Aesop] amounting to 300 numbers being derived 

1 For a general description of these monuments, see Griinwedel, Buddhist Art 
in India, London, 1901. 


from another [the Jataka] running also to 300, when they 
have only a dozen items in common." l 

The much smaller question that remains is how, after 
setting aside the bulk of jataka beast fables as of Indian 
origin, are we to explain the parallelism in about a dozen 
which more or less resemble Aesop? More than this 
number have been compared, but many of the parallelisms, 
which were taken for granted as long as a common origin 
was assumed, have no value now that the question is open. 
Mr Jacobs quotes Jat. 30, 32, 34 (with 45), 136, 143, 146, 
189, 215, 294, 308, 374, 383, 426, and among them are 
parallels to such well-known fables as The Ass in the Lion's 
Skin, The Wolf and the Lamb, and The Fox and the Crow. 
It is not necessary for the present purpose to prove that 
even these are related in origin. The independent origin 
of similar tales is still a tenable theory ; but it is possible 
to shew, on the assumption that they are connected, that 
a path of transmission from India to Greece was open long 
before communications were established by Alexander. 
This was from India to Persia, and from Persia to Asia 
Minor. It can also be shewn that tales from India actually 
reached Persia and the Euphrates district independently 
of any Greek mediation. Relations with India in the 
sixth century B.C. are shewn by the inscriptions of Darius 
the Great (521 485 B.C.), especially in one at Persepolis, 
which mentions Indush (the Indus district) and Gandara 
among the peoples who brought him tribute. In the 
Story of Ahikar 2 we have a Persian or Babylonian story 
which Benfey identified with a well-known Indian type. It 
is the tale of a king's minister, who falls into disfavour, 
and is restored through his skill in answering certain 

1 See Jacobs' History of the ^Esopic Fable, p. 108. 

2 See note on The Nineteen Problems. 


problems that had been sent to the king. This tale 
occurs in several Indian forms, and in Pali in a much 
inflated version as the Mahaummagga Jataka (546). The 
nineteen problems that occur in it are given below. The 
identity of several of the problems with the Indian, as 
well as the structure of the tale, is strong confirmation of 
the identity of the stories. One of the problems is the 
biblical Judgment of Solomon, for which Salzberger 1 had 
already suggested a Persian origin. The date of the tale 
in Persia must be at least of the fifth century B.C., as frag- 
ments of an Aramaic version of it have been discovered in 
a Persian military colony of Jews at Elephantine, which 
was established there during the supremacy of the Persians 
over Egypt. The penetration of the Ahikar story may be 
anterior to the Persian conquest of Babylon. That there 
were trade relations very early with India may be inferred 
from the Semitic origin of the Indian alphabet. Jat. 339 
speaks of a voyage from India to Baveru, which is probably 
Babylon (Babilu). 

Mr Jacobs gives several parallels to Indian fables from 
Midrash Rabba 2 , a rabbinical commentary on the Penta- 
teuch and Five Rolls. This work is a compilation much 
later than the date of the entry of Greeks into India, but 
it contains fables which possess Indian features not found 
in the corresponding Greek fables, and it shews communi- 
cation with India outside Greek influence. According to 
Winter and Wiinsche this Midrash is in part Babylonian, 
the older parts being Palestinian. The fables occurring in 
it are used as illustrations, and have the appearance of 
having been orally acquired. On Gen. xxvi. 26 is told the 
fable of the Egyptian partridge, which extracts a bone 

1 Die Salomo-Sage, p. 4, Berlin, 1.907. 

2 German translation by A. Wiinsche, Bibliotheca Rabbinica, Leipzig, 1880 85. 


from the throat of a lion, as in Jat. 308, not a wolf, as in 
Aesop (Halm 276, 276 b ). On Esther iii. 6, a bird, which 
builds its nest on the sea-shore that was threatened by the 
waves, tries to bale out the water with its beak, and is 
rebuked by another bird. Cf. Jat. 146, which is without a 
parallel in Aesop. On Esth. iii. 1 is told the story of 
a man who had a she-ass, its foal, and a sow. To the latter 
he gives unstinted food, but to the others in proportion. 
The foal inquires of its mother why the idle sow should be 
so fed. The ass replies, the hour will soon come when 
you will see the sow's fate, and understand that it was well 
fed not out of favour, but for a disgraceful end. When 
the feast comes, the fatted sow is killed, and the moral 
explained to the foal. So in Jat. 30, where an ox and its 
younger brother take the place of the ass and foal. But 
in Aesop (Halm 113) a heifer pities a working ox. At the 
feast it is taken to be slaughtered, and the ox smiles and 
points the moral. 

By Aesop we mean the Greek fables of various dates 
which have become collected uiider that name. Although 
the traditions as to the historical existence of Aesop are 
of no value, it is significant that Phrygia occurs most 
frequently as the home of Aesop. The name is probably 
Phrygian. Aesepos is the name of a river of Phrygia and 
Mysia, and also of a Trojan at the siege of Troy. The 
"priority" or rather independence of Greek fable may 
be considered certain, but if in the case of a few it is 
necessary to infer a connexion with the East, then we have 
a natural explanation in the relations of the Greeks of 
Asia Minor with their eastern neighbours and with Persia. 
Greek relations with Persia need no detailed proof. The 
Persian tale of Herodotus referred to on Jat. 67 (p. 70) 
shews how such stories could easily pass to Greece. 


The works shewing the closest relationship with the 
Jataka are naturally buddhist compositions, such as the 
Pali Cariya-Pitaka, the Sanskrit Jatakamala, Schiefner's 
collection of Tibetan tales, and Chinese translations from 
buddhist Sanskrit sources. The most extensive connexion 
with non-buddhistic collections is, apart from the Mahab- 
harata, the Panchatantra, three of the frame stories of 
which occur in the Jataka, as well as a variant of a fourth 
(141, 206, 208, 349), and a number of single tales. A 
detailed comparison shews much the same result as in 
Franke's investigation of the Mahabharata tales, that is, 
no direct borrowing on either side, but common inherit- 
ance from an earlier source. It was firmly held by Benfey 
that the Vetalapancaviihsatika, "twenty-five tales of a 
vampire," was of buddhist origin. It is true that a version 
of it has found its way to the buddhist Mongols, where it 
is known as Ssidi Kur, but it is difficult to imagine such 
a thesaurus of intrigue originating in a buddhist com- 
munity. The only traces of it in the Jataka are 145, of 
which the Vet No. 21 shews a greatly elaborated version, 
Jat. 527 (Vet. 16), and possibly a much moralised version 
of No. 2 in Jat. 200. 

We are dealing with a much simpler problem than the 
oral transmission of folktales, when we find Jataka stories 
in mediaeval and modern European literature, such as that 
of the robbers and the treasure in Chaucer's Pardoner's 
Tale (Jat. 48), or of the ploughshares eaten by mice (Jat. 
218), and the tortoise and geese (Jat. 215) among La 
Fontaine's fables. These tales can be proved to have 
spread over Europe through literary channels. The Pan- 
chatantra was translated into Pahlavi from an imperfect 
Indian MS. for the Sassanid king Khosrau Anosherwan, 
who reigned from 531 to 579 A.D. This translation has 


disappeared, but the closest representatives of it exist in 
Syriac and Arabic versions, known as Kalllah and Dimnah, 
and in English as the Fables of Bidpai. From these, and 
especially from the Arabic, Latin translations were made 
in the middle ages. Their history properly belongs to the 
genealogy of the Panchatantra. A list of them is given in 
Lancereau's French translation of the Panchatantra (Paris, 

The present selection has been made with the purpose 
of bringing together the Jataka stories of most interest, 
both intrinsically, and also from the point of view of the 
folklorist. The translation adopted, with slight revision to 
remove inconsistencies, is taken from the complete edition 
translated under the editorship of Prof. E. B. Cowell, 
Cambridge, 18951907. 

The thanks of the editors are due to Sir J. H. Marshall, 
C.I.E., Director-General of Archaeology in India, who has 
had photographs expressly taken for the illustrations of 
the Jatakas on the carvings of the Bharhut Stupa, as well 
as to Professor E. J. Rapson, who has given much help 
and advice in their preparation and selection. 

E. J. T. 

February 1916, 


Babr. Babrii fabulae Aesopeae recognovit 0. Crusius. Lipsiae, 1897. 

Benf. Binl. Pantschatantra, iibersetzt von T. Benfey. 1 Theil. Einleitung. Leipzig, 

Benf. Kl. Schr. Kleinere Schriften von T. Benfey. 2 vols. 4 parts. Berlin, 1890 


Bharhut Stupa. A. Cunningham. The Stupa of Bharhut. London, 1879. 
Buddhaghosha. Buddhaghosha's Parables, translated by T. Rogers. London, 1870. 
Clouston. Popular tales and fictions. 2 vols. Edinburgh, 1887. 
Dods. Select fables of Esop and other fabulists (published by R. Dodsley). (Book II 

from the moderns.) Birmingham, 1764. 

Gesta Rom. Gesta Romanorum von H. Oesterley. Berlin, 1872. 
Grimm. Grimm's Household Tales, tr. by M. Hunt, with introduction by A. Lang. 

London, 1884. 
Grimm, Anm. Anmerkungen zu den Kinder- u. Hausmarchen der Briider Grimm. 

Ed. Balte and Polivka. Vol. i. Leipzig, 1913. (The numbers refer to the usual 

numbering of the tales.) 

Halm. Fabulae Aesopicae collectae. Ex recog. C. Halmii. Lipsiae, 1852. 
Hausrath. Article " Fabel " in Paullys Real-Encyclopadie der cl. Altertumswissen- 

schaft. Vol. 6. 1909. 
Jacobs. History of the Aesopic fable. (Vol. 1 of The Fables of Aesop as first printed 

by W. Caxton... edited and induced by J. Jacobs. 2 vols.) London, 1889. 
Julien. Contes et apologues indiens, traduction deS. Julien. Paris, 1860. 
K. D. (Syr.). Kalila und Dimna, Syrisch und Deutsch. F. Schulthess. Berlin, 1911. 
K. D. (Arab.). Kalila and Dimna or the fables of Bidpai, translated from the Arabic 

[of De Sacy's text] by W. Knatchbull. Oxford, 1819. 
Kuhn. E. Kuhn, Barlaam und Joasaph. (Abh. der phil.-philol. Cl. der k. bayer. Akad. 

der Wiss. xx. 1897). 

Mbh. The Mahabharata translated by M. N. Dutt. Calcutta, 18951905. 
Midr. R. Bibliotheca Rabbinica, in deutscher Uebertragung von A. Wunsche. 

5 vols. Leipzig, 188085. 
P. (T.). Tantrakhyayika, die alteste Fassung des Pancatantra, aus dem Sanskrit 

iibersetzt mit Einleitung und Anmerkungen von J. Hertel. Leipzig und Berlin, 

P. (B.). Pantschatantra: Fiinf Biicher indischer Fabeln...aus dem Sanskrit iibersetzt 

mit Einleitung und Anmerkungen von T. Benfey. Leipzig, 1859. 
Phaedr. Phaedri Fabulae Aesopiae, recogn. L. Miiller. Lipsiae, 1868. 
Rhys Davids. Buddhist Birth Stories, translated by T. W. Rhys Davids. London, 1880. 


Schmidt. hDsans-blun [Dsang-lun] oder der "Weise und der Thor aus dem Tibetischen 

iibersetzt. . .von I. J. Schmidt. St Petersburg, 1843. 
Sind. Comparetti. Researches respecting the Book of Sindibad [with the text and 

translation of the Spanish version]. Folklore Soc. ix. London, 1882. 
Som. The Katha Sarit Sagara or Ocean of the Streams of Story [of Somadeva] 

translated from the original Sanskrit by C. H. Tawney. 2 vols. Calcutta, 1880 

Suk. The enchanted parrot, being a selection from the Suka Saptati. Tr. B. H. 

Wortham. London, 1911. (Complete German tr. by R. Schmidt. Kiel, 1894.) 
Tib. T. Tibetan Tales derived from Indian sources. Translated from the Tibetan 

of the Kah-gyur by F. A. von Schiefner. Done into English by W. R. S. Ralston. 

London, 1882. 
Vet. Vetalapancavinc.atika, hrsg. von H. Uhle. (Abh. fur die Kunde des Morgenl. 8. 

Leipzig, 1884. 



Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares in Kasi, the Bodhisatta was born into a gild- 
master's family, and growing up, became gildmaster 1 , being 
called Gildmaster Little. A wise and clever man was he, 
with a keen eye for signs and omens. One day on his way 
to wait upon the king, he came on a dead mouse lying on 
the road ; and, taking note of the position of the stars at 
that moment, he said, " Any decent young fellow with his 
wits about him has only to pick that mouse up, and he 
might start a business and keep a wife." 

His words were overheard by a young man of good 
family but reduced circumstances, who said to himself, 
" That's a man who has always got a reason for what he 
says." And accordingly he picked up the mouse, which he 
sold for a farthing at a tavern for their cat. 

With the farthing he got molasses and took drinking 
water in a water-pot. Coming on flower-gatherers return- 
ing from the forest, he gave each a tiny quantity of the 
molasses and ladled the water out to them. Each of them 
gave him a handful of flowers, with the proceeds of which, 
next day, he came back again to the flower grounds pro- 
vided with more molasses and a pot of water. That day 
the flower-gatherers, before they went, gave him flowering 
plants with half the flowers left on them; and thus in 
a little while he obtained eight pennies. 

1 The gildmaster (setthi) belonged to the class of householders. He was not an 
official of the king's court, though he had official relations with the king. Cf. Fick, 
Die soc. Gliederung im nord-ost. Indien zu Buddha's Zeit, p. 166. Kiel, 1897. 


Later, one rainy and windy day, the wind blew down 
a quantity of rotten branches and boughs and leaves in 
the king's pleasaunce, and the gardener did not see how 
to clear them away. Then up came the young man with 
an offer to remove the lot, if the wood and leaves might 
be his. The gardener closed with the offer on the spot. 
Then this apt pupil of Gildmaster Little repaired to the 
children's playground and in a very little while had got 
them by bribes of molasses to collect every stick and leaf 
in the place into a heap at the entrance to the pleasaunce. 
Just then the king's potter was on the look out for fuel to 
fire bowls for the palace, and coming on this heap, took 
the lot off his hands. The sale of his wood brought in 
sixteen pennies to this pupil of Gildmaster Little, as well 
as five bowls and other vessels. Having now twenty-four 
pennies in all, a plan occurred to him. He went to the 
vicinity of the city-gate with a jar full of water and supplied 
500 mowers with water to drink. Said they, " You've done 
us a good turn, friend. What can we do for you ? " " Oh, 
I'll tell you when I want your aid," said he ; and as he went 
about, he struck up an intimacy with a land-trader and a 
sea-trader. Said the former to him, " To-morrow there will 
come to town a horse-dealer with 500 horses to sell." On 
hearing this piece of news, he said to the mowers, " I want 
each of you to-day to give me a bundle of grass and not to 
sell your own grass till mine is sold." " Certainly," said they, 
and delivered the 500 bundles of grass at his house. Unable 
to get grass for his horses elsewhere, the dealer purchased 
our friend's grass for a thousand pieces. Only a few days 
later his sea-trading friend brought him news of the arrival 
of a large ship in port ; and another plan struck him. He 
hired for eight pence a well appointed carriage which plied 
for hire by the hour, and went in great style down to the 


port. Having bought the ship on credit and deposited 
his signet-ring as security, he had a pavilion pitched hard 
by and said to his people as he took his seat inside, "When 
merchants are being shewn in, let them be passed on by 
three successive ushers into my presence." Hearing that 
a ship had arrived in port, about a hundred merchants 
came down to buy the cargo ; only to be told that they 
could not have it as a great merchant had already made a 
payment on account. So away they all went to the young 
man ; and the footmen duly announced them by three 
successive ushers, as had been arranged beforehand. Each 
man of the hundred severally gave him a thousand pieces 
to buy a share in the ship and then a further thousand 
each to buy him out altogether. So it was with 200,000 
pieces that this pupil of Gildmaster Little returned to 

Actuated by a desire to shew his gratitude, he went 
with one hundred thousand pieces to call on Gildmaster 
Little. "How did you come by all this wealth?" asked 
the gildmaster. " In four short months, simply by follow- 
ing your advice," replied the young man ; and he told him 
the whole story, starting with the dead mouse. Thought 
Lord High Gildmaster Little, on hearing all this, " I must 
see that a young fellow of these parts does not fall into 
anybody else's hands." So he married him to his own 
grown-up daughter and settled all the family estates on 
the young man. And at the gildmaster's death, he became 
gildmaster in that city. And the Bodhisatta passed away 
to fare according to his deserts. 

The same tale in Som. vi. (i. 33). In K. D. (Arab.) xvm. it forms part of the story 
of The king's Son and his Companions. Of these four one is a husbandman, who 
earns money by carrying wood, as in the first part of the jataka. Another, a merchant's 
son, trades with a ship's cargo, as in the latter part. The adventures of the king's 
son form an episode in Jat. 445, 529, 539. 


Once on a time in Benares Brahmadatta the king, 
having gone in great state to his pleasaunce, was roaming 
about looking for fruits and flowers when he came on a 
woman who was merrily singing away as she picked up 
sticks in the grove. Falling in love at first sight, the king 
became intimate with her, and the Bodhisatta was con- 
ceived then and there. Feeling as heavy within as though 
weighed down with the bolt of Indra, the woman knew 
that she would become a mother, and told the king so. 
He gave her the signet-ring from his finger and dismissed 
her with these words : " If it be a girl, spend this ring on 
her nurture; but if it be a boy, bring ring and child 
to me." 

When the woman's time was come, she bore the Bodhi- 
satta. And when he could run about and was playing in 
the playground, a cry would arise, " No-father has hit me !" 
Hearing this, the Bodhisatta ran away to his mother and 
asked who his father was. 

"You are the son of the Kinpr of Benares, mv bov." 

V *- 

" What proof of this is there mother ? " " My son, the king 
on leaving me gave me this signet-ring and said, ' If it be 
a girl, spend this ring on her nurture ; but if it be a boy, 
bring ring and child to me." "Why then don't you take 
me to my father, mother ? " 

Seeing that the boy's mind was made up, she took him 
to the gate of the palace, and bade their coming be 
announced to the king. Being summoned in, she entered 
and bowing before his majesty said, "This is your son, 


The king knew well enough that this was the truth, but 
shame before all his court made him reply, " He is no son 


of mine." " But here is your signet-ring, sire ; you will 
recognise that." "Nor is this my signet -ring." Then said 
the woman, "Sire, I have now no witness to prove my 
words, except to make an act of truth. Wherefore, if 
this child is yours, I pray that he may stay in mid- 
air ; but if not, may he fall to earth and be killed." So 
saying, she seized the Bodhisatta by the foot and threw 
him up into the air. 

Seated cross-legged in mid-air, the Bodhisatta in sweet 
tones repeated this stanza to his father, declaring the 
truth : 

Your son am I, great monarch; rear me, Sire! 

The king- rears others, but much more his child. 

Hearing the Bodhisatta thus teach the truth to him 
from mid-air, the king stretched out his hands and cried, 
" Come to me, my boy ! None, none but me shall rear and 
nurture you ! " A thousand hands were stretched out to 
receive the Bodhisatta ; but it was into the arms of the 
king and of no other that he descended, seating himself 
in the king's lap. The king made him viceroy, and made 
his mother queen-consort. At the death of the king 
his father, he came to the throne by the title of King 
Katthavahana the faggot -bearer, and after ruling his 
realm righteously, passed away to fare according to his 

The story of ^akuntala, Mbh. i. chs. 70 74, in which the king refuses to recognise 
Sakuntala, until a voice from heaven tells him to do so. The king says that his 
refusal was in order that the people might be convinced of the truth of the woman's 
story by a divine sign. In Kalidasa's drama the ring is lost and recovered from a 
fish, whereupon the king's memory, which had been destroyed by a sage's curse, is 
restored. Buddhaghosha xx. follows the jataka closely. A variant occurs in Jat. 
487, see H. Liiders in Windisch Festschrift, p. 228 ff. S. J. Warren (Herm. xxix. 
478) finds the germ of Kalidasa's story in the lost ring. This is just the feature 
which does not occur in the older form in the Mbh. The incident of finding a lost 
treasure in a fish occurs in the quite different story of Jat. 288. Cf. Clouston, i. 398, 
The Ring and the Fish. 

F. & T. 9 


Once on a time in Mithila in the realm of Videha 
there was a king named Makhadeva, who was righteous 
and ruled righteously. For successive periods of eighty- 
four thousand years he had respectively amused himself 
as prince, ruled as viceroy, and reigned as king. All these 
long years had he lived, when one day he said to his 
barber, " Tell me, friend barber, Avhen you see any grey 
hairs in my head." So one day, years and years after, the 
barber did find among the raven locks of the king a 
single grey hair, and he told the king so. " Pull it out, 
my friend," said the king ; " and lay it in my palm." The 
barber accordingly plucked the hair out with his golden 
tongs, and laid it in the king's hand. The king had at 
that time still eighty-four thousand years more to live ; 
but nevertheless at the sight of that one grey hair he was 
filled with deep emotion. He seemed to see the King of 
Death standing over him, or to be cooped within a blazing 
hut of leaves. " Foolish Makhadeva ! " he cried ; " grey 
hairs have come upon you before you have been able to 
rid yourself of the depravities." And as he thought and 
thought about the appearance of his grey hair, he grew 
aflame within ; the sweat rolled down from his body ; 
whilst his raiment oppressed him and seemed intolerable. 
" This very day," thought he, " I must renounce the world 
for a hermit's life." 

To his barber he gave the grant of a village, which 
yielded a hundred thousand pieces of money. He sent for 
his eldest son and said to him, "My son, grey hairs are 
come upon me, and I am become old. I have had my fill 
of human joys, and fain would taste the joys divine ; the 


4 S. 1 D 

V -" 




(Jntttkn !). j>. 18) 


time for my renunciation has come. Take the sovereignty 
upon yourself; as for me, I will take up my abode in the 
pleasaunce called Makhadeva's Mango-grove, and there 
tread the ascetic's path." 

As he was thus bent on becoming a hermit, his 
ministers drew near and said, " What is the reason, sire, of 
your becoming a hermit ? " 

Taking the grey hair in his hand, the king repeated 
this stanza to his ministers: 

Lo, these grey hairs that on my head appear 
Are Death's own messengers that come to rob 
My life. 'Tis time I turned from worldly things, 
And in the hermit's path sought saving peace. 

And after these words, he renounced his sovereignty that 
selfsame day and became a recluse. Dwelling in that 
very Mango-grove of Makhadeva, he there during eighty- 
four thousand years fostered the Four Perfect States 
within himself, and, dying with ecstasy full and unbroken, 
was reborn in the Realm of Brahma. Passing thence, he 
became a king again in Mithila, under the name of Nimi, 
and after uniting his scattered family, once more became 
a hermit in that same Mango-grove, winning the Four 
Perfect States and passing thence once more to the Realm 
of Brahma. 

In the Makhadeva Sutta (Majjhima Nikdya S3), Buddha tells the same story more 
fully. The king, his son, grandson, and great-grandson, who is Nimi, all retire from 
the world on seeing a grey hair. The career of Nimi is given in the Nimi-Jdt. 541, 
in which he is taken by Sakka to see the various heavens and hells, as Arjuna is 
taken in Mbh. in. ch. 42. The scene of finding the grey hair is illustrated on the 
Bharhut Stupa, pi. XLVIII. 2, and inscribed MagJiademya-jdtakam. In the Vishnu 
Purdna, iv. 5, Nimi is condemned to exist without his body for having deprived 
Vasishtha of the privilege of performing a sacrifice. Cf. Death's Messengers by 
R. Morris in Journ. Pali Text Sue. 1885, p. 62. 


Once on a time at the foot of a certain mountain there 
were living together in one and the same cave two friends, 
a lion and a tiger. The Bodhisatta too was living at the 
foot of the same hill, as a hermit. 

Now one day a dispute arose between the two friends 
about the cold. The tiger said it was cold in the dark 
half of the month, whilst the lion maintained that it was 
cold in the light half. As the two of them together could 
not settle the question, they put it to the Bodhisatta. He 
repeated this stanza : 

In light or dark half, whensoe'er the wind 
Doth blow, 'tis cold. For cold is caused by wind. 
And, therefore, I decide you both are right. 

Thus did the Bodhisatta make peace between those 

See Jat. 248, p. 196, on disputes due to imperfect knowledge. 


Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, a brahmin, who was versed in the three Vedas 
and world-famed as a teacher, being minded to offer a 
Feast for the Dead, had a goat fetched and said to his 
pupils, "My sons, take this goat down to the river and 
bathe it ; then hang a wreath round its neck, adorn it with 
a five-sprayed garland, and bring it back." 

" Very good," said they, and down to the river they 
took the goat, where they bathed and adorned the 
creature and set it on the bank. The goat, becoming 


conscious of the deeds of its past lives, was overjoyed at 
the thought that on this very day it would be freed from 
all its misery, and laughed aloud like the smashing of 
a pot. Then at the thought that the brahmin by slaying 
it would bear the misery which it had borne, the goat felt 
a great compassion for the brahmin, and wept with a loud 
voice. "Friend goat," said the young brahmins, "your 
voice has been loud both in laughter and in weeping; 
what made you laugh and what made you weep?" 
" Ask me your question before your master." 
So with the goat they came to their master and told 
him of the matter. After hearing their story, the master 
asked the goat why it laughed and why it wept. Hereupon 
the animal, recalling its past deeds by its power of remem- 
bering its former existence, spoke thus to the brahmin: 
" In times past, brahmin, I, like you, was a brahmin versed 
in the mystic texts of the Vedas, and I, to offer a Feast for 
the Dead, killed a goat for my offering. All through 
killing that single goat, I have had my head cut off five 
hundred times all but one. This is my five hundredth and 
last birth ; and I laughed aloud when I thought that this 
very day I should be freed from my misery. On the other 
hand, I wept when I thought how, whilst I, who for killing 
a goat had been doomed to lose my head five hundred 
times, was to-day being freed from my misery, you, as a 
penalty for killing me, would be doomed to lose your head, 
like me, five hundred times. Thus it was out of com- 
passion for you that I wept." "Fear not, goat," said the 
brahmin; "I will not kill you." "What is this you say, 
brahmin ? " said the goat. " Whether you kill me or not, 
I cannot escape death to-day." " Fear not, goat ; I will go 
about with you to guard you." " Weak is your protection, 
brahmin, and strong is the force of my evil-doing." 


Setting the goat at liberty, the brahmin said to his 
disciples, " Let us not allow anyone to kill this goat " ; 
and, accompanied by the young men, he followed the 
animal closely about. The moment the goat was set free, 
it reached out its neck to browse on the leaves of a bush 
growing near the top of a rock. And that very instant 
a thunderbolt struck the rock, rending off a mass which 
hit the goat on the outstretched neck and tore oft' its 
head. And people came crowding round. 

In those days the Bodhisatta had been born a tree 
divinity in that selfsame spot. By his supernatural powers 
he now seated himself cross-legged in mid-air while all the 
crowd looked on. Thinking to himself, " If these creatures 
only knew the fruit of evil-doing, perhaps they would desist 
from killing," in his sweet voice he taught them the Truth 
in this stanza : 

If folk but knew the truth that their existence 
Is pain, then living things would cease 
From taking life. Stern is the slayer's doom. 

Thus did the Great Being preach the Truth, scaring 
his hearers with the fear of hell ; and the people, hearing 
him, were so terrified at the fear of hell that they left off 
taking life. And the Bodhisatta after establishing the 
multitude in the Commandments by preaching the Truth 
to them, passed away to fare according to his deserts. 
The people, too, remained steadfast in the teaching of the 
Bodhisatta and spent their lives in charity and other good 
works, so that in the end they attained to the City of 
the gods. 

The incident of laughing and crying, giving rise to an inquiry as to the cause, 
occurs in several tales of Vet., 13, 22, and 23 MS. f., and in the Hindi version Baited 
Pachisi, 19. The Chaddanta-jdtaka, 514, is told on the occasion of a female novice 
remembering that in a former existence she was the wife of the Bodhisatta. Then 
remembering that she also caused his death she weeps. 


In past times, we are told, there was a thick forest on 
this spot 1 . And in the lake here dwelt a water-ogre who 
used to devour everyone who went down into the water. 
In those days the Bodhisatta had come to life as the king 
of the monkeys, and was as big as the fawn of a red deer ; 
he lived in that forest at the head of a troop of no less 
than eighty thousand monkeys whom he shielded from 
harm. Thus did he counsel his subjects: "My friends, in 
this forest there are trees that are poisonous and lakes 
that are haunted by ogres. Mind to ask me first before 
you either eat any fruit which you have not eaten before, 
or drink of any water where you have not drunk before." 
" Certainly," said they readily. 

One day they came to a spot they had never visited 
before. As they were searching for water to drink after 
their day's wanderings, they came on this lake. But they 
did not drink; on the contrary they sat down watching 
for the coming of the Bodhisatta. 

When he came up, he said, "Well, my friends, why 
don't you drink?" 

" We waited for you to come." 

" Quite right, my friends," said the Bodhisatta. Then 
he made a circuit of the lake, and scrutinized the foot- 
prints round, with the result that he found that all the 
footsteps led down into the water and none came up again. 
" Without doubt," thought he to himself, " this is the haunt 
of an ogre." So he said to his followers, " You are quite 
right, my friends, in not drinking of this water; for the 
lake is haunted by an ogre." 

When the water-ogre realised that they were not enter- 
ing his domain, he assumed the shape of a horrible 

1 The village of Nalakapana, " Reed-water." 


monster with a blue belly, a white face, and bright-red 
hands and feet ; in this shape he came out from the water, 
and said, "Why are you seated here? Go down into the 
lake and drink." But the Bodhisatta said to him, " Are 
not you the ogre of this water ? " " Yes, I am," was the 
answer. "Do you take as your prey all those who go 
down into this water?" "Yes, I do; from small birds 
upwards, I never let anything go which comes down into 
my water. I will eat the lot of you too." " But we shall 
not let you eat us." " Just drink the water." " Yes, we 
will drink the water, and yet not fall into your power." 
" How do you propose to drink the water then ? " " Ah, 
you think we shall have to go down into the water to 
drink ; whereas we shall not enter the water at all, but 
the whole eighty thousand of us will take a reed each 
and drink therewith from your lake as easily as we could 
through the hollow stalk of a lotus. And so you will not 
be able to eat us." And he repeated the latter half of the 
following stanza (the first half being added by the Master 
when, as Buddha, he recalled the incident) : 

I found the footprints all lead down, none back. 
With reeds we'll drink : you shall not take my life. 

So saying, the Bodhisatta had a reed brought to him. 
Then, calling to mind the Ten Perfections displayed by 
him, he recited them in a solemn asseveration 1 , and blew 
down the reed. Straightway the reed became hollow 
throughout, without a single knot being left in all its 
length. In this fashion he had another and another 
brought and blew down them. (But if this were so, he 
could never have finished ; and accordingly the foregoing 
sentence must not be understood in this literal sense.) 

1 Literally " made a truth-act." If this is done with intention, a miracle instantly 
follows. Of. pp. 17, 69, &c. 


Next the Bodhisatta made the tour of the lake, and com- 
manded, saying, " Let all reeds growing here become 
hollow throughout." Now, thanks to the great virtues of 
the saving goodness of Bodhisattas, their commands are 
always fulfilled. And thenceforth every single reed that 
grew round that lake became hollow throughout. 

(In this Kappa, or Era, there are four miracles which 
endure through the whole Era. What are the four ? Well, 
they are first, the sign of the hare in the moon, which 
will last through the whole Era ; secondly, the spot where 
the fire was put out as told in the Yattaka Jataka 1 , which 
shall remain untouched by fire throughout the Era ; thirdly, 
on the site of Ghatikara's house no rain shall ever fall 


while this Era lasts ; and lastly, the reeds that grow round 
this lake shall be hollow throughout during the w T hole of 
the Era. Such are the four Era-miracles, as they are 

After giving this command, the Bodhisatta seated 
himself with a reed in his hands. All the other eighty 
thousand monkeys too seated themselves round the lake, 
each with a reed in his hands. And at the same moment 
when the Bodhisatta sucked the water up through his 
reed, they all drank too in the same manner, as they sat 
on the bank. This was the way they drank, and not one 
of them could the water-ogre get ; so he went off in a 
rage to his own habitation. The Bodhisatta, too, with his 
following went back into the forest. 

Variants of the prince or monkey going to the ogre-haunted lake, and overcoming 
the ogre by cleverness, occur in Jat. 6 and 58. Mbh. in. chs. 311313. The story 
also forms an episode in P. (B.) v. 10, The Monkey's Revenge, the main thread of 
which story forms Jat. 404, p. 277. The sign of the hare in the moon is common Indian 
folklore, cf. Jat. 316, p. 225, Som. LXII. (ii. 66). On all footsteps leading down cf. Aesop, 
The Fox and sick Lion, Babr. 103, Halm 246. Horace, Ep. i. i. 73 75. 

1 No. 35. 


Once on a time when Brahinadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the result of a past act of the Bodhisatta was 
that he came to life as a dog, and dwelt in a great cemetery 
at the head of several hundred dogs. 

Now one day, the king set out for his pleasaunce in his 
chariot of state drawn by white Sindh horses, and after 
amusing himself all the day in the grounds came back to 
the city after sunset. The carriage-harness they left in 
the courtyard, still hitched on to the chariot. In the 
night it rained and the harness got wet. Moreover, the 
king's dogs came down from the upper chambers and 
gnawed the leather work and straps. Next day they told 
the king, saying, "Sire, dogs have got in through the 
mouth of the sewer and have gnawed the leather work 
and straps of your majesty's carriage." Enraged at the 
dogs, the king said, " Kill every dog you see." Then began 
a great slaughter of dogs ; and the creatures, finding that 
they were being slain whenever they were seen, repaired 
to the cemetery to the Bodhisatta. " What is the meaning," 
asked he, " of your assembling in such numbers ? " They 
said, "The king is so enraged at the report that the 
leather work and straps of his carriage have been gnawed 
by dogs within the royal precincts, that he has ordered all 
dogs to be killed. Dogs are being destroyed wholesale, 
and great peril has arisen." 

Thought the Bodhisatta to himself, "No dogs from 
without can get into a place so closely watched ; it must 
be the thorough-bred dogs inside the palace who have 
done it. At present nothing happens to the real culprits, 
while the guiltless are being put to death. What if I 
were to discover the culprits to the king and so save the 


lives of my kith and kin?" He comforted his kinsfolk by 
saying, "Have no fear; I will save yon. Only wait here 
till I see the king." 

Then, guided by the thoughts of love, and calling to 
mind the Ten Perfections, he made his way alone and 
unattended into the city, commanding thus, " Let no hand 
be lifted to throw stick or stone at me." Accordingly, 
when he made his appearance, not a man grew angry at 
the sight of him. 

The king meantime, after ordering the dogs' destruc- 
tion, had taken his seat in the hall of justice. And straight 
to him ran the Bodhisatta, leaping under the king's throne. 
The king's servants tried to get him out ; but his majesty 
stopped them. Taking heart a little, the Bodhisatta came 
forth from under the throne, and bowing to the king, said, 
"Is it you who are having the dogs destroyed?" "Yes, it 
is I." "What is their offence, king of men?" " They have 
been gnawing the straps and the leather covering my 
carriage." " Do you know the dogs who actually did the 
mischief? " " Xo, I do not." " But, your majesty, if you do 
not know for certain the real culprits, it is not right to 
order the destruction of every dog that is seen." " It was 
because dogs had gnawed the leather of my carriage that 
I ordered them all to be killed." "Do your people kill 
all dogs without exception ; or are there some dogs who 
are spared?" "Some are spared, the thorough-bred 
dogs of my own palace." " Sire, just now you were saying 
that you had ordered the universal slaughter of all dogs 
wherever found, because dogs had gnawed the leather of 
your carriage ; whereas, now, you say that the thorough- 
bred dogs of your own palace escape death. Therefore you 
are following the four Evil Courses of partiality, dislike, 
ignorance and fear. Such courses are wrong, and not 


kinglike. For kings in trying cases should be as unbiassed 
as the beam of a balance. But in this instance, since the 
royal dogs go scot-free, whilst poor dogs are killed, this 
is not the impartial doom of all dogs alike, but only the 
slaughter of poor dogs." And moreover, the Great Being, 
lifting up his sweet voice, said, "Sire, it is not justice that 
you are performing," and he taught the Truth to the 
king in this stanza : 

The dogs that in the royal palace grow, 

The well-bred dogs, so strong and fair of form, 

Not these, but only we, are doomed to die. 

Here's no impartial sentence meted out 

To all alike; 'tis slaughter of the poor. 

After listening to the Bodhisatta's words, the king- 
said, "Do you in your wisdom know who it actually was 
that gnawed the leather of my carriage?" "Yes, sire." 
"Who was it?" "The thorough-bred dogs that live in 
your own palace." " How can it be shewn that it was 
they who gnawed the leather ? " "I will prove it to you." 
"Do so, sage." "Then send for your dogs, and have a 
little butter-milk and kusa-grass brought in." The king 
did so. 

Then said the Great Being, " Let this grass be mashed 
up in the butter-milk, and make the dogs drink it." 

The king did so ; with the result that each several 
dog, as he drank, vomited. And they all brought up bits 
of leather! "Why it is like a judgment of a Perfect 
Buddha himself," cried the king overjoyed, and he did 
homage to the Bodhisatta by offering him the royal 
umbrella. And the Bodhisatta taught the Truth in the 
ten stanzas on righteousness in the Te-sakuna Jataka 1 , 
beginning with the words: 

Walk righteously, great king of princely race. 

1 No. 521. 


Then having established the king in the Five Com- 
mandments, and having exhorted his majesty to be 
steadfast, the Bodhisatta handed back to the king the 
white umbrella of kingship. 

At the close of the Great Being's words, the king 
commanded that the lives of all creatures should be safe 
from harm. He ordered that all dogs, from the Bodhisatta 
downwards, should have a constant supply of food such 
as he himself ate ; and, abiding by the teachings of the 
Bodhisatta, he spent his life long in charity and other 
good deeds, so that when he died he was re-born in the 
world of gods. The 'Dog's Teaching' endured for ten 
thousand years. The Bodhisatta also lived to a ripe 
old age, and then passed away to fare according to his 

Tib. T. xxxix. The Guilty Dogs. In Jat. 546, probl. 2, the theft of cattle is 
discovered by the same means. In Tib. T. vin. (a variant of Jat. 546) a rogue is 
convicted in the same manner, see note on Problem 2 of The Nineteen Problems. 


Once on a time, when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta came to life as an ox, named 
Big Red, on the landowner's estate in a certain hamlet. 


And he had a younger brother who was known as Little 
Red. There were only these two brothers to do all the 
draught-work of the family. Also, the landowner had 
an only daughter, whose hand was asked in marriage for 
his son by a gentleman of the town. And the parents 
of the girl, with a view to furnishing dainty fare for the 
wedding guests, began to fatten up a pig named Munika. 

Observing this, Little Red said to his brother, "All 
the loads that have to be drawn for this household are 


drawn by you and me, my brother ; but all they give us 
for our pains is sorry grass and straw to eat. Yet here is 
the pig being victualled on rice ! What can be the reason 
why he should be treated to such fare ? " 

Said his brother, " My dear Little Red, envy him not ; 
for the pig eats the food of death. It is but to furnish 
a relish for the guests at their daughter's wedding, that 
the family are feeding up the pig. Wait but a little time 
and the guests will be coming. Then will you see that 
pig lugged out of his quarters by the legs, killed, and in 
process of conversion into curry." And so saying, he 
repeated this stanza: 

Then envy not poor Munika; 'tis death 

He eats. Contented munch your frugal chaff, 

The pledge and guarantee of length of days. 

Not long afterwards the guests did arrive; and Munika 
was killed and cooked into all manner of dishes. Said 
the Bodhisatta to Little Red, " Did you see Munika, dear 
brother?" "I have indeed seen, brother, the outcome of 
Munika's feasting. Better a hundred, nay a thousand, 
times than such food is ours, though it be but grass, straw, 
and chaff; for our fare harms us not, and is a pledge 
that our lives will not be cut short." 

Variant of Jat. 286 and a close parallel to the Midrash story given in the Intro- 
duction, p. 8. Cf. Benf. Einl. p. 229, Jacobs 69. 


Once on a time, in the first cycle of the worlds history, 
the quadrupeds chose the Lion as their king, the fishes 
the monster-fish Ananda, and the birds the Golden Mal- 
lard 1 . Now the King Golden Mallard had a lovely young 

1 Cf. No. 270, p. 213. 


daughter, and her royal father granted her any boon she 
might ask. The boon she asked for was to be allowed to 
choose a husband for herself; and the king in fulfilment 
of his promise mustered all the birds together in the 
country of the Himalayas. All manner of birds came, 
mallards, peacocks and all other birds; and they flocked 
together on a great plateau of bare rock. Then the king 
sent for his daughter and bade her go and choose a 
husband after her own heart. As she reviewed the crowd 
of birds, her eye lighted on the peacock with his neck of 
jewelled sheen and tail of varied hue; and she chose him, 
saying, " Let this be my husband." Then the assembly 
of the birds went up to the peacock and said, "Friend 
peacock, this princess, in choosing her husband from 
among all these birds, has fixed her choice on you." 

Carried away by his extreme joy, the peacock ex- 
claimed, " Until this day you have never seen how active 
I am " ; and in defiance of all decency in the midst of the 
assembly he spread his wings and began to dance ; and 
in dancing he exposed himself. 

Filled with shame, King Golden Mallard said, "This 
fellow has neither modesty within his heart nor decency 
in his outward behaviour; I certainly will not give my 
daughter to one so shameless." And there in the midst 
of all that assembly of the birds, he repeated this stanza : 

A pleasing 1 note is yours, a lovely back, 

A neck in hue like lapis lazuli; 

A fathom's length your outstretched feathers reach. 

Withal, your dancing loses you my child. 

Right in the face of the whole gathering King Royal 
Mallard gave his daughter to a young mallard, a nephew 
of his. Covered with shame at the loss of the mallard 
princess, the peacock rose straight up from the place and 


fled away. And King Golden Mallard too went back to 
his dwelling-place. 

Tib. T. XLVI. The Peacock as Bridegroom. 

The story of Hippoclides in Hdt. vi. 129. Cf. Benf. EM. 98 ff., Jacobs 70, 
Hausrath. Figured on the Bharhut Stupa, pi. xxvu. 11. 


Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was king of 
Benares, the Bodhisatta was born a quail, and lived in the 
forest at the head of many thousands of quails. In those 
days a fowler who caught quails came to that place ; and 
he used to imitate the note of a quail till he saw that the 
birds had been drawn together, when he flung his net 
over them, and whipped the sides of the net together, 
so as to get them all huddled up in a heap. Then he 
crammed them into his basket, and going home sold 
his prey for a living. 

Now one day the Bodhisatta said to those quails, "This 
fowler is making havoc among our kinsfolk. I have a 
device whereby he will be unable to catch us. Henceforth, 
the very moment he throws the net over you, let each one 
put his head through a mesh and then all of you together 
must fly away with the net to such place as you please, 
and there let it down on a thorn-brake ; this done, we 
will all escape from our several meshes." "Very good," 
said they all in ready agreement. 

On the morrow, when the net was cast over them, they 
did just as the Bodhisatta had told them: they lifted 
up the net, and let it down on a thorn-brake, escaping 
themselves from underneath. While the fowler was still 
disentangling his net, evening came on ; and he went away 
empty-handed. On the morrow and following days the 


quails played the same trick. So that it became the 
regular thing for the fowler to be engaged till sunset 
disentangling his net, and then to betake himself home 
empty-handed. Accordingly his wife grew angry and 
said, "Day by day you return empty-handed; I suppose 
you've got a second establishment to keep up elsewhere." 

"No, my dear," said the fowler; "I've no second estab- 
lishment to keep up. The fact is those quails have come 
to work together now. The moment my net is over them, 
off they fly with it and escape, leaving it on a thorn-brake. 
Still, they won't live in unity always. Don't you bother 
yourself; as soon as they start bickering among them- 
selves, I shall bag the lot, and that will bring a smile to 
your face to see." And so saying, he repeated this stanza 
to his wife : 

While concord reigns, the birds bear off the net. 
When quarrels rise, they'll fall a prey to me. 

Not long after this, one of the quails, in alighting 
on their feeding-ground, trod by accident on another's 
head. " Who trod on my head ? " angrily cried this latter. 
" I did ; but I didn't mean to. Don't be angry," said the 
first quail. But notwithstanding this answer, the other 
remained as angry as before. Continuing to answer one 
another, they began to bandy taunts, saying, "I suppose 
it is you single-handed who lift up the net." As they 
wrangled thus w r ith one another, the Bodhisatta thought 
to himself, " There's no safety with one who is quarrelsome. 
The time has come when they will no longer lift up the 
net, and thereby they will come to great destruction. 
The fowler will get his opportunity. I can stay here no 
longer." And thereupon he with his following went else- 

P. & T. 3 


Sure enough the fowler came back again a few days 
later, and first collecting them together by imitating the 
note of a quail, flung his net over them. Then said one 
quail, " They say when you were at work lifting the net, 
the hair of your head fell off. Now's your time ; lift away." 
The other rejoined, "When you were lifting the net, they 
say both your wings moulted. Now's your time; lift 

But whilst they were each inviting the other to lift 
the net, the fowler himself lifted the net for them and 
crammed them in a heap into his basket and bore them 
off' home, so that his wife's face was wreathed with smiles. 

Julien 41 is closest to the jataka. The hunter follows the birds flying away with 
the net until nightfall, when they alight in different directions. 

Frame story of P. n., Hitop. i., Som. LXI. (ii. 48), K. D (Syr.) IL, (Arab.) vn., but in 
this the birds are set free by a mouse which gnaws the net ( = Babr. 107, Mouse and 
Lion in net). 

In Mbh. xn. 138, Som. xxxin. 100 (i. 296), K. D. (Syr.) ch. v., a mouse frees a cat, 
but waits until the hunter is near, so that the cat has no time to do harm. In the 
variant P. (T.) in. 11, (B.) I., Suppl. v. the birds escape by feigning death. By the 
same device a deer escapes in Jat. 16. The rest of the frame story of P. (crow, 
mouse, and antelope) is Jat. 206, p. 171. 


Once on a time, hard by a great banyan-tree on the 
slopes of the Himalayas, there dwelt three friends, a 
partridge, a monkey, and an elephant. And they came 
to lack respect and subordination one to another, and 
had no ordering of their common life. And the thought 
came to them that it was not seemly for them to live in 
this way, and that they ought to find out which of their 
number was the senior and to honour him. 

As they were engaged thinking which was the oldest, 
one day an idea struck them. Said the partridge and 


the monkey to the elephant as they all three sat together 
at the foot of that banyan-tree, "Friend elephant, how 
big was this banyan when you remember it first ? " Said 
the elephant, " When I was a baby, this banyan was a 
mere bush, over which I used to walk; and as I stood 
astride of it, its topmost branches used just to reach up 
to my belly. IVe known the tree since it was a mere 

Next the monkey was asked the same question by the 
other two; and he replied, "My friends, when I was a 
youngling, I had only to stretch out my neck as I sat on 
the ground, and I ceuld eat the topmost sprouts of this 
banyan. So I've known this banyan since it was very tiny." 

Then the partridge was asked the same question by 
the two others ; and he said, " Friends, of old there was 
a great banyan-tree at such and such a spot; I ate its 
seeds, and voided them here; that was the origin of this 
tree. Therefore, I have knowledge of this tree from 
before it was born, and am older than the pair of you." 

Hereupon the monkey and the elephant said to the 
sage partridge, " Friend, you are the oldest. Henceforth 
vou shall have from us acts of honour and veneration, 


marks of obeisance and homage, respect of word and 
deed, salutation, and all due homage; and we will follow 
your counsels. You for your part henceforth will please 
impart such counsel as we need." 

Thenceforth the partridge gave them counsel, and 
established them in the Commandments, which he also 
undertook himself to keep. Being thus established in 
the Commandments, and becoming respectful and sub- 
ordinate among themselves, with proper ordering of their 
common life, these three made themselves sure of re-birth 
in heaven at this life's close. 



Vinaya n. p. 161 (S.B.E. xx. p. 193). Tib. T. xxiv., Julien 77. In the Rdma- 
yana, Uttarakanda, ch. 72 (transl. by M. N. Dutt), Rama decides a dispute between 
a vulture and an owl as to the ownership of a nest. The vulture claims to have been 
living in the nest since mankind was first born. The owl says that the nest was 
made still earlier, when the earth was first adorned with trees. C. Gardner in 
Folklore J. iv. 29 ff. gives a Mongolian tale of a wolf and a fox, who find a skin of 
fat, and decide that the elder shall eat it. The wolf says that when he was a 
youngster Mt Sumeru was but a clot of earth in a bog. The fox weeps, because he 
had two cubs, and the younger was just the age of the wolf. Cf. Clouston, ii. 99 ff., 
Cowell, Y Gymmrodar, 1882, p. 169. Hausrath compares the Aesopic fable of the 
crested lark, who was older than all beings, even than the earth, and when her 
father died, having no other place for a grave, buried him in her own head. 
Aristoph., Birds, 471 ff., cf. Theocr., Id. vn. 23. Aelian, De An. Nat. xvi. 5, in 
reference to this gives an Indian one. An Indian king had three sons, the two elder 
of whom persecute their parents. The parents flee with the youngest son, who at 
their death buries them in himself, cutting open his head with a sword. The Sun in 
admiration turns him into a hoopoe. Both these tales give an explanation of the 
bird's crest. They appear to have little bearing on the question of the ' priority ' of 
Greek fable. 


Once on a time the Bodhisatta came to life in a certain 
forest-haunt as the divinity of a tree which stood near a 
certain lotus-pond. In those days the water used every 
summer to fall very low in a certain pond, not very big, 
-which was plentifully stocked with fish. Catching sight 
of these fish, a certain crane said to himself, " I must find 
a way to cajole and eat these fish." So he went and sat 
down in deep thought by the side of the water. 

Now when the fishes caught sight of him, they said, 
" Of what are you thinking, my lord, as you sit there ? " 
"I am thinking about you," was the reply. "And what 
is your lordship thinking about us ? " " The water in this 
pool being low, food scarce, and the heat intense, I was 
wondering to myself, as I sat here, what in the world you 
fishes would do." " And what are we to do, my lord ? '' 
" Well, if you'll take my advice, I will take you up one by 


one in my beak, and carry you all off to a fine large pool 
covered with the five varieties of lotuses, and there put 
you down." "My lord," said they, "no crane ever took 
the slightest thought for fishes since the world began. 
Your desire is to eat us one by one." " No ; I will not eat 
you while you trust me," said the crane. " If you don't 
take my word that there is such a pond, send one of your 
number to go with me and see for himself." Believing 
the crane, the fish presented to him a great big fish (blind 
of one eye, by the way), who they thought would be a 
match for the crane whether afloat or ashore; and they 
said, " Here's the one to go with you." 

The crane took the fish off* and put him in the pool, 
and after shewing him the whole extent of it, brought him 
back again and put him in along with the other fish in his 
old pond. And he held forth to them on the charms of 
the new r pool. 

After hearing this report, they grew eager to go there, 
and said to the crane, " Very good, my lord; please take 

us across." 

First of all, the crane took that big one-eyed fish again 
and carried him off to the edge of the pool, so that he 
could see the water, but actuallv alighted in a Varana-tree 

j / ***r 

which grew on the bank. Dashing the fish down in a fork 
of the tree, he pecked it to death, after w r hich he picked 
him clean and let the bones fall at the foot of the tree. 
Then back he went and said, " I've thrown him in ; who's 
the next ? " And so he took the fish one by one, and ate 
them all, till at last when he came back, he could not find 
another left. But there was still a crab remaining in the 
pond; so the crane, who wanted to eat him up too, said, 
" Mister crab, I've taken all those fishes away and turned 
them into a fine large pool covered all over with lotuses. 


Come along; I'll take you too." "How will you carry 
me across?" said the crab. "Why, in my beak, to be 
sure," said the crane. " Ah, but you might drop me like 
that," said the crab; "I won't go with you." "Don't be 
frightened; I'll keep tight hold of you all the way." 
Thought the crab to himself, "He hasn't put the fish in 
the pool. But, if he would really put me in, that would 
be capital. If he does not, why, I'll nip his head off" and 
kill him." So he spoke thus to the crane, " You'd never be 
able to hold me tight enough, friend crane; whereas we 
crabs have got an astonishingly tight grip. If I might 
take hold of your neck with my claws, I could hold it 
tight and then would go along with you." 

Not suspecting that the crab wanted to trick him, the 
crane gave his assent. With his claws the crab gripped 
hold of the crane's neck as with the pincers of a smith, 
and said, "Now you can start." The crane took him 
and shewed him the pool first, and then started oft' for 
the tree. 

"The pool lies this way, uncle," said the crab; "but 
you're taking me the other way." " Very much your dear 
uncle am I!" said the crane; "and very much my nephew 
are you! I suppose you thought me your slave to lift you 
up and carry you about ! Just cast your eye on that heap 
of bones at the foot of the tree; as I ate up all those fish, 
so I will eat you too." Said the crab, "It was through 
their own folly that those fish were eaten by you; but I 
shan't give you the chance of eating me. No; what I 
shall do, is to kill you. For^ you, fool that you were, did 
not see that I was tricking you. If we die, we will both 
die together; I'll chop your head clean oft'." And so 
saying he gripped the crane's weazand with his claws, as 
with pincers. With his mouth wide open, and tears 


streaming from his eyes, the crane, trembling for his life, 
said, "Lord, indeed I will not eat you! Spare my life!" 

" Well, then, just step down to the pool and put me 
in," said the crab. Then the crane turned back and 
stepped down as directed to the pool, and placed the 
crab on the mud, at the water-edge. But the crab, before 
entering the water, nipped off the crane's head as deftly 
as if he were cutting a lotus stalk with a knife. 

The divinity who dwelt in the tree, marking this 
wonderful thing, made the whole forest ring with applause 
repeating this stanza in sweet tones : 

Guile profits not your very guileful folk. 

Mark what the guileful crane got from the crab! 

P. (T.) i. 5, Som. LX. 78 (ii. 31). K. D. (Syr.) i. 5, (Arab.) v. A mutilated version 
in Jat. 236. In Aesop (Halm 419, Babr. 115) an eagle takes a tortoise up to teach it 
to fly. In Phaedr. n. 6 in order to kill it. Cf. Jat. 215, p. 178. 


Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta came to life again as a landowner. 
Another landowner, a friend of his, was an old man him- 
self, but had a young wife who had borne him a son and 
heir. Said the old man to himself, "As soon as I am 
dead, this girl, being so young as she is, will marry heaven 
knows whom, and spend all my money, instead of handing 
it over to my son. Wouldn't it be my best course to bury 
my money safely in the ground ? " 

So, in the company of a household slave of his named 
Nanda, he went to the forest and buried his riches at a 
certain spot, saying to the slave, " My good Nanda, reveal 
this treasure to my son after I am gone, and don't let the 
wood be sold." 


After giving this injunction to his slave, the old man 
died. In due course the son grew up, and his mother 
said to him, "My son, your father, in the company of 
Xanda, buried his money. Get it back and look after the 
property of the family." So one day he said to Xanda, 
"Uncle, is there any treasure which my father buried?" 
"Yes, my lord." "Where is it buried?" "In the forest, 
my lord." " Well, then, let us go there." And he took a 
spade and a basket, and going to the scene, said to 
Xanda, "Well, uncle, where's the money?" But by the 
time Xanda had got up to the treasure and was standing 
right over it, he was so puffed up by the money that he 
abused his master, saying, " You servant of a slave-wench's 
son! how should you have any money here?" 

The young gentleman, pretending not to have heard 
this insolence, simply said, " Let us be going then," and 
took che slave back home with him. Two or three days 
later, he returned to the place ; but again Xanda abused 
him, as before. Without any abusive rejoinder, the young 
gentleman came back and turned the matter over in his 
mind. Thought he to himself, "At starting, this slave 
always means to reveal where the money is; but no sooner 
does he get there, than he falls to abusing me. The 
reason of this I do not see ; but I could find out, if I 
were to ask my father's old friend, the landowner." So 
he went to the Bodhisatta, and laying the whole business 
before him, asked his friend what was the real reason of 
such behaviour. 

Said the Bodhisatta, " The spot at which Xanda stands 
to abuse you, my friend, is the place where your father's 
money is buried. Therefore, as soon as he starts abusing 
you again, say to him, 'Whom are you talking to, you 
slave ? ' Pull him from his pe ch, take the spade, dig 


down, remove your family treasure, and make the slave 
carry it home for you." And so saying, he repeated this 
stanza : 

Methinks the gold and jewels buried lie 
Where Nanda, low-born slave, so loudly bawls ! 

Taking a respectful leave of the Bodhisatta, the young 
gentleman went home, and taking Nanda went to the spot 
where the money was buried. Faithfully following the 
advice he had received, he brought the money away and 
looked after the family property. He remained steadfast 
in the Bodhisatta's counsels, and after a life spent in 
charity and other good works he passed away to fare 
according to his deserts. 

On the strengthening power of gold cf. Jat. 257, p. 210, where the partridge sings 
pleasantly on an antheap, because there is a treasure beneath. In the Sithhdsana- 
dmtrimsikd (Weber, Ind. Stud. xv. 266) a brahmin while in a certain place in his 
field is liberal, and in other places miserly. The golden throne of Vikrama is found 
beneath. In P. (T.) n. 1 a mouse feels strong because he has a buried treasure. 


Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta was born a pigeon. Now the 
Benares folk of those days, as an act of goodness, used 
to hang up straw-baskets in divers places for the shelter 
and comfort of the birds ; and the cook of the gildmaster 
of Benares hung up one of these baskets in his kitchen. 
In this basket the Bodhisatta took up his abode, sallying 
out at daybreak in quest of food, and returning home in 
the evening; and so he lived his life. 

But one day a crow, flying over the kitchen, snuffed 
up the goodly savour from the salt and fresh fish and 
meat there, and was filled with longing to taste it. Casting 
about how to have his will, he perched hard by, and at 


evening saw the Bodhisatta come home and go into the 
kitchen. "Ah!" thought he, "I can manage it through 
the pigeon." 

So back he came next day at dawn, and, when the 
Bodhisatta sallied out in quest of food, kept following 
him about from place to place like his shadow. So the 
Bodhisatta said, " Why do you keep with me, friend ? " 

"My lord," answered the crow, "your demeanour has 
won my admiration ; and henceforth it is my wish to 
follow you." "But your kind of food and mine, friend, 
are not the same," said the Bodhisatta ; " you will be hard 
put to it if you attach yourself to me." " My lord," said 
the crow, "when you are seeking your food, I will feed 
too, by your side." " So be it, then," said the Bodhisatta ; 
" only you must be earnest." And with this admonition 
to the crow, the Bodhisatta ranged about pecking up 
grass-seeds; whilst the other went about turning over 
cowdung and picking out the insects underneath till he 
had got his fill. Then back he came to the Bodhisatta 
and remarked, "My lord, you give too much time to 
eating; excess therein should be shunned." 

And when the Bodhisatta had fed and reached home 
again at evening, in flew the crow with him into the 

"Why, our bird has brought another home with him"; 
exclaimed the cook, and hung up a second basket for the 
crow. And from that time onward the two birds dwelt 
together in the kitchen. 

Now one day the gildmaster had in a store of fish 
which the cook hung up about the kitchen. Filled with 
greedy longing at the sight, the crow made up his mind 
to stay at home next day and treat himself to this ex- 
cellent fare. 


So all the night long he lay groaning away ; and next 
day, when the Bodhisatta was starting in search of food, 
and cried, "Come along, friend crow," the crow replied, 
"Go without me, my lord; for I have a pain in my 
stomach." "Friend," answered the Bodhisatta, "I never 
heard of crows having pains in their stomachs before. 
True, crows feel faint in each of the three night-watches; 
but if they eat a lamp-wick, their hunger is appeased for 
the moment. You must be hankering after the fish in 
the kitchen here. Come now, man's food will not agree 
with you. Do not give way like this, but come and seek 
your food with me." "Indeed, I am not able, my lord," 
said the crow. " Well, your own conduct will shew," said 
the Bodhisatta. " Only fall not a prey to greed, but stand 
steadfast." And with this exhortation, away he flew to 
find his daily food. 

The cook took several kinds of fish, and dressed some 
one way, some another. Then lifting the lids off his 
saucepans a little to let the steam out, he put a colander 
on the top of one and went outside the door, where he 
stood wiping the sweat from his brow. Just at that 
moment out popped the crow's head from the basket. 
A glance told him that the cook was away, and, " Now or 
never," thought he, "is my time. The only question is 
shall I choose minced meat or a big lump ? " Arguing 
that it takes a long time to make a full meal of minced 
meat, he resolved to take a large piece of fish and sit and 
eat it in his basket. So out he flew and alighted on the 
colander. " Click " went the colander. 

" What can that be ? " said the cook, running in on 
hearing the noise. Seeing the crow, he cried, "Oh, there's 
that rascally crow wanting to eat my master's dinner. 
I have to work for my master, not for that rascal ! What's 


he to me, I should like to know ? " So, first shutting the 
door, he caught the crow and plucked every feather off 
his body. Then, he pounded up ginger with salt and 
cumin, and mixed in sour butter-milk finally sousing the 
crow in the pickle and flinging him back into his basket. 
And there the crow lay groaning, overcome by the agony 
of his pain. 

At evening the Bodhisatta came back, and saw the 
wretched plight of the crow. "Ah ! greedy crow," he 
exclaimed, " you would not heed my words, and now your 
own greed has worked you woe." So saying, he repeated 
this stanza : 

The headstrong: man who, when exhorted, pays 
No heed to friends who kindly counsel give, 
Shall surely perish, like the greedy crow, 
Who laughed to scorn the pigeon's warning words. 

Then, exclaiming " I too can no longer dwell here," the 
Bodhisatta flew away. But the crow died there and then, 
and the cook flung him, basket and all, on the dust-heap. 

Variant of Jat. 274, 375, 395. 


Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta gained his livelihood as a trader. 
In those days in a border-village in Kasi there dwelt a 
number of carpenters. And it chanced that one of them, 
a bald grey-haired man, was planing away at some wood, 
with his head glistening like a copper bowl, when a 
mosquito settled on his scalp and stung him with its 
dart-like sting. 

Said the carpenter to his son, who was seated hard by, 
" My boy, there's a mosquito stinging me on the head ; 


do drive it away." " Hold still then, father," said the son ; 
" one blow will settle it." 

(At that very time the Bodhisatta had reached that 
village in the way of trade, and was sitting in the car- 
penter's shop.) 

"Rid me of it," said the father. "All right, father," 
answered the son, who was behind the old man's back, 
and, raising a sharp axe on high with intent to kill only 
the mosquito, he cleft his father's head in twain. So 
the old man fell dead on the spot. 

Thought the Bodhisatta, who had been an eye-witness 
of the whole scene, "Better than such a friend is an 
enemy with sense, whom fear of men's vengeance will 
deter from killing a man." And he recited these lines: 

Sense-lacking friends are worse than foes with sense; 
Witness the son that sought the gnat to slay, 
But cleft, poor fool, his father's skull in twain. 

So saying, the Bodhisatta rose up and departed, 
passing away in after days to fare according to his deserts. 
And as for the carpenter, his body was buried by his 

A variant of Jat. 45, where a maidservant strikes her mother's head with a pestle. 
In P. (B.) i., Suppl. viii., story 12, a pet monkey strikes a bee from the head of the 
king with a sword. It is preceded by a tale illustrating the superiority of a sensible 
enemy, as mentioned in the verse of the jataka and P. Of. Jacobs 64, Clouston, i. 55. 
The same moral is given in Mbh. xn. ch. 138, 45. 


Once on a time when Brahmadatta was king of 
Benares, a festival was proclaimed in the city; and at 
the first summoning notes of the festal drum out poured 
the townsfolk to keep holiday. 


Now in those days, a tribe of monkeys was living in 
the king's pleasaunce; and the king's gardener thought 
to himself, "They're holiday-making up in the city. I'll 
get the monkeys to do the watering for me, and be off 
to enjoy myself with the rest." So saying, he went to the 
king of the monkeys, and, first dwelling on the benefits 
his majesty and his subjects enjoyed from residence in 
the pleasaunce in the way of flowers and fruit and 
young shoots to eat, ended by saying, "To-day there's 
holiday-making up in the city, and I'm off to enjoy 
myself. Couldn't you water the young trees while I'm 
away ? " 

"Oh! yes," said the monkey. 

"Only mind you do," said the gardener; and off he 
went, giving the monkeys the water-skins and wooden 
watering-pots to do the work with. 

Then the monkeys took the water-skins and watering- 
pots, and fell to watering the young trees. " But we must 
mind not to waste the water," observed their king; "as 
you water, first pull each young tree up and look at the 
size of its roots. Then give plenty of water to those whose 
roots strike deep, but only a little to those with tiny roots. 
When this water is all gone, we shall be hard put to it to 
get more." 

" To be sure," said the other monkeys, and did as he 
bade them. 

At this juncture a certain wise man, seeing the monkeys 
thus engaged, asked them why they pulled up tree after 
tree and watered them according to the size of their 

"Because such are our king's commands," answered 
the monkeys. 

Their reply moved the wise man to reflect how, with 


(Jilt a lid 4(!, yv. 45) 


every desire to do good, the ignorant and foolish only 
succeed in doing harm. And he recited this stanza: 

'Tis knowledge crowns endeavour with success, 
For fools are thwarted by their foolishness, 
Witness the ape that killed the garden trees. 

With this rebuke to the king of the monkeys, the wise 
man departed with his followers from the pleasaunce. 

Variant of Jat. 268, in which the moral is the folly of the one who gave such 
orders to the monkeys. Illustrated on the Bharhut Stupa, pi. XLV. 5. 


Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, there was a brahmin in a village who knew the 
charm called Vedabbha. Now this charm, so they say, 
was precious beyond all price. For, if at a certain con- 
junction of the planets the charm was repeated and the 
gaze bent upwards to the skies, straightway from the 
heavens there rained the Seven Things of Price, gold, 
silver, pearl, coral, catseye, ruby, and diamond. 

In those days the Bodhisatta was a pupil of this brah- 
min; and one day his master left the village on some 
business or other, and came with the Bodhisatta to the 
country of Ceti. 

In a forest by the way dwelt five hundred robbers 
known as "the Despatchers" -who made the way im- 
passable. And these caught the Bodhisatta and the 
Vedabbha-brahmin. (Why, you ask, were they called the 
Despatchers? Well, the story goes that of every two 
prisoners they made they used to despatch one to fetch 
the ransom; and that's why they were called the De- 
spatchers. If they captured a father and a son, they told 


the father to go for the ransom to free his son; if they 
caught a mother and her daughter, they sent the mother 
for the money; if they caught two brothers, they let the 
elder go; and so too, if they caught a teacher and 
his pupil, it was the pupil they set free. In this case, 
therefore, they kept the Vedabbha-brahmin, and sent the 
Bodhisatta for the ransom.) And the Bodhisatta said 
with a bow to his master, " In a day or two I shall surely 
come back; have no fear; only fail not to do as I shall 
say. To-day will come to pass the conjunction of the 
planets which brings about the rain of the Things of 
Price. Take heed lest, yielding to this mishap, you repeat 
the charm and call down the precious shower. For, if 
you do, calamity will certainly befall both you and this 
band of robbers." With this warning to his master, the 
Bodhisatta went his way in quest of the ransom. 

At sunset the robbers bound the brahmin and laid 
him by the heels. Just at this moment the full moon 
rose over the eastern horizon, and the brahmin, studying 
the heavens, knew that the great conjunction was taking 
place. " Why," thought he, " should I suffer this misery ? 
By repeating the charm I will call down the precious rain, 
pay the robbers the ransom, and go free." So he called 
out to the robbers, "Friends, why do you take me a 
prisoner?" To get a ransom, reverend sir," said they. 
"Well, if that is all you want," said the brahmin, "make 
haste and untie me; have my head bathed, and new 
clothes put on me; and let me be perfumed and decked 
with flowers. Then leave me to mvself." The robbers 


did as he bade them. And the brahmin, marking the 
conjunction of the planets, repeated his charm with eyes 
uplifted to the heavens. Forthwith the Things of Price 
poured down from the skies! The robbers picked them 


all up, wrapping their booty into bundles with their cloaks. 
Then with their brethren they marched away; and the 
brahmin followed in the rear. But, as luck would have 
it, the party was captured by a second band of five 
hundred robbers ! " Why do you seize us ? " said the first 
to the second band. "For booty," was the answer. "If 
booty is what you want, seize on that brahmin, who by 
simply gazing up at the skies brought down riches as 
rain. It was he who gave us all that we have got." So 
the second band of robbers let the first band go, and 
seized on the brahmin, crying, " Give us riches too ! " " It 
would give me great pleasure," said the brahmin ; " but it 
will be a year before the requisite conjunction of the 
planets takes place again. If you will only be so good 
as to wait till then, I will invoke the precious shower for 


"Rascally brahmin!" cried the angry robbers, "you 
made the other band rich off-hand, but want us to wait 
a whole year!" And they cut him in two with a sharp 
sword, and flung his body in the middle of the road. 
Then hurrying after the first band of robbers, they killed 
every man of them too in hand-to-hand fight, and seized 
the booty. Next, they divided into two companies and 
fought among themselves, company against company, till 
two hundred and fifty men were slain. And so they went 
on killing one another, till only two were left alive. Thus 
did those thousand men come to destruction. 

Now, when the two survivors had managed to carry 
off the treasure they hid it in the jungle near a village; 
and one of them sat there, sword in hand, to guard it, 
whilst the other went into the village to get rice and have 
it cooked for supper. But true is the saying : 
And greed is verily the root of ruin. 

F. & T. 4 


He who stopped by the treasure thought, " When my mate 
comes back, he'll want half of this. Suppose I kill him 
the moment he gets back." So he drew his sword and sat 
waiting for his comrade's return. 

Meanwhile, the other had equally reflected that the 
booty had to be halved, and thought to himself, "Suppose 
I poison the rice, and give it him to eat and so kill him, 
and have the whole of the treasure to myself." Accord- 


ingly, when the rice was boiled, he first ate his own share, 
and then put poison in the rest, which he carried back 
with him to the jungle. But scarce had he set it down, 
when the other robber cut him in two with his sword, and 
hid the body away in a secluded spot. Then he ate the 
poisoned rice, and died then and there. Thus, by reason 
of the treasure, not only the brahmin but all the robbers 
came to destruction. 

Howbeit, after a day or two the Bodhisatta came back 
with the ransom. Not finding his master where he had 
left him, but seeing treasure strewn all round about, his 
heart misgave him that, in spite of his advice, his master 
must have called down a shower of treasure from the 
skies, and that all must have perished in consequence ; 
and he proceeded along the road. On his way he came 
to where his master's body lay cloven in twain upon the 
way. "Alas!" he cried, "he is dead through not heeding 
my warning." Then with gathered sticks he made a pyre 
and burnt his master's body, making an offering of wild 
flowers. Further along the road, he came upon the five 
hundred " Despatchers," and further still upon the two 
hundred and fifty, and so on by degrees until at last he 
came to where lay only two corpses. Marking how of 
the thousaud all but two had perished, and feeling sure 
that there must be two survivors, and that these could 


not refrain from strife, he pressed on to see where they 
had gone. So on he went till he found the path by which 
with the treasure they had turned into the jungle; and 
there he found the heap of bundles of treasure, and one 
robber lying dead with his rice-bowl overturned at his side. 
Realising the whole story at a glance, the Bodhisatta set 
himself to search for the missing man, and at last found 
his body in the secret spot where it had been flung. 
"And thus," mused the Bodhisatta, " through not following 
my counsel my master in his self-will has been the means 
of destroying not himself only but a thousand others also. 
Truly, they that seek their own gain by mistaken and 
misguided means shall reap ruin, even as my master." 
And he repeated this stanza: 

Misguided effort leads to loss, not gain; 

Thieves killed Yedabbha and themsehes were slain. 

Thus spake the Bodhisatta, and he went on to say,- 
"And even as my master's misguided and misplaced effort 
in causing the rain of treasure to fall from heaven wrought 
both his own death and the destruction of others with 
him, even so shall every other man who by mistaken means 
seeks to compass his own advantage utterly perish and 
involve others in his destruction." With these words did 
the Bodhisatta make the forest ring; and in this stanza 
did he preach the Truth, whilst the tree divinities shouted 
applause. The treasure he contrived to carry oft* to his 
own home, where he lived out his term of life in the 
exercise of almsgiving and other good works. And when 
his life closed, he departed to the heaven he had won. 

A simpler form of this tale occurs in Tib. T. xix. where 500 robbers with booty 
find a recently killed elephant, and 250 of them are sent for water. These poison 
the water that they bring, and eat the remainder of the elephant, which the others 
have poisoned. A. jackal finds them, and begins to eat a bow-string, which snaps 
and kills him. It must have been some such simpler version as this which passed 



into Europe and became Chaucer's Pardoner's Tale. The immediate source of 
Chaucer has not been found. The earliest known European form is in the Cento 
novelle antiche 73. See Clouston, ii. 379 ff. For Mohammedan variants see Kuhn, p. 82. 


Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta came to life again as the child 
of the queen; and on his name-day they gave him the 
name of Prince Goodness (Silava). At the age of sixteen 
his education was complete; and later he came at his 
father's death to be king, and ruled his people righteously 
under the title of the great King Goodness. At each of 
the four city-gates he built an almonry, another in the 
heart of the city, and yet another at his own palace-gates, 
-six in all; and at each he distributed alms to poor 
travellers and the needy. He kept the Commandments 
and observed the fast-days ; he abounded in patience, 
loving-kindness, and mercy ; and in righteousness he ruled 
the land, cherishing all creatures alike with the fond love 
of a father for his baby boy. 

Now one of the king's ministers had dealt treacherously 
in the king's harem, and this became matter of common 
talk. The ministers reported it to the king. Examining 
into the matter himself, the king found the minister's guilt 
to be clear. So he seat for the culprit, and said, "O 
blinded by folly ! you have sinned, and are not worthy to 
dwell in my kingdom ; take your substance and your wife 
and family, and go hence." Driven thus from the realm, 
that minister left the Kasi country, and entering the 
service of the king of Kosala, gradually rose to be that 
monarch's confidential adviser. One day he said to the 
king of Kosala, "Sire, the kingdom of Benares is like a 


goodly honeycomb untainted by flies ; its king is feebleness 
itself; and a trifling force would suffice to conquer the 
whole country." 

Hereon, the king of Kosala reflected that the kingdom 
of Benares was large, and, considering this in connexion 
with the advice that a trifling force could conquer it, he 
grew suspicious that his adviser was a hireling suborned 
to lead him into a trap. "Traitor," he cried, "you are 
paid to say this ! " 

"Indeed I am not," answered the other; "I do but 
speak the truth. If you doubt me, send men to massacre 
a village over his border, and see whether, when they are 
caught and brought before him, the king does not let 
them off scot-free and even load them with gifts." 

" He shews a very bold front in making his assertion," 
thought the king ; " I will test his counsel without delay." 
And accordingly he sent some of his creatures to harry 
a village across the Benares border. The ruffians were 
captured and brought before the king of Benares, who 
asked them, saying, "My children, why have you killed 
my villagers?" 

" Because we could not make a living," said they. 

" Then why did you not come to me ? " said the king. 
"See that you do not do the like again." 

And he gave them presents and sent them away. Back 
they went and told this to the king of Kosala. But this 
evidence was not enough to nerve him to the expedition ; 
and a second band was sent to massacre another village, 


this time in the heart of the kingdom. These too were 
likewise sent away with presents by the king of Benares. 
But even this evidence was not deemed strong enough ; 

O O 

and a third party was sent to plunder the very streets of 
Benares. And these, like their forerunners, were sent 


away with presents ! Satisfied at last that the king of 
Benares was an entirely good king, the king of Kosala 
resolved to seize on his kingdom, and set out against him 
with troops and elephants. 

Now in these days the king of Benares had a thousand 
gallant warriors, who would face the charge even of a rut 
elephant, whom the launched thunderbolt of Indra could 
not terrify, a matchless band of invincible heroes ready 
at the king's command to reduce all India to his sway ! 
These, hearing the king of Kosala was coming to take 
Benares, came to their sovereign with the news, and 
prayed that they might be despatched against the invader. 
" We will defeat and capture him, sire," said they, " before 
he can set foot over the border." 

" Not so, my children," said the king. " None shall 
suffer because of me. Let those who covet kingdoms 
seize mine, if they will." And he refused to allow them 
to march against the invader. 

Then the king of Kosala crossed the border and came 
to the middle-country ; and again the ministers went to 
the king with renewed entreaty. But still the king refused. 
And now the king of Kosala appeared outside the city, 
and sent a message to the king bidding him either yield 
up the kingdom or give battle. "I fight not," was the 
message of the king of Benares in reply ; " let him seize 
my kingdom." 

Yet a third time the king's ministers came to him and 
besought him not to allow the king of Kosala to enter, 
but to permit them to overthrow and capture him before 
the city. Still refusing, the king bade the city-gates be 
opened, and seated himself in state aloft upon his royal 
throne with his thousand ministers round him. 

Entering the city and finding none to bar his way, the 


king of Kosala passed with his army to the royal palace. 
The doors stood open wide; and there on his gorgeous 
throne with his thousand ministers around him sate the 
great King Goodness in state. "Seize them all," cried 
the king of Kosala ; " tie their hands tightly behind their 
backs, and away with them to the cemetery! There dig 
holes and bury them alive up to the neck, so that they 
cannot move hand or foot. The jackals will come at 
night and give them sepulchre ! " 

At the bidding of the ruffianly king, his followers bound 
the king of Benares and his ministers, and hauled them 
off. But even in this hour not so much as an angry 
thought did the great King Goodness harbour against the 
ruffians ; and not a man among his ministers, even when 
they were being marched off in bonds, could disobey the 
king, so perfect is said to have been the discipline among 
his followers. 

So King Goodness and his ministers were led off and 
buried up to the neck in pits in the cemetery, the king 
in the middle and the others on either side of him. The 
ground was trampled in upon them, and there they were 
left. Still meek and free from anger against his oppressor, 
King Goodness exhorted his companions, saying, "Let 
your hearts be filled with naught but love and charity, 
my children." 

Now at midnight the jackals came trooping to the 
banquet of human flesh ; and at sight of the beasts the 
king and his companions raised a mighty shout all to- 
gether, frightening the jackals away. Halting, the pack 
looked back, and, seeing no one pursuing, again came 
forward. A second shout drove them away again, but 
only to return as before. But the third time, seeing that 
not a man amongst them all pursued, the jackals thought 


to themselves, "These must be men who are doomed to 
death." They came on boldly ; even when the shout was 
again being raised, they did not turn tail. On they came, 
each singling out his prey, the chief jackal making for 
the king, and the other jackals for his companions. Fertile 
in resource, the king marked the beast's approach, and, 
raising his throat as if to receive the bite, fastened his 
teeth in the jackal's throat with a grip like a vice! Unable 
to free its throat from the mighty grip of the king's jaws, 
and fearing death, the jackal raised a great howl. At his 
cry of distress the pack conceived that their leader must 
have been caught by a man. With no heart left to ap- 
proach their own destined prey, away they all scampered 
for their lives. 

Seeking to free itself from the king's teeth, the trapped 
jackal plunged madly to and fro, and thereby loosened 
the earth above the king. Hereupon the latter, letting 
the jackal go, put forth his mighty strength, and by plung- 
ing from side to side got his hands free ! Then, clutching 
the brink of the pit, he drew himself up, and came forth 
like a cloud scudding before the wind. Bidding his 
companions be of good cheer, he now set to work to 
loosen the earth round them and to get them out, till 
with all his ministers he stood free once more in the 

Now it chanced that a corpse had been exposed in 
that part of the cemetery, which lay between the respective 
domains of two goblins ; and the goblins were disputing 
over the division of the spoil. 

"We can't divide it ourselves," said they; "but this 
King Goodness is righteous ; he will divide it for us. Let 
us go to him." So they dragged the corpse by the foot 
to the king, and said, " Sire, divide this man and give us 


each our share." " Certainly I will, my friends," said the 
king. " But, as I am dirty, I must bathe first." 

Straightway, by their magic power, the goblins brought 
to the king the scented water prepared for the usurper's 
bath. And when the king had bathed, they brought him 
the robes which had been laid out for the usurper to 
wear. When he had put these on, they brought his 
majesty a box containing the four kinds of scent. When 
he had perfumed himself, they brought flowers of divers 
kinds laid out upon jewelled fans, in a casket of gold. 
When he had decked himself with the flowers, the goblins 
asked whether they could be of any further service. And 
the king gave them to understand that he was hungry. 
So away went the goblins, and returned with rice flavoured 
with all the choicest flavours, which had been prepared 
for the usurper's table. And the king, now bathed and 
scented, dressed and arrayed, ate of the dainty fare. 
Thereupon the goblins brought the usurper's perfumed 
water for him to drink, in the usurper's own golden bowl, 
not forgetting to bring the golden cup too. When the 
king had drunk and had washed his mouth and was 
washing his hands, they brought him fragrant betel to 
chew, and asked whether his majesty had any further 
commands. " Fetch me," said he, " by your magic power 
the sword of state which lies by the usurper's pillow." 
And straightway the sword was brought to the king. Then 
the king took the corpse, and setting it upright, cut it in 
two down the chine, giving one-half to each goblin. This 
done, the king washed the blade, and girded it on his 

Having eaten their fill, the goblins were glad of heart, 
and in their gratitude asked the king what more they 
could do for him. " Set me by your magic power," said 


he, " in the usurper's chamber, and set each of my ministers 
back in his own house." " Certainly, sire," said the goblins ; 
and forthwith it was done. Now in that hour the usurper 
was lying asleep on the royal bed in his chamber of state. 
And as he slept in all tranquillity, the good king struck 
him with the flat of the sword upon the belly. Waking 
up in a fright, the usurper saw by the lamp-light that it 
was the great King Goodness. Summoning up all his 
courage, he rose from his couch and said: "Sire, it is 
night ; a guard is set ; the doors are barred ; and none 
may enter. How then came you to my bedside, sword in 
hand and clad in robes of splendour ? " Then the king 
told him in detail all the story of his escape. Then the 
usurper's heart was moved within him, and he cried, " O 
king, I, though blessed with human nature, knew not 
your goodness ; but knowledge thereof was given to the 
fierce and cruel goblins, whose food is flesh and blood. 
Henceforth, I, sire, will not plot against such signal virtue 
as you possess." So saying, he swore an oath of friendship 
upon his sword and begged the king's forgiveness. And 
he made the king lie down upon the bed of state, while 
he stretched himself upon a little couch. 

On the morrow at daybreak, when the sun had risen, 
his whole host of every rank and degree was mustered by 
beat of drum at the usurper's command; in their presence 
he extolled King Goodness, as if raising the full-moon on 
high in the heavens ; and right before them all, he again 
asked the king's forgiveness and gave him back his king- 
dom, saying, "Henceforth, let it be my charge to deal 
with rebels ; rule thou thy kingdom, with me to keep 
watch and ward." And so saying, he passed sentence on 
the slanderous traitor, and with his troops and elephants 
went back to his own kingdom. 


Seated in majesty and splendour beneath a white 
umbrella of sovereignty upon a throne of gold with legs 
as of a gazelle, the great King Goodness contemplated 
his own glory and thought thus within himself: "Had 
I not persevered, I should not be in the enjoyment of this 
magnificence, nor would my thousand ministers be still 
numbered among the living. It was by perseverance that 
I recovered the royal state I had lost, and saved the lives 
of my thousand ministers. Verily, we should strive on 
unremittingly with dauntless hearts, seeing that the fruit 
of perseverance is so excellent." And therewithal the 
king broke into this heartfelt utterance: 

Toil on, my brother; still in hope stand fast; 

Nor let thy courage flag- and tire. 
Myself I see, who, all my woes o'erpast, 

Am master of my heart's desire. 

Thus spoke the Bodhisatta in the fulness of his heart, 
declaring how sure it is that the earnest effort of the 
good will come to maturity. After a life spent in right- 
doing he passed away to fare thereafter according to his 

Variant of Jat. 282, 303. Tawney (Journ. Philol. xu. 120) compares the escape 
of Sigmund from the wolf in the Volsunga Saga ( The Story of the Volsungs, tr. 
Magnusson and Morris, v.). The moral of the tale is the buddhist doctrine of non- 
resistance to evil, but the moral of perseverance expressed in the verses appears to 
belong to an earlier non-buddhistic version of the tale. 


Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, it was as his queen's child that the Bodhisatta 
came to life once more. On the day when he was to 
be named, the parents enquired as to their child's destiny 
from eight hundred brahmins, to whom they gave their 
hearts' desire in all pleasures of sense. Marking the 


promise which he shewed of a glorious destiny, these 
clever soothsaying brahmins foretold that, coming to the 
throne at the king's death, the child should be a mighty 
king endowed with everv virtue ; famed and renowned for 


his exploits with five weapons, he should stand peerless in 
all Jambudlpa 1 . And because of this prophecy of the brah- 
mins, the parents named their son Prince Five- Weapons. 

Now, when the prince was come to years of discretion, 
and was sixteen years old, the king bade him go away 
and study. 

" With whom, sire, am I to study ? " asked the prince. 

" With the world-famed teacher in the town of Takka- 
sila in the Gandhara country. Here is his fee," said the 
king, handing his son a thousand pieces. 

So the prince went to Takkasila and was taught there. 
When he was leaving, his master gave him a set of five 
weapons, armed with which, after bidding adieu to his old 
master, the prince set out from Takkasila for Benares. 

On his way he came to a forest haunted by a goblin 
named Hairy -grip ; and, at the entrance to the forest, 
men who met him tried to stop him, saying : " Young 
student, do not go through that forest; it is the haunt 
of the goblin Hairy -grip, and he kills every one he meets." 
But, bold as a lion, the self-reliant Bodhisatta pressed on, 
till in the heart of the forest he came on the goblin. The 
monster made himself appear in stature as tall as a palm- 
tree, with a head as big as an arbour and huge eyes like 
bowls, with two tusks like turnips and the beak of a 
hawk ; his belly was blotched with purple ; and the palms 
of his hands and the soles of his feet were blue-black ! 
" Whither away ? " cried the monster. " Halt ! you are my 

1 This was one of the four islands of which the earth was supposed to consist ; 
it included India, and represented the inhabited world to the Indian mind. 


prey." " Goblin," answered the Bodhisatta, " I knew what 
I was doing when entering this forest. You will be ill- 
advised to come near me. For with a poisoned arrow 
I will slay you where you stand." And with this defiance, 
he fitted to his bow an arrow dipped in deadliest poison 
and shot it at the goblin. But it only stuck on to the 
monster's shaggy coat. Then he shot another and another, 
till fifty were spent, all of which merely stuck on to the 
goblin's shaggy coat. Hereon the goblin, shaking the 
arrows oft' so that they fell at his feet, came at the Bod- 
hisatta ; and the latter, again shouting defiance, drew his 
sword and struck at the goblin. But, like the arrows, his 
sword, which was thirty-three inches long, merely stuck 
fast in the shaggy hair. Next the Bodhisatta hurled his 
spear, and that stuck fast also. Seeing this, he smote the 
goblin with his club; but, like his other weapons, that 
too stuck fast. And thereupon the Bodhisatta shouted, 
" Goblin, you never heard yet of me, Prince Five-Weapons. 
When I ventured into this forest, I put my trust not in 
my bow and other weapons, but in myself! Now will 
I strike you a blow which shall crush you into dust." So 
saying, the Bodhisatta smote the goblin with his right 
hand ; but the hand stuck fast upon the hair. Then, in 
turn, with his left hand and with his right and left feet, 
he struck at the monster, but hand and feet alike clave to 
the hide. Again shouting "I will crush you into dust !" he 
butted the goblin with his head, and that too stuck fast. 

Yet even when thus caught and snared in fivefold wise, 
the Bodhisatta, as he hung upon the goblin, was still 
fearless, still undaunted. And the monster thought to 
himself, " This is a very lion among men, a hero without 
a peer, and no mere man. Though he is caught in the 
clutches of a goblin like me, yet not so much as a tremor 


will he exhibit. Never, since I first took to slaying 
travellers upon this road, have I seen a man to equal 
him. How comes it that he is not frightened?" Not 
daring to devour the Bodhisatta offhand, he said, " HOW 
is it, young student, that you have no fear of death ? " 

"Why should I?" answered the Bodhisatta. "Each 
life must surely have its destined death. Moreover, 
within my body is a sword of adamant, which you will 
never digest, if you eat me. It will chop your inwards 
into mincemeat, and my death will involve yours too. 
Therefore it is that I have no fear." (By this, it is said, 
the Bodhisatta meant the Sword of Knowledge, which 
was within him.) 

Hereon, the goblin fell a-thinking. " This young 
student is speaking the truth and nothing but the truth," 
thought he. " Not a morsel so big as a pea could I digest 
of such a hero. I'll let him go." And so, in fear of his 
life, he let the Bodhisatta go free, saying, " Young student, 
you are a lion among men ; I will not eat you. Go forth 
from my hand, even as the moon from the jaws of Rahu, 
and return to gladden the hearts of your kinsfolk, your 
friends, and your country/' 

" As for myself, goblin," answered the Bodhisatta, " I 
will go. As for you, it was your sins in bygone days that 
caused you to be re-born a ravening, murderous, flesh- 
eating goblin ; and, if you continue in sin in this existence, 
you will go on from darkness to darkness. But, having 
seen me, you will be unable thenceforth to sin any more. 
Know that to destroy life is to ensure re-birth either in 
hell or as a brute or as a ghost or as a titan. Or, if the 
re-birth be into the world of men, then such siu cuts short 
the davs of a man's life." 


In this and other ways the Bodhisatta shewed the evil 


consequences of the five bad courses, and the blessing 
that comes of the Five Commandments ; and so wrought in 
divers ways upon that goblin's fears that by his teaching 
he converted the monster, imbuing him with self-denial 
and establishing him in the Five Commandments. Then 
making the goblin the divinity of that forest, with a right 
to receive offerings, and charging him to remain steadfast, 
the Bodhisatta went his way, making known the change in 
the goblin's mood as he issued from the forest. And in 
the end he came, armed with the five weapons, to the 
city of Benares, and presented himself before his parents. 
In later days, when king, he was a righteous ruler ; and 
after a life spent in charity and other good works he 
passed away to fare thereafter according to his deserts. 

In Sam-Nik, an earlier form of the tale occurs as the parable of a monkey whose 
limbs and head are caught in an adhesive substance, set as a trap by hunters. Of. Mrs 
Rhys Davids, Budd. Psychol. p. 35. The Wonderful Tar-baby ( J. C. Harris, Uncle 
Remus] which according to Jacobs (p. 136) is " perhaps the most remarkable instance 
of the insidious spread of buddhistic tales." See A. Werner, The Tar-Baby Story, 
Folklore, x. 282, and more of Mr Jacobs' theories in his Indian Fairy Tales, 251 ff. 


Once on a time w r hen Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta came to life as the child of the 
Queen-consort. When he grew up, he mastered every 
accomplishment ; and when, at his father's death, he came 
to be king, he proved a righteous king. Now he used to 
play at dice with his family priest, and, as he flung the 
golden dice upon the silver dice-board, he would sing this 

catch for luck : 

'Tis nature's law that rivers wind; 
Trees grow of wood by law of kind; 
And, given opportunity, 
All women w r ork iniquity. 


As these lines always made the king win the game, the 
priest was in a fair way to lose every penny he had in the 
world. And, in order to save himself from utter ruin, he 
resolved to seek out a little maid that had never seen 
another man, and then to keep her under lock and key in 
his own house. " For," thought he, " I couldn't manage to 
look after a girl who has seen another man. So I must 
take a new-born baby girl, and keep her under my thumb 
as she grows up, with a close guard over her, so that none 
may come near her and that she may be true to one man. 
Then I shall win of the king, and grow rich." Now he was 
skilled in bodily signs; and seeing a poor woman who 
was about to become a mother, and knowing that her 
child would be a girl, he paid the woman to come and be 
confined in his house, and sent her away after her confine- 
ment with a present. The infant was brought up entirely 
by women, and no men other than himself were ever 
allowed to set eyes on her. When the girl grew up, she 
was subject to him and he was her master. 

Now, while the girl was growing up, the priest forbore 
to play with the king ; but when she was grown up and 
under his own control, he challenged the king to a game. 
The king accepted, and play began. But, when in throwing 
the dice the king sang his lucky catch, the priest added, 
-"always excepting my girl." And then luck changed, 
and it was now the priest who won, while the king lost. 

Thinking the matter over, the Bodhisatta suspected 
the priest had a virtuous girl shut up in his house ; and 
enquiry proved his suspicions true. Then, in order to 
work her fall, he sent for a clever scamp, and asked 
whether he thought he could seduce the girl. " Certainly, 
sire," said the fellow. So the king gave him money, and 
sent him away with orders to lose no time. 


With the king's money the fellow bought perfumes 
and incense and aromatics of all sorts, and opened a per- 
fumery shop close to the priest's house. Now the priest's 
house was seven stories high, and had seven gateways, at 
each of which a guard was set, a guard of women only, 
and no man but the brahmin himself was ever allowed to 
enter. The verv baskets that contained the dust and 


sweepings were examined before they were passed in. 
Only the priest was allowed to see the girl, and she had 
only a single waiting-woman. This woman had money 
given her to buy flowers and perfumes for her mistress, 
and on her way she used to pass near the shop which the 
scamp had opened. And he, knowing very well that she 
was the girl's attendant, watched one day for her coming, 
and, rushing out of his shop, fell at her feet, clasping her 
feet tightly with both hands and blubbering out, " O my 
mother ! where have you been all this long time ? " 

And his confederates, who stood by his side, cried, 
" What a likeness ! Hand and foot, face and figure, even 
in style of dress, they are identical ! " As one and all 
kept dwelling on the marvellous likeness, the poor woman 
lost her head. Crying out that it must be her boy, she 
too burst into tears. And with weeping and tears the 
two fell to embracing one another. Then said the man, 
"Where are you living, mother?" 

"Up at the priest's, my son. He has a young wife 
of peerless beauty, a very goddess for grace ; and I'm her 
waiting-woman." "And whither away now, mother?" "To 
buy her perfumes and flowers." " Why go elsewhere for 
them ? Come to me for them in future," said the fellow. 
And he gave the woman betel, bdellium, and so forth, and 
all kinds of flowers, refusing all payment. Struck with the 
quantity of flowers and perfumes which the waiting-woman 

P. & T. 5 


brought home, the girl asked why the brahmin was so 
pleased with her that day. " Why do you say that, my 
dear?" asked the old woman. "Because of the quantity 
of things you have brought home." " No, it isn't that the 
brahmin was free with his money," said the old woman ; 
" for I got them at my son's." And from that day forth she 
kept the money the brahmin gave her, and got her flowers 
and other things free of charge at the man's shop. 

And he, a few days later, made out to be ill, and took 
to his bed. So when the old Avoman came to the shop 
and asked for her son, she was told he had been taken ill. 
Hastening to his side, she fondly stroked his shoulders, 
as she asked what ailed him. But he made no reply. 
" Why don't you tell me, my son ? " " Not even if I were 
dying, could I tell you, mother." " But, if you don't tell 
me, whom are you to tell?" "Well then, mother, my 
malady lies solely in this that, hearing the praises of your 
young mistress's beauty, I have fallen in love with her. 
If I win her, I shall live ; if not, this will be my death-bed." 
" Leave that to me, my boy," said the old woman cheerily ; 
" and don't worry yourself on this account," Then with 
a heavy load of perfumes and flowers to take with her 
she went home, and said to the brahmin's young wife, 
" Alas ! here's my son in love with you, merely because 
I told him how beautiful you are ! What is to be done ? " 

" If you can smuggle him in here," replied the girl, 
" you have my leave." 

Hereupon the old woman set to work sweeping together 
all the dust she could find in the house from top to 
bottom ; this dust she put into a huge flower-basket, and 
tried to pass out with it. When the usual search was 
made, she emptied dust over the woman on guard, who 
fled away under such ill-treatment. In like manner she 


dealt with all the other watchers, smothering in dust each 
one in turn that said anything to her. And so it came to 
pass from that time forward that, no matter what the old 
woman took in or out of the house, there was nobody bold 
enough to search her. Now was the time ! The old 
woman smuggled the scamp into the house in a flower- 
basket, and brought him to her young mistress. He 
succeeded in wrecking the girl's virtue, and actually stayed 
a day or two in the upper rooms, hiding when the priest 
was at home, and enjoying the society of his mistress when 
the priest was off the premises. A day or two passed and 
the girl said to her lover, " Sweetheart, you must be going 
now." " Very well ; only I must cuff the brahmin first." 
" Certainly," said she, and hid the scamp. Then, when the 
brahmin came in again, she exclaimed. "Oh, my dear 
husband, I should so like to dance, if you would play the 
lute for me." " Dance away, my dear," said the priest, and 
struck up forthwith. " But I shall be too ashamed, if 
you're looking. Let me hide your handsome face first 
with a cloth ; and then I will dance." " All right," said 
he ; " if you're too modest to dance otherwise." So she 
took a thick cloth and tied it over the brahmin's face so 
as to blindfold him. And, blindfolded as he was, the 
brahmin began to play the lute. After dancing awhile, 
she cried, " My dear, I should so like to hit you once 
on the head." " Hit away," said the unsuspecting dotard. 
Then the girl made a sign to her paramour ; and he softly 
stole up behind the brahmin and smote him on the head. 
Such was the force of the blow, that the brahmin's eyes 
were like to start out of his head, and a bump rose up on 
the spot. Smarting with pain, he called to the girl to give 
him her hand ; and she placed it in his. " Ah ! it's a soft 
hand," said he ; " but it hits hard ! " 



Now, as soon as the scamp had struck the brahmin, he 
hid ; and when he was hidden, the girl took the bandage 
off the priest's eyes and rubbed his bruised head with oil. 
The moment the brahmin went out, the scamp was stowed 
away in his basket again by the old woman, and so carried 
out of the house. Making his way at once to the king, he 
told him the whole adventure. 

Accordingly, when the brahmin was next in attendance, 
the king proposed a game with the dice ; the brahmin was 
willing; and the king caused the gaming-circle to be 
drawn 1 . As the king made his throw, he sang his old catch, 
and the brahmin ignorant of the girl's naughtiness added 
his "always excepting my girl," -and nevertheless lost! 

Then the king, who did know what had passed, said to 
his priest, " Why except her ? Her virtue has given way. 
Ah, you dreamed that by taking a girl in the hour of her 
birth and by placing a sevenfold guard round her, you 
could be certain of her. Why, you couldn't be certain of 
a woman, even if you had her inside you and always 
walked about with her. No woman is ever faithful to one 
man alone. As for that girl of yours, she told you she 
should like to dance, and having first blindfolded you as 
you played the lute to her, she let her paramour strike 
you on the head, and then smuggled him out of the house. 
Where then is your exception ? " And so saying, the king 
repeated this stanza : 

Blindfold, a-luting, by his wife beguiled, 
The brahmin sat, who tried to rear 

A paragon of virtue uudeflled! 
Learn hence to hold the sex in fear. 

1 This was a circle drawn round the players, out of which they could not go with- 
out incurring a curse, until the debts were settled. In Jat. 91 a losing player avoids 
breaking the circle by swallowing one of the dice, and thus stopping the game 


In such wise did the Bodhisatta expound the Truth to 
the brahmin. And the brahmin went home and taxed the 
girl with the wickedness of which she was accused. " My 
dear husband, who can have said such a thing about me?" 
said she. " Indeed I am innocent ; indeed it was my own 
hand, and nobody else's, that struck you ; and, if you do 
not believe me, I will brave the ordeal of fire and swear that 
no man's hand has touched me but yours ; and so I will 
make you believe me." "So be it," said the brahmin. 
And he had a quantity of wood brought and set light to 
it. Then the girl was summoned. " Now," said he, " if you 
believe your own story, brave these flames ! " 

Now before this the girl had instructed her attendant 
as follows: "Tell your son, mother, to be there and to 
seize my hand just as I am about to go into the fire." 
And the old woman did as she was bidden ; and the fellow 
came and took his stand among the crowd. Then, to 
delude the brahmin, the girl, standing there before all the 
people, exclaimed with fervour, " No man's hand but thine, 
brahmin, has ever touched me ; and, by the truth of my 
asseveration I call on this fire to harm me not." So saying, 
she advanced to the burning pile, when up dashed her 
paramour, who seized her by the hand, crying shame on 
the brahmin who could force so fair a maid to enter the 
flames ! Shaking her hand free, the girl exclaimed to the 
brahmin that what she had sworn w r as now undone, and 
that she could not now brave the ordeal of fire. "Why 
not?" said the brahmin. "Because," she replied, "my 
asseveration was that no man's hand but thine had ever 
touched me ; and now here is a man w r ho has seized hold 
of my hand!" But the brahmin, knowing that he was 
tricked, drove her from him with blows. 

Such, we learn, is the wickedness of women. What 


crime will they not commit ; and then, to deceive their 
husbands, what oaths will they not take aye, in the light 
of day that they did it not ! So false-hearted are they ! 
Therefore has it been said : 

A sex composed of wickedness and guile, 
Unknowable, uncertain as the path 
Of fishes in the water, womankind 
Hold truth for falsehood, falsehood for the truth ! 
As greedily as cows seek pastures new, 
Women, unsated, yearn for mate on mate. 
Thievish and cruel as a sweet-voiced snake, 
They know all tricks wherewith to gull mankind. 

Illustrated on the Bharhut Stupa, pi. xxvi. 8. In $uk. xv., a tale of commonplace 
intrigue, the woman when suspected offers to be taken before a yaksha. At the 
ordeal her lover seizes her, as arranged, and she then makes the asseveration that 
with the exception of her husband and this man no man has ever come near her. Cf. 
the similar device of Tristram and Ysonde in Clouston, i. 179. 


This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
about a certain country-woman. 

For it fell out once in Kosala that three men were 
ploughing on the outskirts of a certain forest, and that 
robbers plundered folk in that forest and made their 
escape. The victims came, in the course of a fruitless 
search for the rascals, to where the three men were 
ploughing. " Here are the forest robbers, disguised as 
husbandmen," they cried, and hauled the trio oif as 
prisoners to the King of Kosala. Now time after time 
there came to the king's palace a woman who with loud 
lamentations begged for "wherewith to be covered." 
Hearing her cry, the king ordered a shift to be given her ; 
but she refused it, saying this was not what she meant. 
So the king's servants came back to his majesty and said 


that what the woman wanted was not clothes but a husband. 
Then the king had the woman brought into his presence 
and asked her whether she really did mean a husband. 

" Yes, sire," she answered ; " for a husband is a woman's 
real covering, and she that lacks a husband even though 
she be clad in garments costing a thousand pieces goes 
bare and naked indeed." 

(And to enforce this truth, the following Sutta should 
be recited here : 

Like king-less kingdoms, like a stream run dry, 

So bare and naked is a woman seen, 

Who, having 1 brothers ten, yet lacks a mate.) 

Pleased with the woman's answer, the king asked what 
relation the three prisoners were to her. And she said 
that one was her husband, one her brother, and one her 
son. "Well, to mark my favour," said the king, "I give 
you one of the three. Which will you take ?" " Sire," was 
her answer, "if I live, I can get another husband and 
another son ; but as my parents are dead, I can never get 
another brother. So give me my brother, Sire." Pleased 
with the woman, the king set all three men at liberty ; and 
thus this one woman was the means of saving three persons 
from peril. 

When the matter came to the knowledge of the Brother- 
hood, they were lauding the woman in the Hall of Truth, 
when the Master entered. Learning on enquiry what was 
the subject of their talk, he said, "This is not the first 
time, Brethren, that this woman has saved those three 
from peril ; she did the same in days gone by." And, so 
saying, he told a story of the past. 

The above is the story of the present, the story of the past being merely a sum- 
mary, in which " everything came to pass as above." It also forms the point of Jat. 
517 which is given in Jat. 546 (vol. vi. p. 242). In the Rdmdyana VL 24. 7, 8, when 


Lakshmana is apparently killed, his brother Rama says, almost in the words of the 
gatha : 

Somewhere for me a wife may be, 

A son, or even other kin ; 
But the country I do not see 

In which a brother I might win. 

Cf. the Persian tale of the wife of Intaphernes in Hdt in. 118, 119, who makes 
the same choice. Soph. Ant. 905 ff. Pischel (Hermes, xxvin. 465 ff.) considers it 
probably the oldest example of an Indian thought in a Greek dress. A writer in 
Notes and Queries, Nov. 17, 1866, compares the words of Robert of Normandy when 
besieging Henry in Mont St Michel, "What, shall I suffer my brother to die of 
thirst? Where shall we find another when he is gone?" (Hume, ch. v.), and the 
ballad in Scott, Antiquary, xl. : 

He turned him right and round again, 

Said, scorn na at my mither ; 
Light loves I may get mony a ane, 

But minnie [i.e. mother] ne'er anither. 


Once on a time Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares. 
He had a son named Prince Wicked. Fierce and cruel 
was he, like a scotched snake ; he spoke to nobody without 
abuse or blows. Like grit in the eye was this prince to all 
folk both within and without the palace, or like a ravening 
ogre, so dreaded and fell was he. 

One day, wishing to disport himself in the river, he 
went with a large retinue to the water side. And a great 
storm came on, and utter darkness set in. " Hi there ! " 
cried he to his servants ; " take me into mid-stream, bathe 
me there, and then bring me back again." So they took 
him into mid-stream and there took counsel together, 
saying, " What will he do to us when king ? Let us kill the 
wicked wretch here and now ! So in you go, you pest ! " 
they cried, as they flung him into the water. When they 
made their way ashore, they were asked where the prince 
was, and replied, "We don't see him; finding the storm 


come on, he must have come out of the river and gone 
home ahead of us." 

The courtiers went into the king's presence, and the 
king asked where his son was. "We do not know, sire," 
said they ; " a storm came on, and we came away in the 
belief that he must have gone on ahead." At once the 
king had the gates thrown open ; down to the riverside he 
went and bade diligent search be made up and down for 
the missing prince. But no trace of him could be found. 
For, in the darkness of the storm, he had been swept away 
by the current, and, coming across a tree-trunk, had 
climbed on to it, and so floated down stream, crying 
lustily in the agony of his fear of drowning. 

Now there had been a gild-merchant living in those 
days at Benares, who had died, leaving forty crores buried 
in the banks of that same river. And because of his 
craving for riches, he was re-born as a snake at the spot 
under which lay his dear treasure. And also in the self- 
same spot another man had hidden thirty crores, and 
because of his craving for riches 1 , was re-born as a rat at 
the same spot. In rushed the water into their dwelling- 
place ; and the two creatures, escaping by the way by 
which the water rushed in, were making their w r ay athwart 
the stream, when they chanced upon the tree-trunk to 
which the prince was clinging. The snake climbed up at 
one end, and the rat at the other; and so both got a 
footing with the prince on the trunk. 

Also there grew on the river's bank a Silk-cotton tree, 
in which lived a young parrot; and this tree, being up- 
rooted by the swollen waters, fell into the river. The 
heavy rain beat down the parrot when it tried to fly, and 
it alighted in its fall upon this same tree-trunk. And so 

1 Cf. Jat. 137, p. 118. 


there were now these four floating down stream together 
upon the tree. 

Now the Bodhisatta had been re-born in those days as 
a brahmin in the North-West country. Renouncing the 
world for the hermit's life on reaching manhood, he had 
built himself a hermitage by a bend of the river; and 
there he was now living. As he was pacing to and fro, at 
midnight, he heard the loud cries of the prince, and 
thought thus within himself: "This fellow-creature must 
not perish thus before the eyes of so merciful and com- 
passionate a hermit as I am. I will rescue him from the 
water, and save his life." So he shouted cheerily, " Be not 
afraid ! Be not afraid ! " and plunging across stream, 
seized hold of the tree by one end, and, being as strong 
as an elephant, drew it in to the bank with one long pull, 
and set the prince safe and sound upon the shore. Then 
becoming aware of the snake and the rat and the parrot, 
he carried them to his hermitage, and there lighting a fire, 
warmed the animals first, as being the weaker, and after- 
wards the prince. This done, he brought fruits of various 
kinds and set them before his guests, looking after the 
animals first and the prince afterwards. This enraged the 
young prince, who said within himself, "This rascally hermit 
pays no respect to my royal birth, but actually gives brute 
beasts precedence over me." And he conceived hatred 
against the Bodhisatta. 

A few days later, when all four had recovered their 
strength and the waters had subsided, the snake bade 
farewell to the hermit with these words, "Father, you have 
done me a great service. I am not poor, for I have forty 
crores of gold hidden at a certain spot. Should you ever 
want money, all my hoard shall be yours. You have only 
to come to the spot and call ' Snake.' ' Next the rat took 


his leave with a like promise to the hermit as to his 
treasure, bidding the hermit come and call out " Rat." 
Then the parrot bade farewell, saying, " Father, silver and 
gold have I none; but should you ever want for choice 
rice, come to where I dwell and call out 'Parrot'; and 
I with the aid of my kinsfolk will give you many waggon- 
loads of rice." Last came the prince. His heart was filled 
with base ingratitude and with a determination to put his 
benefactor to death, if the Bodhisatta should come to visit 
him. But, concealing his intent, he said, "Come, father, to 
me when I am king, and I will bestow on you the Four 
Requisites." So saying, he took his departure, and not 
long after succeeded to the throne. 

The desire came on the Bodhisatta to put their pro- 
fessions to the test ; and first of all he went to the snake 
and standing hard by its abode, called out " Snake." At 
the word the snake darted forth and with every mark of 
respect said, " Father, in this place there are forty crores 
in gold. Dig them up and take them all." " It is well," 
said the Bodhisatta ; "when I need them, I will not forget." 
Then bidding adieu to the snake, he went on to where the 
rat lived, and called out " Rat." And the rat did as the 
snake had done. Going next to the parrot, and calling 
out " Parrot," the bird at once flew down at his call from 
the tree-top, and respectfully asked whether it was the 
Bodhisatta's wish that he with the aid of his kinsfolk 
should gather paddy for the Bodhisatta from the region 
round the Himalayas. The Bodhisatta dismissed the 
parrot also with a promise that, if need arose, he would 
not forget the bird's offer. Last of all, being minded to 
test the king in his turn, the Bodhisatta came to the royal 
pleasaunce, and on the day after his arrival made his way, 
carefully dressed, into the city on his round for alms. 


Just at that moment, the ungrateful king, seated in all his 
royal splendour on his elephant of state, was passing in 
rightwise procession round the city followed by a vast 
retinue. Seeing the Bodhisatta from afar, he thought to 
himself, " Here's that rascally hermit come to quarter him- 
self and his appetite on me. I must have his head off 
before he can publish to the world the service he rendered 
me." With this intent, he signed to his attendants, aud, 
on their asking what was his pleasure, said, "Methinks 
yonder rascally hermit is here to importune me. See that 
the ill-omened ascetic does not look at me, but seize and 
bind him ; flog him at every street-corner ; and then march 
him out of the city, chop off his head at the place of 
execution, and impale his body on a stake." 

Obedient to their king's command, the attendants laid 
the innocent Great Being in bonds and flogged him at 
every street-corner on the way to the place of execution. 
But all their floggings failed to move the Bodhisatta or to 
wring from him any cry of " Oh, my mother and father ! " 
All he did was to repeat this stanza : 

They knew the world, who framed this proverb true 
"A log pays better salvage than some men." 

These lines he repeated wherever he was flogged, till at 
last the wise among the bystanders asked the hermit what 
service he had rendered to their king. Then the Bod- 
hisatta told the whole story, ending with the words, "So 
it comes to pass that by rescuing him from the torrent 
I brought all this woe upon myself. And when I bethink 
me how I have left unheeded the words of the wise of old, 
I exclaim as you have heard." 

Filled with indignation at the recital, the nobles and 
brahmins and all classes with one accord cried out, " This 
ungrateful king does not recognise even the goodness of 


this good man who saved his majesty's life. How can we 
have any profit from this king ? Seize the tyrant ! " And 
in their anger they rushed upon the king from every side, 
and slew him there and then, as he rode on his elephant, 
with arrows and javelins and stones and clubs and any 
weapons that came to hand. The corpse they dragged by 
the heels to a ditch and flung it in. Then they anointed 
the Bodhisatta king and set him to rule over them. 

As he was ruling in righteousness, one day the desire 
came on him again to try the snake and the rat and the 
parrot ; and followed by a large retinue, he came to where 
the snake dwelt. At the call of "Snake," out came the 
snake from his hole and with every mark of respect said, 
" Here, my lord, is your treasure ; take it." Then the king 
delivered the forty crores of gold to his attendants, and 
proceeding to where the rat dwelt, called "Rat." Out 
came the rat, and saluted the king, and gave up its thirty 
crores. Placing this treasure too in the hands of his 
attendants, the king went on to where the parrot dwelt, 
and called " Parrot." And in like manner the bird came, 
and bowing down at the king's feet asked whether it 
should collect rice for his majesty. " We will not trouble 
you," said the king, "till rice is needed. Now let us be 
going/' So with the seventy crores of gold, and with the 
rat, the snake, and the parrot as well, the king journeyed 
back to the city. Here, in a noble palace, to the state- 
story of which he mounted, he caused the treasure to be 
lodged and guarded ; he had a golden tube made for the 
snake to dwell in, a crystal casket to house the rat, and 
a cage of gold for the parrot. Every day too by the king's 
command food was served to the three creatures in vessels 
of gold, sweet parched-corn for the parrot and snake, 
and scented rice for the rat. And the king abounded 


in charity and all good works. Thus in harmony and 
goodwill one with another, these four lived their lives ; and 
when their end came, they passed away to fare according 
to their deserts. 

A much modified version of The grateful Beasts and the ungrateful Man, P. 
(B.) I., Suppl. ii., K. D. (Arab.) ch. xvn. where the ungrateful man is a goldsmith, and 
the gratitude of the tiger and snake is skilfully made the means of saving the brahmin 
and bringing punishment on the ungrateful man. In Som. LXV. (ii. 103) the tale is 
a jataka, and the ungrateful person a woman. Tib. T. xxvi. is more closely related 
to P. than to the jataka. Gesta Rom. 119 (111). Cf. Clouston, i. 223, The thankful 


This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana 
about sixteen wonderful dreams. For in the last watch 
of one night (so tradition says) the King of Kosala, who 
had been asleep all the night, dreamed sixteen great 
dreams, and woke up in great fright and alarm as to what 
they might portend for him. So strong was the fear of 
death upon him that he could not stir, but lay there 
huddled up on his bed. Now 7 , when the night grew light, 
his brahmins and chaplains came to him and with due 
obeisance asked whether his majesty had slept well. 

" How could I sleep well, my directors ? " answered the 
king. "For just at daybreak I dreamed sixteen wonderful 
dreams, and I have been in terror ever since ! Tell me, my 
directors, what it all means." 

"We shall be able to judge, on hearing them." 

Then the king told them his dreams, and asked what 
those visions would entail upon him. 

The brahmins fell a-wringing their hands ! " Why wring 
your hands, brahmins ? " asked the king. " Because, sire, 
these are evil dreams." " What will come of them ? " said 


the king. " One of three calamities, harm to your king- 
dom, to your life, or to your riches." " Is there a remedy, 
or is there not ? ' " Undoubtedly these dreams in them- 
selves are so threatening as to be without remedy; but 
none the less we will find a remedy for them. Otherwise, 
what boots our much study and learning ? ' " What then 
do you propose to do to avert the evil ? " " Wherever four 
roads meet, we would offer sacrifice, sire." " My directors," 
cried the king in his terror, "my life is in your hands; 
make haste and work my safety." " Large sums of money, 
and large supplies of food of every kind will be ours," 
thought the exultant brahmins ; and, bidding the king 
have no fear, they departed from the palace. Outside 
the town they dug a sacrificial pit and collected a host of 
fourfooted creatures, perfect and without blemish, and 
a multitude of birds. But still they discovered something 
lacking, and back they kept coming to the king to ask for 
this that and the other. Now their doings were watched 
by Queen Mallika, who came to the king and asked what 
made these brahmins keep coming to him. 

" I envy you," said the king ; " a snake in your ear, and 
you not to know of it!" "What does your majesty 
mean ? " "I have dreamed, oh such unlucky dreams ! 
The brahmins tell me they point to one of three calamities ; 
and they are anxious to offer sacrifices to avert the evil. 
And this is what brings them here so often." "But has 
your majesty consulted the Chief Brahmin both of this 
world and of the world of gods ? " " Who, pray, may he 
be, my dear ? " asked the king. " Know you not that 
chiefest personage of all the world, the all-knoAving and 
pure, the spotless master-brahmin ? Surely, he, the Lord 
Buddha, will understand your dreams. Go, ask him." " And 
so I will, my queen," said the king. And away he went to 


the monastery, saluted the Master, and sat down. " What, 
pray, brings your majesty here so early in the morning?" 
asked the Master in his sweet tones. " Sir," said the king, 
"just before daybreak I dreamed sixteen wonderful 
dreams, which so terrified me that I told them to the 
brahmins. They told me that my dreams boded evil, and 
that to avert the threatened calamity they must offer 
sacrifice wherever four roads met. And so they are busy 
w r ith then* preparations, and many living creatures have 
the fear of death before their eyes. But I pray you, who 
are the chiefest personage in the world of men and gods, 
you into whose ken comes all possible knowledge of things 
past and present and to be, I pray you tell me what will 
come of my dreams, Lord." 

" True it is, sire, that there is none other save me, who 
can tell what your dreams signify or what will come of 
them. I will tell you. Only first of all relate to me your 
dreams as they appeared to you." 

" I will, sir," said the king, and at once began this list, 
following the order of the dreams' appearance : 

Bulls first, and trees, and cows, and calves, 

Horse, dish, she-jackal, waterpot, 

A pond, raw rice, and sandal-wood, 

And gourds that sank, and stones that swam, 

"With frogs that gobbled up black snakes, 

A crow with gold-plumed retinue, 

And wolves in panic-fear of goats ! 

" How was it, sir, that I had the following one of my 
dreams? Methought, four black bulls, like collyrium in 
hue, came from the four cardinal directions to the royal 
courtyard with avowed intent to fight ; and people flocked 
together to see the bull-fight, till a great crowd had 
gathered. But the bulls only made a show of fighting, 
roared and bellowed, and finally went off without fighting 


at all. This was my first dream. What will come 
of it ? " 

" Sire, that dream shall have no issue in your days or 
in mine. But hereafter, when kings shall be niggardly and 
unrighteous, and when folk shall be unrighteous, in days 
when the world is perverted, when good is waning and evil 
waxing apace, in those days of the world's backsliding 
there shall fall no rain from the heavens, the feet of the 
storm shall be lamed, the crops shall wither, and famine 
shall be on the land. Then shall the clouds gather as if 
for rain from the four quarters of the heavens ; there shall 
be haste first to carry indoors the rice and crops that the 
women have spread in the sun to dry, for fear the harvest 
should get wet ; and then with spade and basket in hand 
the men shall go forth to bank up the dykes. As though 
in sign of coming rain, the thunder shall bellow, the 
lightning shall flash from the clouds, but even as the 
bulls in your dream, that fought not, so the clouds shall 
flee away without raining. This is what shall come of this 
dream. But no harm shall come therefrom to you ; for it 
was with regard to the future that you dreamed this 
dream. What the brahmins told you, was said only to get 
themselves a livelihood." And when the Master had thus 
told the fulfilment of this dream, he said, " Tell me your 
second dream, sire." 

" Sir," said the king, " my second dream was after this 
manner: Methought little tiny trees and shrubs burst 
through the soil, and wiien they had grown scarce a span 
or two high, they flowered and bore fruit ! This was my 
second dream ; what shall come of it ? " 

"Sire," said the Master, "this dream shall have its 
fulfilment in days when the world has fallen into decay 
and when men are shortlived. In times to come the 

F. &T. 6 


passions shall be strong ; quite young girls shall go to live 
with men, it shall be with them after the manner of women, 
and they shall conceive and bear children. The flowers 
typify their issues, and the fruit their offspring. But you, 
sire, have nothing to fear therefrom. Tell me your third 
dream, O great king." 

" Methought, sir, I saw cows sucking the milk of calves 
which they had borne that selfsame day. This was my 
third dream. What shall come of it ? " 

" This dream too shall have its fulfilment only in days 
to come, when respect shall cease to be paid to age. For 
in the future men, shewing no reverence for parents or 
parents-in-law, shall themselves administer the family 
estate, and, if such be their good pleasure, shall bestow 
food and clothing on the old folks, but shall withhold their 
gifts, if it be not their pleasure to give. Then shall the old 
folks, destitute and dependent, exist by favour of their own 
children, like big cows suckled by calves a day old. But 
you have nothing to fear therefrom. Tell me your fourth 

"Methought, sir, I saw men unyoking a team of 
draught-oxen, sturdy and strong, and setting young steers 
to draw the load ; and the steers, proving unequal to the 
task laid on them, refused and stood stock-still, so that 
wains moved not on their way. This was my fourth dream. 
What shall come of it ? " 

"Here again the dream shall not have its fulfilment 
until the future, in the days of unrighteous kings. For in 
days to come, unrighteous and niggardly kings shall shew 
no honour to wise lords skilled in precedent, fertile in 
expedient, and able to get through business; nor shall 
appoint to the courts of law and justice aged councillors 
of wisdom and of learning in the law. Nay, they shall 


honour the very young and foolish, and appoint such to 
preside in the courts. And these latter, ignorant alike of 
state-craft and of practical knowledge, shall not be able to 
bear the burthen of their honours or to govern, but because 
of their incompetence shall throw off the yoke of office. 
Whereon the aged and wise lords, albeit right able to cope 
with all difficulties, shall keep in mind how they were 
passed over, and shall decline to aid, saying : ' It is no 
business of ours; we are outsiders; let the boys of the 
inner circle see to it.' Hence they shall stand aloof, and 
ruin shall assail those kings on every hand. It shall be 
even as when the yoke was laid on the young steers, who 
were not strong enough for the burthen, and not upon the 
team of sturdy and strong draught-oxen, who alone were 
able to do the work. Howbeit, you have nothing to fear 
therefrom. Tell me your fifth dream." 

" Methought, sir, I saw a horse with a mouth on either 
side, to which fodder was given on both sides, and it ate 
with both its mouths. This was my fifth dream. What 
shall come of it?" 

" This dream too shall have its fulfilment only in the 
future, in the days of unrighteous and foolish kings, who 
shall appoint unrighteous and covetous men to be judges. 
These base ones, fools, despising the good, shall take bribes 
from both sides as they sit in the seat of judgment, and 
shall be filled with this twofold corruption, evea as the 
horse that ate fodder with two mouths at once. Howbeit, 
you have nothing to fear therefrom. Tell me your sixth 

"Methought, sir, I saw people holding out a well- 
scoured golden bowl worth a hundred thousand pieces, and 
begging an old jackal to stale therein. And I saw the beast 
do so. This was my sixth dream. What shall come of it ? " 



"This dream too shall only have its fulfilment in the 


future. For in the days to come, unrighteous kings, 
though sprung of a race of kings, mistrusting the scions 
of their old nobility, shall not honour them, but exalt in 
their stead the low-born; whereby the nobles shall be 
brought low and the low-born raised to lordship. Then 
shall the great families be brought by very need to seek 
to live by dependence on the upstarts, and shall offer them 
their daughters in marriage. And the union of the noble 
maidens with the low-born shall be like unto the staling of 
the old jackal in the golden bowl. Howbeit, you have 
nothing to fear therefrom. Tell me your seventh dream." 

"A man was weaving rope, sir, and as he wove, he threw 
it down at his feet. Under his bench lay a hungry she- 
jackal, which kept eating the rope as he wove, but without 
the man knowing it. This is what I saw. This was my 
seventh dream. What shall come of it?" 1 

"This dream too shall not have its fulfilment till the 
future. For in days to come, women shall lust after men 
and strong drink and finery and gadding abroad and after 
the joys of this world. In their wickedness and profligacy 
these women shall drink strong drink with their para- 
mours; they shall flaunt in garlands and perfumes and 
unguents ; and heedless of even the most pressing of their 
household duties, they shall keep watching for their 
paramours, even at crevices high up in the outer wall ; 
aye, they shall pound up the very seed-corn that should 
be sown on the morrow so as to provide good cheer ; in 
all these ways shall they plunder the store won by the 
hard work of their husbands in field and byre, devouring 

1 In one of the paintings of Polygnotus in the Lesche at Delphi Pausanias (x. 29) 
describes a figure of Indolence (Oknos), represented as plaiting a rope, which a she- 
ass furtively eats as fast as he plaits it. See Frazer ad loc., who mentions six 
existing representations of the subject in ancient art. 


the poor men's substance even as the hungry jackal under 
the bench ate up the rope of the rope-maker as he wove it. 
Howbeit, you have nothing to fear therefrom. Tell me 
your eighth dream." 

" Methought, sir, I saw at a palace gate a big pitcher 
which was full to the brim and stood amid a number 
of empty ones. And from the four cardinal points, and 
from the four intermediate points as well, there kept 
coming a constant stream of people of all the four castes, 
carrying water in pipkins and pouring it into the full 
pitcher. And the water overflowed and ran away. But 
none the less they still kept on pouring more and more 
water into the overflowing vessel, without a single man 
giving so much as a glance at the empty pitchers. This 
was my eighth dream. What shall come of it ? " 

" This dream too shall not have its fulfilment until the 
future. For in days to come the world shall decay; the 
kingdom shall grow weak, its kings shall grow poor and 
niggardly ; the foremost among them shall have no more 
than 100,000 pieces of money in his treasury. Then shall 
these kings in their need set the whole of the country-folk 
to work for them; for the kings' sake shall the toiling 
folk, leaving their own work, sow grain and pulse, and keep 
watch and reap and thresh and garner ; for the kings' sake 
shall they plant sugar-canes, make and drive sugar-mills, 
and boil down the molasses ; for the kings' sake shall they 
lay out flower-gardens and orchards, and gather in the 
fruits. And as they gather in all the divers kinds of 

/ d7 

produce they shall fill the royal garners to overflowing, not 
giving so much as a glance at their own empty barns at 
home. Thus it shall be like filling up the full pitcher, 
heedless of the quite-empty ones. Howbeit, you have 
nothing to fear therefrom. Tell me your ninth dream." 


" Methought, sir, I saw a deep pool with shelving banks 
all round and overgrown with the five kinds of lotuses. 
From every side two-footed creatures and four-footed 
creatures flocked thither to drink of its waters. The 
depths in the middle were muddy, but the water was clear 
and sparkling at the margin where the various creatures 
went down into the pool. This was my ninth dream. 
What shall come of it ? " 

"This dream too shall not have its fulfilment till the 
future. For in days to come kings shall grow unrighteous ; 
they shall rule after their own will and pleasure, and shall 
not execute judgment according to righteousness. These 
kings shall hunger after riches and wax fat on bribes; 
they shall not shew mercy, love and compassion toward 
their people, but be fierce and cruel, amassing wealth by 
crushing their subjects like sugar-canes in a mill and by 
taxing them even to the uttermost farthing. Unable to 
pay the oppressive tax, the people shall fly from village 
and town and the like, and take refuge upon the borders 
of the realm ; the heart of the land shall be a Avilderness, 
while the borders shall teem with people, even as the 
water was muddy in the middle of the pool and clear at 
the margin. Howbeit, you have nothing to fear therefrom. 
Tell me your tenth dream." 

"Methought, sir, I saw rice boiling in a pot without 
getting done. By not getting done, I mean that it looked 
as though it were sharply marked off' and kept apart, so 
that the cooking went on in three distinct stages. For part 
was sodden, part hard and raw, and part just cooked to a 
nicety. This was my tenth dream. What shall come of it ? " 

"This dream too shall not have its fulfilment till the 
future. For in days to come kings shall grow unrighteous ; 
the people surrounding the kings shall grow unrighteous 


too, as also shall brahmins and householders, townsmen, 
and country-folk; yes, all people alike shall grow un- 
righteous, not excepting even sages and brahmins. Next, 
their very tutelary deities the spirits to whom they offer 
sacrifice, the spirits of the trees, and the spirits of the air 
shall become unrighteous also. The very winds that 
blow over the realms of these unrighteous kings shall 
grow cruel and lawless ; they shall shake the mansions of 
the skies and thereby kindle the anger of the spirits that 
dwell there, so that they will not suffer rain to fall or, if 
it does rain, it shall not fall on all the kingdom at once, 
nor shall the kindly shower fall on all tilled or sown lands 
alike to help them in their need. And, as in the kingdom 
at large, so in each several district and village and over 
each separate pool or lake, the rain shall not fall at one 
and the same time on its whole expanse ; if it rain on the 
upper part, it shall not rain upon the lower; here the 
crops shall be spoiled by a heavy downpour, there wither 
for very drought, and here again thrive apace with kindly 
showers to water them. So the crops sown within the 
confines of a single kingdom like the rice in the one pot 
-shall have no uniform character. Howbeit, you have 
nothing to fear therefrom. Tell me vour eleventh dream." 


" Methought, sir, I saw sour butter-milk bartered for 
precious sandal-wood, worth 100,000 pieces of money. 
This was my eleventh dream. What shall come of it?" 

"This dream too shall not have its fulfilment till the 
future in the days when my doctrine is waning. For in 
days to come many greedy and shameless Brethren shall 
arise, who for their belly's sake shall preach the very 
words in which I inveighed against greed ! Because they 
have deserted by reason of their belly and have taken 
their stand on the side of the heretics, they shall fail 


to make their preaching lead up to Nirvana. Nay, their 
only thought, as they preach, shall be by fine words and 
sweet voices to induce men to give them costly raiment 
and the like, and to be minded to give such gifts. Others 
again seated in the highways, at the street-corners, at the 
doors of kings' palaces, and so forth, shall stoop to preach 
for money, yea for mere coined kahapanas, half-kahapanas, 
padas, or masakas ! And as they thus barter away for 
food or raiment or for kahapanas and half-kahapanas my 
doctrine the worth whereof is Nirvana, they shall be even 
as those who bartered away for sour butter-milk precious 
sandal-wood worth 100,000 pieces. Howbeit, you have 
nothing to fear therefrom. Tell me your twelfth dream." 

" Methought, sir, I saw empty pumpkins sinking in the 
water. What shall come of it ? " 

" This dream also shall not have its fulfilment till the 
future, in the days of unrighteous kings, when the world is 
perverted. For in those days shall kings shew favour not 
to the scions of the nobilitv, but to the low-born onlv; and 

*/ * / * 

these latter shall become great lords, whilst the nobles 
sink into poverty. Alike in the royal presence, in the 
palace gates, in the council chamber, and in the courts of 
justice, the words of the low-born alone (whom the empty 
pumpkins typify) shall be stablished, as though they had 
sunk down till they rested on the bottom. So too in the 
assemblies of the Brotherhood, in the greater and lesser 
conclaves, and in enquiries regarding bowls, robes, lodging, 
and the like, the counsel only of the wicked and the vile 
shall be considered to have saving power, not that of the 
modest Brethren. Thus everywhere it shall be as when 
the empty pumpkins sank. Howbeit, you have nothing to 
fear therefrom. Tell me your thirteenth dream." 

Hereupon the king said, "Methought, sir, I saw huge 


blocks of solid rock, as big as houses, floating like ships 
upon the waters. What shall come of it ? " 

"This dream also shall not have its fulfilment before 
such times as those of which I have spoken. For in those 
days unrighteous kings shall shew honour to the low-born, 
who shall become great lords, whilst the nobles sink into 
poverty. Not to the nobles, but to the upstarts alone 
shall respect be paid. In the royal presence, in the 
council chamber, or in the courts of justice, the words of 
the nobles learned in the law (and it is they whom the 
solid rocks typify) shall drift idly by, and not sink deep 
into the hearts of men ; when they speak, the upstarts 
shall merely laugh them to scorn, saying, 'What is this 
these fellows are saying?' So too in the assemblies of 
the Brethren, as afore said, men shall not deem worthy of 
respect the excellent among the Brethren ; the words of 
such shall not sink deep, but drift idly by, even as when 
the rocks floated upon the waters. Howbeit, you have 
nothing to fear therefrom. Tell me your fourteenth dream." 

"Methought, sir, I saw tiny frogs, no bigger than 
minute flowerets, swiftly pursuing huge black snakes, 
chopping them up like so many lotus-stalks and gobbling 
them up. What shall come of this ? " 

" This dream too shall not have its fulfilment till those 
days to come such as those of which I have spoken, when 
the world is decaying. For then shall men's passions be 
so strong, and their lusts so hot, that they shall be the 
thralls of the very youngest of their wives for the time 
being, at whose sole disposal shall be slaves and hired 
servants, oxen, buffaloes and all cattle, gold and silver, and 
everything that is in the house. Should the poor husband 
ask where the money (say) or a robe is, at once he shall 
be told that it is where it is, that he should mind his own 


business, and not be so inquisitive as to what is, or is not, 
in her house. And therewithal in divers ways the wives 
with abuse and goading taunts shall establish their 
dominion over their husbands, as over slaves and bond- 
servants. Thus shall it be like as when the tiny frogs, no 
bigger than minute flowerets, gobbled up the big black 
snakes. Howbeit, you have nothing to fear therefrom. 
Tell me your fifteenth dream." 

"Methought, sir, I saw a village crow, hi which dwelt 
the whole of the Ten Vices, escorted by a retinue of those 
birds w r hich, because of their golden sheen, are called 
Royal Golden Mallards. What shall come of it ? " 

"This dream too shall not have its fulfilment till the 
future, till the reign of weakling kings. In days to come 
kings shall arise who shall know nothing about elephants 
or other arts, and shall be cowards in the field. Fearing 
to be deposed and cast from their royal estate, they shall 
raise to power not their peers but their footmen, bath- 
attendants, barbers, and such like. Thus, shut out from 
royal favour and unable to support themselves, the nobles 
shall be reduced to dancing attendance on the upstarts, - 
as when the crow had Royal Golden Swans for a retinue. 
Howbeit, you have nothing to fear therefrom. Tell me 
your sixteenth dream." 

" Heretofore, sir, it always used to be panthers that 
preyed on goats; but methought I saw goats chasing 
panthers and devouring them munch, munch, munch !- 
whilst at bare sight of the goats afar oft', terror-stricken 
wolves fled quaking with fear and hid themselves in their 
fastnesses in the thicket. Such w T as my dream. What 
shall come of it ? " 

"This dream too shall not have its fulfilment till the 
future, till the reign of unrighteous kings. In those days 


the low-born shall be raised to lordship and be made royal 
favourites, whilst the nobles shall sink into obscurity and 
distress. Gaining influence in the courts of law because 
of their favour with the king, these upstarts shall claim 
perforce the ancestral estates, the raiment, and all the 
property of the old nobility. And when these latter 
plead their rights before the courts, then shall the king's 
minions have them cudgelled and bastinadoed and taken 
by the throat and cast out with words of scorn, such as : 
' Know your place, fools ! What ? do you dispute with us ? 
The king shall know of your insolence, and we will have 
your hands and feet chopped off and other correctives 
applied ! ' Hereupon the terrified nobles shall affirm that 
their own belongings really belong to the overbearing 
upstarts, and will tell the favourites to accept them. And 
they shall hie them home and there cower in an agony of 
fear. Likewise, evil Brethren shall harry at pleasure good 
and worthy Brethren, till these latter, finding none to help 
them, shall flee to the jungle. And this oppression of the 
nobles and of the good Brethren by the low-born and by 
the evil Brethren, shall be like the scaring of wolves by 
goats. Howbeit, you have nothing to fear therefrom. For 
this dream too has reference to future times only. It was 
not truth, it was not love for you, that prompted the 
brahmins to prophesy as they did. No, it was greed of 
gain, and the insight that is bred of covetousness, that 
shaped all their self-seeking utterances." 

Thus did the Master expound the import of these 
sixteen great dreams, adding, "You, sire, are not the 
first to have these dreams ; they were dreamed by kings 
of bygone days also ; and, then as now, the brahmins found 
in them a pretext for sacrifices ; whereupon, at the instance 
of the wise and good, the Bodhisatta was consulted, 


and the dreams were expounded by them of old time in 
just the same manner as they have now been expounded." 

In K. D. (Syr.) ix., (Arab.) xiv., occurs the story of Bilad [Bharata], which has a 
strong anti-brahmanical tendency. This was Benfey's chief evidence for a buddhistic 
origin of the Panchatantra tales, but there is no proof that it is connected with them 
(Benf. Einl. 225). The execution of 12,000 brahmins Benfey thought was not 
original, but it occurs in the Tibetan Buddhist form (Schiefner, Mahdkdtjajana 
und Konig Tshandapradjota, Mem. Acad St Pet. xxn. 7). We now have three 
buddhist versions in Jat. 77 (the present tale), 314 and 418, none of which can be the 
direct origin of the story of K. D. The tale is essentially the same in all. A king 
through certain omens is persuaded to perform sacrifices. Being advised by his wife 
(or a minister) he consults a sage, who interprets the omens and dissuades him from 
the sacrifices. In K. D. there are eight dreams, quite different from those in the 
jataka. In Jat. 314 ( = Buddhaghosa xv.) the omens are sounds uttered by inhabit- 
ants of hell, and in Jat. 418 eight sounds made by animals and other creatures in the 
palace. The story of the past in Jat. 77 is merely built upon the introductory story. 
The king in all three stories of the present is the king of Kosala, and in one place 
is expressly called Pasenadi (Prasenajit), who was a contemporary of Buddha. Cf. 
Benf. Einl. 225. Other Indian and Slavonic versions are given by H. Wenzel, 
JRAS., 1893, 509 ff. Dr Gaster gives a Rumanian version (JRAS., 1900, 623) which 
has probably come through the Slavonic from the Buddhist Mongols. 


Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, there was a gildmaster, Illlsa by name, who was 
worth eighty crores, and had all the defects which fall to 
the lot of man. He was lame and crook-backed and had 
a squint; he was an unconverted infidel, and a miser, 
never giving of his store to others, nor enjoying it himself; 
his house was like a pool haunted by ogres. Yet, for 
seven generations, his ancestors had been bountiful, giving 
freely of their best ; but, when he became gildmaster, he 
broke through the traditions of his house. Burning down 
the almonry and driving the poor with blows from his 
gates, he hoarded his wealth. 

One day, when returning home from attendance on 
the king, he saw a yokel, who had journeyed far and was 


a- weary, seated on a bench, and filling a mug from a jar of 
rank spirits, and drinking it off, with a dainty morsel of 
stinking dried-fish as a relish. At the sight he felt a thirst 
for spirits, but he thought to himself, " If I drink, others 
will want to drink with me, and that means a ruinous 
expense." So he walked about, keeping his thirst under. 
But, as time wore on, he could do so no longer ; he grew as 
yellow as old cotton ; and the veins stood out on his sunken 
frame. On a day, retiring to his chamber, he lay down 
hugging his bed. His wife came to him, and rubbed his 
back, as she asked, " What has gone amiss with my lord ? ' 

(What follows is to be told in the words of the former 
story 1 .) But, when she in her turn said, "Then I'll only 
brew liquor enough for you/' he said, " If you make the 
brew in the house, there will be many on the watch ; and 
to send out for the spirits and sit and drink it here, is out 
of the question." So he produced one single penny, and 
sent a slave to fetch him a jar of spirits from the tavern. 
When the slave came back, he made him go from the town 
to the riverside and put the jar down in a thicket near the 
highway. " Now be off ! " said he, and made the slave wait 
some distance off, while he filled his cup and fell to. 

Now the gildmaster's father, who for his charity and 
other good works had been re-born as Sakka in the Realm 
of gods, was at that moment w r ondering whether his bounty 
was still kept up or not, and became aware of the stopping 
of his bounty, and of his son's behaviour. He saw how his 
son, breaking through the traditions of his house, had 
burnt the almonry to the ground, had driven the poor 
with blows from his gates, and how, in his miserliness, 
fearing to share with others, that son had stolen away to 

1 In the introductory story the wife proposes to cook cakes enough for the town. 
He gradually reduces the amount, until she promises to cook one for him alone. 


a thicket to drink by himself. Moved by the sight, Sakka 
cried, " I will go to him and make my son see that deeds 
must have their consequences ; I will work his conversion, 
and make him charitable and worthy of re-birth in the 
Realm of gods." So he came down to earth, and once 
more trod the ways of men, putting on the semblance of 
the gildmaster Illisa, with the latter's lameness, and crook- 
back, and squint. In this guise, he entered the city of 
Rajagaha and made his way to the palace-gate, where he 
bade his coming be announced to the king. "Let him 
approach," said the king ; and he entered and stood with 
due obeisance before his majesty. 

"What brings you here at this unusual hour, Lord 
gildmaster?" said the king. "I am come, sire, because 
I have in my house eighty crores of treasure. Deign to 
have them carried to fill the royal treasury." "Nay, my 
Lord gildmaster ; the treasure within my palace is greater 
than this." " If you, sire, will not have it, I shall give it 
away to whom I will." " Do so by all means, gildmaster," 
said the king. " So be it, sire," said the pretended Illisa, 
as with due obeisance he departed from the presence to 
the gildmaster's house. The servants all gathered round 
him, but not one could tell that it was not their real 
master. Entering, he stood on the threshold and sent for 
the porter, to whom he gave orders that if anybody re- 
sembling himself should appear and claim to be master of 
the house they should soundly cudgel such a one and 
throw him out. Then, mounting the stairs to the upper 
story, he sat down on a gorgeous couch and sent for Illlsa's 
wife. When she came he said with a smile, "My dear, let 
us be bountiful." 

At these words, wife, children, and servants all thought, 
" It's a long time since he was this way minded. It must 


be through drinking to-day that he is so good-natured and 
generous." And his wife said to him, "Be as bountiful as 
you please, my husband." " Send for the crier," said he, 
" and bid him proclaim by beat of drum all through the 
city that everyone who wants gold, silver, diamonds, pearls, 
and the like, is to come to the house of Illlsa the gild- 
master." His wife did as he bade, and a large crowd soon 
assembled at the door carrying baskets and sacks. Then 
Sakka bade the treasure-chambers be thrown open, and 
cried, " This is my gift to you ; take what you will and go 
your ways." And the crowd seized on the riches there 
stored, and piled them in heaps on the floor and filled the 
bags and vessels they had brought, and went off laden 
with the spoils. Among them was a countryman who 
yoked Illlsa's oxen to Illisa's carriage, filled it with the 
seven things of price, and journeyed out of the city along 
the highroad. As he w r ent along, he drew near the thicket, 
and sang the gildmaster's praises in these words: "May 
you live to be a hundred, my good lord Illisa ! What you 
have done for me this day will enable me to live without 
doing another stroke of work. Whose were these oxen ? 
yours. Whose was this carriage ? yours. Whose the 
wealth in the carriage? yours again. It was no father 
or mother who gave me all this ; no, it came solely from 
you, my lord." 

These words filled the gildmaster with fear and 
trembling. "Why, the fellow is mentioning my name in 
his talk," said he to himself. "Can the king have been 
distributing my wealth to the people ? " At the bare 
thought he bounded from the bush, and, recognising his 
own oxen and cart, seized the oxen by the cord, crying, 
"Stop, fellow; these oxen and this cart belong to me." 
Down leaped the man from the cart, angrily exclaiming, 


" You rascal ! Illisa, the gildmaster, is giving away his 
wealth to all the city. What has come to you ? " And he 
sprang at the gildmaster and struck him on the back like 
a falling thunderbolt, and went off with the cart. Illisa 
picked himself up, trembling in every limb, wiped off the 
mud, and hurrying after his cart, seized hold of it. Again 
the countryman got down, and seizing Illisa by the hair, 
doubled him up and thumped him about the head for 
some time ; then taking him by the throat, he flung him 
back the way he had come, and drove off. Sobered by 
this rough usage, Illisa hurried off home. There, seeing 
folk making off with the treasure, he fell to laying hands 
on here a man and there a man, shrieking, " Hi ! what's 
this? Is the king despoiling me?" And every man he 
laid hands on knocked him down. Bruised and smarting, 
he sought to take refuge in his own house, when the 
porters stopped him with, " Holloa, you rascal ! Where 
might you be going?" And first thrashing him soundly 
with bamboos, they took their master by the throat and 
threw him out of doors. " There is none but the king left 
to see me righted," groaned Illisa, and betook himself to 
the palace. "Why, oh why, sire," he cried, "have you 
plundered me like this?" 

" Nay, it was not I, my Lord gildmaster," said the king. 
" Did you not yourself come and declare your intention of 
giving your wealth away, if I would not accept it? And 
did you not then send the crier round and carry out your 
threat ? " " Oh sire, indeed it was not I that came to you 
on such an errand. Your majesty knows how near and 
close I am, and how I never give away so much as the 
tiniest drop of oil which a blade of grass will take up. 
May it please your majesty to send for him who has given 
my substance away, and to question him on the matter." 


Then the king sent for Sakka. And so exactly alike 
were the two that neither the king nor his court could tell 
which was the real gildmaster. Said the miser Illisa, 
" Who, and what, sire, is this gildmaster ? / am the gild- 

" Well, really I can't say which is the real Illisa," said 
the king. "Is there anybody who can distinguish them 
for certain ? " " Yes, sire, my wife." So the wife was sent 
for and asked which of the two was her husband. And 
she said Sakka was her husband and went to his side. 
Then in turn Illlsa's children and servants were brought 
in and asked the same question ; and all with one accord 
declared Sakka was the real gildmaster. Here it flashed 
across Illlsa's mind that he had a wart on his head, hidden 
among his hair, the existence of which was known only to 
his barber. So, as a last resource, he asked that his barber 
might be sent for to identify him. Now at this time the 
Bodhisatta was his barber. Accordingly, the barber was 
sent for and asked if he could distinguish the real from 
the false Illisa. " I could tell, sire," said he, " if I might 
examine their heads." " Then look at both their heads," 
said the king. On the instant Sakka caused a wart to rise 
on his head ! After examining the two, the Bodhisatta 
reported that, as both alike had got warts on their heads, 
he couldn't for the life of him say which was the real man. 
And therewithal he uttered this stanza : 

Both squint; both halt; both men are hunchbacks too; 
And both have warts alike! I cannot tell 
Which of the two the real Illisa is. 

Hearing his last hope thus fail him, the gildmaster fell 
into a tremble ; and such was his intolerable anguish at 
the loss of his beloved riches, that down he fell in a swoon. 
Thereupon Sakka put forth his transcendental powers, 

F. 4 T. 7 


and, rising in the air, addressed the king thence in these 
words : " Not Illisa am I, O king, but Sakka." Then those 
around wiped Illlsa's face and dashed water over him. 
Recovering, he rose to his feet and bowed to the ground 
before Sakka, King of gods. Then said Sakka, "Illisa, 
mine was the wealth, not thine ; I am thy father, and thou 
art my son. In my lifetime I was bountiful toward the 
poor and rejoiced in doing good ; wherefore, I am ad- 
vanced to this high estate and am become Sakka. But 
thou, walking not in my footsteps, art grown a niggard 
and a very miser; thou hast burnt my almonry to the 
ground, driven the poor from the gate, and hoarded 
thy riches. Thou hast no enjoyment thereof thyself, nor 
has any other human being ; but thy store is become like 
a pool haunted by ogres, whereat no man may slake his 
thirst. Albeit, if thou wilt rebuild mine almonry and 
shew bounty to the poor, it shall be accounted to thee for 
righteousness. But, if thou wilt not, then will I strip thee 
of all that thou hast, and cleave thy head with this thunder- 
bolt of Indra, and thou shalt die." 

At this threat Illisa, quaking for his life, cried out, 
"Henceforth I will be bountiful." And Sakka accepted 
his promise, and, still seated in mid-air, established his son 
in the Commandments and preached the Truth to him, 
departing thereafter to his own abode. And Illisa was 
diligent in almsgiving and other good works, and so 
assured his re-birth thereafter in heaven. 

Respecting this story, see an article by the translator [Sir R. Chalmers] in the 
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society for January 1892, entitled " The Lineage of the 
'Proud King.'" Of. Gesta Rom. 59, De superbia nimia, retold by Longfellow, Tales 
of a Wayside Inn, King Robert of Sicily. 


Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta was born a brahmin in a market- 
town in the North country, and when he was grown up he 
studied under a teacher of world-wide fame at Takkasila. 
There he learnt the Three Vedas and the Eighteen 
Branches of knowledge, and completed his education. 
And he became known as the Sage Little Bowman. 
Leaving Takkasila, he came to the Andhra country in 


search of practical experience. Now, it happened that in 
this Birth the Bodhisatta was somewhat of a crooked little 
dwarf, and he thought to himself, " If I make my appear- 
ance before any king, he's sure to ask what a dwarf like 
me is good for ; why should I not use a tall broad fellow 
as my stalking-horse and earn my living in the shadow of 
his more imposing personality ? " So he betook himself to 
the weavers' quarter, and there espying a huge weaver 
named Bhlmasena, saluted him, asking the man's name. 
"Bhlmasena 1 is my name," said the weaver. "And what 
makes a fine big man like you work at so sorry a trade ? " 
" Because I can't get a living any other way." "Weave no 
more, friend. The whole continent can shew no such 
archer as I am ; but kings would scorn me because I am 
a dwarf. And so you, friend, must be the man to vaunt 
your prow r ess with the bow, and the king will take you into 
his pay and make you ply your calling regularly. Mean- 
time I shall be behind you to perform the duties that are 
laid upon you, and so shall earn my living in your shadow. 
In this manner we shall both of us thrive and prosper. 
Only do as I tell you." " Done with you," said the other. 

1 The name means "one who has or leads a terrible army"; it is the name of the 
second of the five sons of Pandu in the Mahabharata. 




Accordingly, the Bodhisatta took the weaver with him 
to Benares, acting as a little page of the bow, and putting 
the other in the front; and when they were at the gates of 
the palace, he made him send word of his coming to the 
king. Being summoned into the royal presence, the pair 
entered together and bowing stood before the king. 
"What brings you here? " said the king. " I am a mighty 

O / / 

archer," said Bhimasena; "there is no archer like me in 
the whole continent/' " What pay would you want to 
enter my service ? " "A thousand pieces a fortnight, sire." 
" What is this man of yours ? " " He's my little page, sire." 
" Very well, enter my service." 

So Bhimasena entered the king's service; but it was 
the Bodhisatta who did all his work for him. Now in 
those days there was a tiger in a forest in Kasi which 
blocked a frequented high-road and had devoured many 
victims. When this was reported to the king, he sent for 
Bhimasena and asked whether he could catch the tiger. 

" How could I call myself an archer, sire, if I couldn't 
catch a tiger?" The king gave him largesse and sent 
him on the errand. And home to the Bodhisatta came 
Bhimasena with the news. "All right," said the Bodhisatta ; 
" away you go, my friend." " But are you not coining too ? " 
"No, I won't go; but I'll tell you a little plan." "Please 
de, my friend." "Well, don't you be rash and approach 
the tiger's lair alone. What you will do is to muster 
a strong band of country-folk to march to the spot with 
a thousand or two thousand bows; when you know that 


the tiger is aroused, you bolt into the thicket and lie down 
flat on your face. The country-folk will beat the tiger 
to death ; and as soon as he is quite dead, you bite off 
a creeper with your teeth, and draw near to the dead 
tiger, trailing the creeper in your hand. At the sight 


of the dead body of the brute, you will burst out with- 
'Who has killed the tiger? I meant to lead it by a 
creeper, like an ox, to the king, and with this intent had 
just stepped into the thicket to get a creeper. I must 
know who killed the tiger before I could get back with 
my creeper.' Then the country-folk will be very frightened 
and bribe you heavily not to report them to the king ; you 
will be credited with slaying the tiger ; and the king too 
will give you lots of money." 

"Very good," said Bhimasena; and off he went and 
slew the tiger just as the Bodhisatta had told him. 
Having thus made the road safe for travellers, back he 
came with a large following to Benares, and said to the 
king, "I have killed the tiger, sire; the forest is safe for 
travellers now." Well-pleased, the king loaded him with 

Another day, tidings came that a certain road was 
infested with a buffalo, and the king sent Bhimasena to 
kill it. Following the Bodhisatta's directions, he killed 
the buffalo in the same way as the tiger, and returned 
to the king, who once more gave him lots of money. He 
was a great lord now. Intoxicated by his new honours, 
he treated the Bodhisatta with contempt, and scorned 
to follow his advice, saying, "I can get on without you. 
Do you think there's no man but yourself? " This and 
many other harsh things did he say to the Bodhisatta. 

Now, a few days later, a hostile king marched upon 
Benares and beleaguered it, sending a message to the king 
summoning him either to surrender his kingdom or to do 
battle. And the king of Benares ordered Bhimasena out to 
fight him. So Bhimasena was armed cap-a-pie in soldierly 
fashion and mounted on a war-elephant sheathed in 
complete armour. And the Bodhisatta, who was seriously 


alarmed that Bhimasena might get killed, armed himself 
cap-a-pie also and seated himself modestly behind Bhi- 
masena. Surrounded by a host, the elephant passed out 
of the gates of the city and arrived in the forefront of the 
battle. At the first notes of the martial drum Bhimasena 
fell a-quaking with fear. " If you fall off now, you'll get 
killed," said Bodhisatta, and accordingly fastened a cord 
round him, which he held tight, to prevent him from 
falling off the elephant. But the sight of the field of 
battle proved too much for Bhimasena, and the fear of 
death was so strong on him that he fouled the elephant's 
back. "Ah," said the Bodhisatta, "the present does not 
tally with the past. Then you affected the warrior; now 
your prowess is confined to befouling the elephant you 
ride on." And so saying, he uttered this stanza: 

You vaunted your prowess, and loud was your boast; 

You swore you would vanquish the foe! 
But is it consistent, w y heu faced with their host, 

To vent your emotion, sir, so? 

When the Bodhisatta had ended these taunts, he said, 
" But don't you be afraid, my friend. Am not I here to 
protect you?" Then he made Bhimasena get off the 
elephant and bade him wash himself and go home. " And 
now to win renown this day," said the Bodhisatta, raising 
his battle-cry as he dashed into the fight. Breaking 
through the king's camp, he dragged the king out and 
took him alive to Benares. In great joy at his prowess, 
his royal master loaded him with honours, and from that 
day forward all India was loud with the fame of the Sage 
Little Bowman. To Bhimasena he gave largesse, and sent 
him back to his own home ; whilst he himself excelled in 
charity and all good works, and at his death passed away 
to fare according to his deserts. 

Of. Grimm 20, The valiant Tailor, Anm. 


Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta, having perfected his education, 
became one of the king's ministers. One day the king 
with a large following went into his pleasaunce, and, after 
walking about the woods, felt a desire to disport himself 
in the water. So he went down into the royal tank and 
sent for his harem. The women of the harem, removing 
the jewels from their heads and necks and so forth, laid 
them aside with their upper garments in boxes under the 
charge of female slaves, and then went down into the 
water. Now, as the queen was taking off her jewels and 
ornaments, and laying them with her upper robe on a. 
box, she was watched by a female monkey, which was 
hidden in the branches of a tree hard by. Conceiving a 
longing to wear the queen's pearl necklace, this monkey 
watched for the slave in charge to be off' her guard. At 
first the girl kept looking all about her in order to keep 
the jewels safe ; but as time wore on, she began to nod. 
As soon as the monkey saw this, quick as the wind she 
jumped down, and quick as the wind she was up the tree 
again, with the pearls round her own neck. Then, for 
fear the other monkeys should see it, she hid the string 
of pearls in a hole in the tree and sat on guard over her 
spoils as demurely as though nothing had happened. By 
and by the slave awoke, and, terrified at finding the jewels 
gone, saw nothing else to do but to scream out, "A man 
has run off with the queen's pearl necklace." Up ran the 
guards from every side, and hearing this story told it to 
the king. "Catch the thief," said his majesty; and away 
went the guards searching high and low for the thief in 
the pleasaunce. Hearing the din, a poor superstitious 


rustic 1 took to his heels in alarm. " There he goes," cried 
the guards, catching sight of the runaway; and they 
followed him up till they caught him, and with blows 
demanded what he meant by stealing such precious 

Thought he, "If I deny the charge, I shall die with 
the beating I shall get from these ruffians. I'd better say 
I took it." So he confessed to the theft and was hauled 
off a prisoner to the king. " Did you take those precious 
jewels?" asked the king. "Yes, your majesty." "Where 
are they now?" "Please, your majesty, I'm a poor man; 
I've never in my life owned anything, even a bed or a 
chair, of any value, much less a jewel. It was the gild- 
master who made me take that valuable necklace; and 
I took it and gave it to him. He knows all about it." 

Then the king sent for the gildmaster, and asked 
whether the rustic had passed the necklace on to him. 
" Yes, sire," was the answer. " Where is it then ? " "I gave 
it to your majesty's family priest." Then the priest was 
sent for, and interrogated in the same way. And he said 
he had given it to the chief musician, who in his turn 
said he had given it to a courtesan as a present. But she, 
being brought before the king, utterly denied ever having 
received it. 

Whilst the five were thus being questioned, the sun 
set. " It's too late now," said the king ; " we will look into 
this to-morrow." So he handed the five over to his 
ministers and went back into the city. Hereupon the 
Bodhisatta fell a-thinking. "These jewels," thought he, 
"were lost inside the grounds, whilst the rustic was 
outside. There was a strong guard at the gates, and it 
was impossible for anyone inside to get away with the 

1 Or perhaps " a taxpaying ryot." 


necklace. I do not see how anyone, whether inside or 
out, could have managed to secure it. The truth is this 
poor wretched fellow must have said he gave it to the 
gildmaster merely in order to save his own skin ; and the 
gildmaster must have said he gave it to the priest, in 
the hope that he would get off if he could mix the priest 
up in the matter. Further, the priest must have said he 
gave it to the chief musician, because he thought the 
latter would make the time pass merrily in prison ; whilst 
the chief musician's object in implicating the courtesan, 
w r as simply to solace himself w r ith her company during 
imprisonment. Not one of the whole five has anything 
to do with the theft. On the other hand, the grounds 
swarm with monkeys, and the necklace must have got 
into the hands of one of the female monkeys." 

When he had arrived at this conclusion, the Bodhisatta 
went to the king with the request that the suspects might 
be handed over to him and that he might be allowed to 
examine personally into the matter. "By all means, my 
wise friend," said the king ; " examine into it." 

Then the Bodhisatta sent for his servants and told 
them where to lodge the five prisoners, saying, "Keep 
strict watch over them ; listen to everything they say, and 
report it all to me." And his servants did as he bade 
them. As the prisoners sat together, the gildmaster said 
to the rustic, " Tell me, you wretch, where you and I ever 
met before this day: tell me when you gave me that 
necklace." "Worshipful sir," said the other, "it has never 
been mine to own aught so valuable even as a stool or 
bedstead that wasn't rickety. I thought that with your 
help I should get out of this trouble, and that's why I said 
what I did. Be not angry with me, my lord." Said the 
priest in his turn to the gildmaster, " How then came you 


to pass on to me what this fellow had never given to 
you ? " "I only said so because I thought that if you and 
I, both high officers of state, stand together, we can soon 
put the matter right." "Brahmin," now said the chief 
musician to the priest, "when, pray, did you give the 
jewel to me?" "I only said I did/' answered the priest, 
"because I thought you would help to make the time 
pass more agreeably." Lastly the courtesan said, "Oh, 
you wretch of a musician, you know you never visited 
me, nor I you. So when could you have given me the 
necklace, as you say ? " " Why be angry, my dear ? " said 
the musician ; " we five have got to keep house together 
for a bit ; so let us put a cheerful face on it and be happy 

This conversation being reported to the Bodhisatta by 
his agents, he felt convinced the five were all innocent of 
the robbery, and that a female monkey had taken the 
necklace. " And I must find a means to make her drop 
it," said he to himself. So he had a number of bead 
necklaces made. Next he had a number of monkeys 
caught and turned loose again, with strings of beads on 
their necks, wrists and ancles. Meantime, the guilty 
monkey kept sitting in the trees watching her treasure. 
Then the Bodhisatta ordered a number of men to observe 
every monkey in the grounds carefully, till they saw one 
wearing the missing pearl necklace, and then frighten her 
into dropping it. 

Tricked out in their new splendour, the other monkeys 
strutted about till they came to the real thief, to whom 
they said, "See our necklaces." Jealousy overcoming 
her prudence, she exclaimed, " They're only beads ! " and 
put on her own necklace of real pearls. This was at once 
seen by the watchers, who promptly made her drop the 


necklace, which they picked up and brought to the 
Bodhisatta. He took it to the king, saying, " Here, sire, 
is the necklace. The five prisoners are innocent; it was 
a female monkey in the pleasaunce that took it." " How 
came you to find that out?" asked the king; "and how 
did you manage to get possession of it again?" Then 
the Bodhisatta told the whole story, and the king thanked 
the Bodhisatta, saying, "You are the right man in the 
right place." And he uttered this stanza in praise of the 
Bodhisatta : 

For war men crave the hero's might, 
For counsel sage sobriety, 
Boon comrades for their jollity, 

But judgment when in parlous plight. 

Over and above these words of praise and gratitude, the 
king showered treasures upon the Bodhisatta like a 
storm-cloud pouring rain from the heavens. After 
following the Bodhisatta's counsels through a long life 
spent in charity and good works, the king passed away 
to fare thereafter according to his deserts. 


Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta was born into a merchant's 
family and on name-day was named 'Wise.' When he 
grew up he entered into partnership with another mer- 
chant named 'Wisest,' and traded with him. And these 
two took five hundred waggons of merchandise from 
Benares to the country-districts, where they disposed of 
their wares, returning afterwards with the proceeds to 
the city. When the time for dividing came, Wisest said, 
" I must have a double share." " Why so ? " asked Wise. 


"Because while you are only Wise, I am Wisest. And 
Wise ought to have only one share to Wisest's two." 
" But we both had an equal interest in the stock-in-trade 
and in the oxen and waggons. Why should you have two 
shares ? " " Because I am Wisest." And so they talked 
away till they fell to quarrelling. 

"Ah!" thought Wisest, "I have a plan." And he 
made his father hide in a hollow tree, enjoining the old 
man to say, when the two came, "Wisest should have a 
double portion." This arranged, he went to the Bodhi- 
satta and proposed to him to refer the claim for a double 
share to the competent decision of the tree divinity. Then 
he made his appeal in these words: "Lord, decide our 
cause ! " Hereupon the father, who w r as hidden in the tree, 
in a changed voice asked them to state the case. The 
cheat addressed the tree as follows: "Lord, here stands 
Wise, and here stand I Wisest. We have been partners 
in trade. Declare what share each should receive." 

" Wise should receive one share, and Wisest two," was 
the response. 

Hearing this decision, the Bodhisatta resolved to find 
out whether it was indeed a tree divinity or not. So he 
filled the hollow trunk with straw and set it on fire. And 
Wisest's father w r as half roasted by the rising flames and 
clambered up by clutching hold of a bough. Falling to 
the ground, he uttered this stanza : 

Wise rightly, Wisest wrongly got his name; 
Through Wisest, I'm nigh roasted in the flame. 

Then the two merchants made an equal division and 
each took half, and at their deaths passed aw r ay to fare 
according to their deserts. 

A somewhat mutilated version of Dustabuddhi and Abuddhi (Dharmabuddhi) 
P. (T.) L 15, Som. LX. 211 (ii. 40), K. D. (Syr.) I. 13, (Arab.) v. 


Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta was one of the king's courtiers. 
And the king's family priest of those days was so talkative 
and longwinded that, when he once started, no one else 
could get a word in. So the king cast about for someone 
to cut the priest short, and looked high and low for such 
an one. Now at that time there was a cripple in Benares 
who was a wonderful marksman with stones, and the boys 
used to put him on a little cart and draw him to the gates 
of Benares, where there is a large branching banyan-tree 
covered with leaves. There they would gather round and 
give him half-pence, saying ' Make an elephant,' or ' Make 
a horse.' And the cripple would throw stone after stone 
till he had cut the foliage into the shapes asked for. And 
the ground was covered with fallen leaves. 

On his way to his pleasaunce the king came to the 
spot, and all the boys scampered off in fear of the king, 
leaving the cripple there helpless. At the sight of the 
litter of leaves the king asked, as he rode by in his 
chariot, who had cut the leaves off. And he was told 
that the cripple had done it. Thinking that here might 
be a way to stop the priest's mouth, the king asked where 
the cripple was, and was shewn him sitting at the foot 
of the tree. Then the king had him brought to him and, 
motioning his retinue to stand apart, said to the cripple, 
" I have a very talkative priest. Do you think you could 
stop his talking ? " 

"Yes, sire, if I had a peashooter full of dry goat's 
dung," said the cripple. Then the king had him taken 
to the palace and set with a peashooter full of dry goat's 
dung behind a curtain with a slit in it, facing the priest's 


seat. When the brahmin came to wait upon the king 
and was seated on the seat prepared for him, his majesty 
started a conversation. And the priest forthwith mono- 
polized the conversation, and no one else could get a 
word in. Hereon the cripple shot the pellets of goat's 
dung one by one, like flies, through the slit in the curtain 
right into the priest's gullet. And the brahmin swallowed 
the pellets down as they came, like so much oil, till all 
had disappeared. When the whole peashooter-full of 
pellets was lodged in the priest's stomach, they swelled 
to the size of half a peck ; and the king, knowing they 
were all gone, addressed the brahmin in these words: 
"Reverend sir, so talkative are you, that you have 
swallowed down a peashooter-full of goat's dung without 
noticing it. That's about as much as you will be able 
to take at a sitting. Now go home and take a dose of 
panick seed and water by way of emetic, and put yourself 
right again." 

From that day the priest kept his mouth shut and 
sat as silent during conversation as though his lips were 

"Well, my ears are indebted to the cripple for this 
relief," said the king, and bestowed on him four villages, 
one in the North, one in the South, one in the West, and 
one in the East, producing a hundred thousand a year. 

The Bodhisatta drew near to the king and said, " In 
this world, sire, skill should be cultivated by the wise. 
Mere skill in aiming has brought this cripple all this 
prosperity." So saying he uttered this stanza: 

Prize skill, and note the marksman lame; 
Four villages reward his aim. 


Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, there lived in the river of Benares three fishes, 
named Very- thoughtful, Thoughtless, and Duly-thoughtful. 
And they came down stream from the wild country to 
where men dwelt. Hereupon Duly-thoughtful said to the 
other two, " This is a dangerous and perilous neighbour- 
hood, where fishermen catch fish with nets, basket-traps, 
and such like tackle. Let us be off to the wild country 
again." But so lazy were the other two fishes, and so 
greedy, that they kept putting off their going from day 
to day, until they had let three months slip by. Now 
fishermen cast their nets into the river; and Very- 
thoughtful and Thoughtless were swimming on ahead in 
quest of food when in their folly they blindly rushed into 
the net. Duly-thoughtful, who was behind, observed the 
net, and saw the fate of the other two. 

" I must save these lazy fools from death," thought he. 
So first he dodged round the net, and splashed in the 
water in front of it like a fish that has broken through 
and gone up stream ; and then doubling back, he splashed 
about behind it, like a fish that has broken through and 
gone down stream. Seeing this, the fishermen thought 
the fish had broken the net and all got away ; so they 
pulled it in by one corner and the two fishes escaped 
from the net into the open water again. In this way 
they owed their lives to Duly-thoughtful. 

P. (T.) i. 12. Benfey's I. 14 is a variant version. He gives the version of T. as I., 
Suppl. iv b, and a further version in v. 6 (two fishes and a frog). Mbh. xn. ch. 137. 


Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, he had in his service a brahmin who professed 
to tell whether swords were lucky or not, and all came to 
pass as in the Introductory Story 1 . And the king called 
in the surgeons and had him fitted with a false tip to his 
nose which was cunningly painted for all the world like 
a real nose; and then the brahmin resumed his duties 
again about the king. Now Brahmadatta had no son, 
only a daughter and a nephew, whom he had brought up 
under his own eye. And when these two grew up, they 
fell in love with one another. So the king sent for his 
councillors and said to them, "My nephew is heir to the 
throne. If I give him my daughter to wife, he shall be 
anointed king." 

But, on second thoughts, he decided that as in any 
case his nephew was like a son, he had better marry him 
to a foreign princess, and give his daughter to a prince 
of another royal house. For, he thought, this plan would 
give him more grandchildren and vest in his line the 
sceptres of two several kingdoms. And, after consulting 
with his councillors, he resolved to separate the two, and 
they were accordingly made to dwell apart from one 
another. Now they were sixteen years old and very much 
in love, and the young prince thought of nothing but how 
to carry oif his cousin from her father's palace. At last 
the plan struck him of sending for a wise woman, to whom 
he gave a pocketful of money. 

1 The brahmin in Buddha's time was a sword-tester, who took bribes. A disap- 
pointed smith brought a sword and put it into the sheath with some pepper. When 
the brahmin sniffed at the sword and pretended to test it, he sneezed and split 
his nose. 


" And what am I to do for this ? " said she. 

" There is nothing you can't do, tell me how you can get 
my uncle to let his daughter out of the palace." 

And she promised to help him, and said that she 
would tell the king that his daughter was under the 
influence of witchcraft, but that, as the demon had 
possessed her so long that he was off his guard, she 
would take the princess one day in a carriage to the 
cemetery with a strong escort under arms, and there in 
a magic circle lay the princess on a bed with a dead man 
under it, and with a hundred and eight douches of 
scented water wash the demon out of her. "And when 
on this pretext I bring the princess to the cemetery," 
continued the wise woman, " mind that you just reach the 
cemetery before us in your carriage with an armed escort, 
taking some ground pepper with you. Arrived at the 
cemetery, you will leave your carriage at the entrance, 
and despatch your men to the cemetery grove, while you 
will yourself go to the top of the mound and lie down 
as though dead. Then I will come and set up a bed over 
you on which I will lay the princess. Then will come the 
time when you must sniff at the pepper till you sneeze 
two or three times, and when you sneeze we will leave the 
princess and take to our heels. Thereon you and the 
princess must bathe all over, and you must take her 
home with you." "Capital," said the prince; "a most 
excellent device." 

So away went the wise woman to the king, and he fell 
in with her idea, as did the princess when it was explained 
to her. When the day came, the old woman told the 
princess their errand, and said to the guards on the road 
in order to frighten them, " Listen. Under the bed that 
I shall set up, there will be a dead man ; and that dead 

P. & T. 8 


man will sneeze. And mark well that, so soon as he has 
sneezed, he will come out from under the bed and seize 
on the first person he finds. So be prepared, all of you." 

Now the prince had already got to the place and got 
under the bed as had been arranged. 

Next the crone led off the princess and laid her upon 
the bed, whispering to her not to be afraid. At once the 
prince sniffed at the pepper and fell a-sneezing. And 
scarce had he begun to sneeze before the wise woman left 
the princess and with a loud scream was off, quicker than 
any of them. Not a man stood his ground ; one and all 
they threw awav their arms and bolted for dear life. 

V tf 

Hereon the prince came forth and bore off the princess 
to his home, as had been before arranged. And the old 
woman made her way to the king and told him what had 

" Well," thought the king, " I always intended her for 
him, and they've grown up together like ghee in rice- 
porridge." So he didn't fly into a passion, but in course 
of time made his nephew king of the land, with his 
daughter as queen-consort. 

Now the new king kept on in his service the brahmin 
who professed to tell the temper of swords, and one day 
as he stood in the sun, the false tip to the brahmin's nose 
got loose and fell off. And there he stood, hanging his 
head for very shame. " Never mind, never mind," laughed 
the king. " Sneezing is good for some, but bad for others. 
One sneeze lost you your nose ; whilst I have to thank a 
sneeze for both my throne and queen." So saying he 
uttered this stanza: 

Our diverse fates this moral shew, 
-What brings one weal, may work another woe. 

So spake the king, and after a life spent in charity 


and other good works, he passed away to fare according 
to his deserts. 

Buddha tells this tale to ridicule the superstition of luck in sneezing. In Jut. 155 
Buddha permits the brethren, when they sneeze, and someone says, "Long lite to 
you, Sir ! " to reply, " The same to you." But a brother who says " Long life " is 
guilty of a sin. On the folklore of sneezing see Tylor, Prim. Ctdttire, i. 97 ff. (1903). 


Once 011 a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta was born a rat, perfect in 
wisdom, and as big as a young boar. He had his 
dwelling in the forest and many hundreds of other rats 
owned his sway. 

Now there was a roving jackal who espied this troop 
of rats and fell to scheming how to beguile and eat them. 
And he took up his stand near their home with his face 
to the sun, snuffing up the wind, and standing on one 
leg. Seeing this when out on his road in quest of food, 
the Bodhisatta conceived the jackal to be a saintly being, 
and went up and asked his name. 

" ' Godly ' is my name," said the jackal. " Why do you 
stand only on one leg ? " " Because if I stood on all four 
at once, the earth could not bear my weight. That is 
why I stand on one leg only." "And why do you keep 
your mouth open?" "To take the air. I live on air; 
it is my only food." "And why do you face the sun?" 
" To worship him." " What uprightness ! " thought the 
Bodhisatta, and thenceforward he made a point of going, 
attended by the other rats, to pay his respects morning 
and evening to the saintly jackal. And when the rats 
were leaving, the jackal seized and devoured the hinder- 
most one of them, wiped his lips, and looked as though 


nothing had happened. In consequence of this the rats 
grew fewer and fewer, till they noticed the gaps in their 
ranks, and wondering why this was so, asked the Bodhi- 
satta the reason. He could not make it out, but 
suspecting the jackal, resolved to put him to the test. 
So next day he let the other rats go out first and himself 
brought up the rear. The jackal made a spring on the 
Bodhisatta who, seeing him coming, faced round and 
cried, "So this is your saintliness, you hypocrite and 
rascal ! " And he repeated the following stanza : 

Where saiutliuess is but a cloak 
Whereby to cozen guileless folk 
And screen a villain's treachery, 
-The cat-like nature there we see. 

So saying, the king of the rats sprang at the jackal's 
throat and bit his windpipe asunder just under the jaw, 
so that he died. Back trooped the other rats and 
gobbled up the body of the jackal with a ' crunch, crunch, 
crunch ' ; that is to say, the foremost of them did, for they 
say there was none left for the last-comers. And ever 
after the rats lived happily in peace and quiet. 

Though the foregoing prose relates to a jackal, the stanza speaks of a cat (bildra), 
as does the version in Tib. T. XL. In the variant Jat. 129 the jackal wins confidence 
through the tuft of hair on his head, resembling an ascetic's tonsure, which was all 
the hair he had left after escaping a forest fire. This is the same motive as The blue 
Jackal, P. (T.) I. 8. In Jat. 384 the hypocrite is a crow, which is closest to the version 
of Mb/i. ii. ch. 41, where the egg-eater is a goose. Hertel compares P. (T.) nr. 14, 
(B.) in. 2 in which a sparrow and hare go to a hypocritical cat to decide a dispute. 
Som. LXII. 46 (ii. 67), but cf. Jat. 400, p. 267. 


Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta was born a brahmin, and growing 
up was married to a bride of his own rank, who bore him 
three daughters named Nanda, Nandavati and Sundari- 
nanda. The Bodhisatta dying, they were taken in by 
neighbours and friends, whilst he was born again into the 
world as a golden goose endowed with consciousness of 
its former existences. Growing up, the bird viewed his own 
magnificent size and golden plumage, and remembered 
that previously he had been a human being. Discovering 
that his wife and daughters were living on the charity of 
others, the goose bethought him of his plumage like 
hammered and beaten gold and how by giving them a 
golden feather at a time he could enable his wife and 
daughters to live in comfort. So away he flew to where 
they dwelt and alighted on the top of the central beam 
of the roof. Seeing the Bodhisatta, the wife and girls 
asked where he had come from ; and he told them that he 
was their father who had died and been born a golden 
goose, and that he had come to visit them and put an 
end to their miserable necessity of working for hire. 
"You shall have my feathers," said he, "one by one, 
and they will sell for enough to keep you all in ease 
and comfort." So saying, he gave them one of his 
feathers and departed. And from time to time he 
returned to give them another feather, and with the pro- 
ceeds of their sale these brahmin-women grew prosperous 
and quite well-to-do. But one day the mother said to her 
daughters, " There's no trusting animals, my children. 
Who's to say your father might not go away one of these 
days and never come back again ? Let us use our time and 


pluck him clean next time he comes, so as to make sure of 
all his feathers." Thinking this would pain him, the 
daughters refused. The mother in her greed called the 
golden goose to her one day when he came, and then 
took him with both hands and plucked him. Now the 
Bodhisatta's feathers had this property that if they were 
plucked out against his wish, they ceased to be golden 
and became like a crane's feathers. And now the poor 
bird, though he stretched his wings, could not fly, and the 
woman flung him into a barrel and gave him food there. 
As time went on his feathers grew again (though they 
were plain white ones now), and he flew away to his own 
abode and never came back again. 

This is more closely related to Aesop's Goose icith the gulden Eggs, Halm 343, 
Babr. 123, than are other Indian variants. In P. (B.) in. 5 a brahmin feeds a 
snake, and finds daily a dinar in the bowl His son to get the whole treasure tries 
to kill the snake, but is bitten and killed. The snake tells the brahmin that he comes 
from greed, and refuses to have any more to do with him. In Gesta Rum. 141 (133) 
it is the father who tries to kill the snake. Hausrath, however, connects this with 
The Countryman and Snake, Halm 97, Babr. 167. In P. (B.) in. 13 a fowler catches 
a bird whose excrements turn to gold, and gives it to the king. He refuses to believe 
the fowler and sets the bird free. See the gipsy variant in the note to Jat. 284, 
p. 218. Of. Jacobs 67, Clouston, i. 123 ff. 


Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta was born a stone-cutter, and grow- 
ing up became expert in working stones. Now in the Kasi 
country there dwelt a very rich merchant who had amassed 
forty crores in gold. And when his wife died, so strong 
was her love of money that she was re-born a mouse and 
dwelt over the treasure. And one by one the whole family 
died, including the merchant himself. Likewise the village 
became deserted and forlorn. At the time of our story 


the Bodhisatta was quarrying and shaping stones on the 
site of this deserted village ; and the mouse used often to 
see him as she ran about to find food. At last she fell in 
love with him ; and, bethinking her how the secret of all 
her vast wealth would die with her, she conceived the idea 
of enjoying it with him. So one day she came to the 
Bodhisatta with a coin in her mouth. Seeing this, he spoke 
to her kindly, and said, " Mother, what has brought you 
here with this coin ? " " It is for you to lay out for your- 
self, and to buy meat with for me as well, my son." Nowise 
loth, he took the money and spent a halfpenny of it on 
meat which he brought to the mouse, who departed and 
ate to her heart's content. And this went on, the mouse 
giving the Bodhisatta a coin every day, and he in return 
supplying her with meat. But it fell out one day that the 
mouse was caught by a cat. 

" Don't kill me," said the mouse. 

" Why not ? ' said the cat. " I'm as hungry as can be, 
and really must kill you to allay the pangs." 

" First, tell me whether you're always hungry, or only 
hungry to-day." 

" Oh, every day finds me hungry again." 

" Well then, if this be so, I will find you always in meat ; 
only let me go." 

" Mind you do then," said the cat, and let the mouse go. 

As a consequence of this the mouse had to divide the 
supplies of meat she got from the Bodhisatta into two 
portions and gave one half to the cat, keeping the other 
for herself. 

Now, as luck would have it, the same mouse was caught 
another day by a second cat and had to purchase her 
release on the same terms. So now the daily food was 
divided into three portions. And when a third cat caught 


the mouse and a like arrangement had to be made, the 
supply was divided into four portions. And later a fourth 
cat caught her, and the food had to be divided among five, 
so that the mouse, reduced to such short commons, grew 
so thin as to be nothing but skin and bone. Remarking 
how emaciated his friend was getting, the Bodhisatta 
asked the reason. Then the mouse told him all that had 
befallen her. 

" Why didn't you tell me all this before ? " said the 
Bodhisatta. " Cheer up, I'll help you out of your troubles." 
So he took a block of the purest crystal and scooped out 
a cavity in it and made the mouse get inside. " Now stop 
there," said he, "and don't fail to fiercely threaten and 
revile all who come near." 

So the mouse crept into the crystal cell and waited. 
Up came one of the cats and demanded his meat. "Away, 
vile grimalkin," said the mouse; " why should I supply you? 
go home and eat your kittens!" Infuriated at these words, 
and never suspecting the mouse to be inside the crystal, 
the cat sprang at the mouse to eat her up ; and so furious 
was its spring that it broke the walls of its chest and its 
eyes started from its head. So that cat died and its 
carcass tumbled down out of sight. And the like fate in 
turn befell all four cats. And ever after the grateful 
mouse brought the Bodhisatta two or three coins instead 
of one as before, and by degrees she thus gave him the 
whole of the hoard. In unbroken friendship the two lived 
together, till their lives ended and they passed away to 
fare according to their deserts. 

Buddhaghosa xvm, where the Bodhisatta is excavating a stone temple, and makes 
a small hole in the temple, where the rat can be safe from the cats. See references 
to the grateful beasts on Jat. 73, p. 78, and for re-birth in the place where wealth is 
hoarded Jat. 39, p. 41, Jat. 73, p. 73. 


Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta was born a lizard. When he grew 
up he dwelt in a big burrow in the river bank with a 
following of many hundreds of other lizards. Now the 
Bodhisatta had a son, a young lizard, who was great friends 
with a chameleon, whom he used to clip and embrace. 
This intimacy being reported to the lizard king, he sent 
for his young son and said that such friendship was mis- 
placed, for chameleons were low creatures, and that if the 
intimacy was persisted in, calamity would befall the whole 
of the tribe of lizards. And he enjoined his son to have 
no more to do with the chameleon. But the son continued 
in his intimacy. Again and again did the Bodhisatta 
speak with his son, but finding his words of no avail, and 
foreseeing danger to the lizards from the chameleon, he 
had an outlet cut on one side of their burrow, so that there 
might be a means of escape in time of need. 

Now as time went on, the young lizard grew to a great 
size, whilst the chameleon never grew any bigger. And as 
these mountainous embraces of the young giant grew pain- 
ful indeed, the chameleon foresaw that they would be the 
death of him if they went on a few days longer, and he 
resolved to combine with a hunter to destroy the whole 
tribe of lizards. 

One day in the summer the ants came out after a 
thunder-storm, and the lizards darted hither and thither 
catching them and eating them. Now there came into 
the forest a lizard trapper with spade and dogs to dig 
out lizards; and the chameleon thought what a haul he 
would put in the trapper's way. So he went up to the 


man, and, lying down before him, asked why he was about 
in the forest. " To catch lizards," was the reply. " Well, 
I know where there's a burrow of hundreds of them," said 
the chameleon ; "bring fire and brushwood and follow me." 
And he brought the trapper to where the lizards dwelt. 
" Now," said the chameleon, " put your fuel in there and 
smoke the lizards out. Meantime let your dogs be all 
round and take a big stick in your hand. Then as the 
lizards dash out, strike them down and make a pile of the 
slain." So saying, the treacherous chameleon withdrew to 
a spot hard by, where he lay down, with his head up, saying 
to himself, " This day I shall see the back of my enemy." 
The trapper set to work to smoke the lizards out ; and 
fear for their lives drove them helter-skelter from their 
burrow. As they came out, the trapper knocked them on 
the head, and if he missed them, they fell a prey to his dogs. 
And so there was great slaughter among the lizards. 
Realising that this was the chameleon's doing, the 
Bodhisatta cried, " One should never make friends of the 
wicked, for such bring sorrow in their train. A single 
wicked chameleon has proved the bane of all these lizards." 
So saying, he escaped by the outlet he had provided, 
uttering this stanza : 

Bad company can never end in good. 
Through friendship with one sole chameleon 
The tribe of lizards met their end. 

In the frame story of P. in. the owls are destroyed by the crows through the 
same means as in the above jataka, Julien 5. The teaching of the actual story is too 
unbuddhistic for it to be adopted as a jataka, but the enmity of the crows and owls 
is referred to in the jatakas, cf. Jat. 270, p. 213. In 226 an owl that comes out at an 
unseasonable time is killed by crows. 


Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta was born a jackal, and dwelt in a 
charnel-grove with a great following of jackals of whom he 
was king. And at that time there was a festival held at 
Rajagaha, and a very wet festival it was, with everybody 
drinking hard. Now a parcel of rogues got hold of victual 
and drink in abundance, and putting on their best clothes 
sang and made merry over their fare. By midnight the 
meat was all gone, though the liquor still held out. Then 
on one asking for more meat and being told there was 
none left, said the fellow, " Victuals never lack while I am 
about. I'll off to the charnel-grove, kill a jackal prowling 
about to eat the corpses, and bring back some meat." So 
saying he snatched up a club and made his way out of the 
city by the sewer to the place, where he lay down, club in 
hand, feigning to be dead. Just then, followed by the 
other jackals, the Bodhisatta came up and marked the 
pretended corpse. Suspecting the fraud, he determined 
to sift the matter. So he went round to the lee side and 
knew by the scent that the man was not really dead. 
Resolving to make the man look foolish before leaving 
him, the Bodhisatta stole near and took hold of the club 
with his teeth and tugged at it. The rascal did not leave 
go : not perceiving the Bodhisatta's approach, he took 
a tighter grip. Hereon the Bodhisatta stepped back a 
pace or two and said, " My good man, if you had been dead, 
you would not have tightened your grip on your club when 
I was tugging at it, and so have betrayed yourself." So 
saying, he uttered this stanza : 

Thy tightening grip upon thy club doth shew 
Thy rank imposture thou'rt no corpse, I trow. 


Finding that he was discovered, the rogue sprang to 
his feet and flung his club at the Bodhisatta, but missed 
his aim. "Be off, you brute," said he, "I've missed you 
this time." Turning round, the Bodhisatta said, "True 
you have missed me, but be assured you will not miss the 
torments of the Great Hell and the sixteen Lesser Hells." 

Empty-handed, the rogue left the cemetery and, after 
bathing in a ditch, went back into the city by the way he 
had come. 


Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta was a maned lion and dwelt at 
Gold Den in the Himalayas. Bounding forth one day from 
his lair, he looked North and West, South and East, and 
roared aloud as he went in quest of prey. Slaying a large 
buffalo, he devoured the prime of the carcass, after which 
he went down to a pool, and having drunk his fill of crystal 
water turned to go towards his den. Now a hungry jackal, 
suddenly meeting the lion, and being unable to make his 
escape, threw himself at the lion's feet. Being asked what 
he wanted, the jackal replied, "Lord, let me be your 
servant." " Very well," said the lion ; " serve me and you 
shall feed on prime meat." So saying, he went with the 
jackal following to Gold Den. Thenceforth the lion's 
leavings fell to the jackal, and he grew fat. 

Lying one day in his den, the lion told the jackal to 
scan the valleys from the mountain top, to see whether 
there were any elephants or horses or buffaloes about, or 
any other animals of which he, the jackal, was fond. 
If any such were in sight, the jackal was to report and say 


with due obeisance, "Shine forth in thy might, Lord." Then 
the lion promised to kill and eat, giving a part to the 
jackal. 80 the jackal used to climb the heights, and when- 
ever he espied below beasts to his taste, he would report 
it to the lion, and falling at his feet, say, " Shine forth in 
thy might, Lord." Hereon the lion would nimbly bound 
forth and slay the beast, even if it were a rutting elephant, 
and share the prime of the carcass with the jackal. 
Glutted with his meal, the jackal would then retire to his 
den and sleep. 

Now as time went on, the jackal grew bigger and 
bigger till he grew haughty. " Have not I too four legs ? ' 
he asked himself. " Why am I a pensioner day by day on 
others' bounty ? Henceforth / will kill elephants and other 
beasts, for my own eating. The lion, king of beasts, only 
kills them because of the formula, ' Shine forth in thy 
might, Lord.' I'll make the lion call out to me, 'Shine 
forth in thy might, jackal,' and then I'll kill an elephant 
for myself." Accordingly he went to the lion, and pointing 
out that he had long lived on what the lion had killed, told 
his desire to eat an elephant of his own killing, ending with 
a request to the lion to let him, the jackal, couch in the 
lion's corner in Gold Den whilst the lion was to climb the 
mountain to look out for an elephant. The quarry found, 
he asked that the lion should come to him in the den and 
say, "Shine forth in thy might, jackal." He begged the 
lion not to grudge him this much. Said the lion, " Jackal, 
only lions can kill elephants, nor has the world ever seen 
a jackal able to cope with them. Give up this fancy, and 
continue to feed on what I kill." But say what the lion 
could, the jackal Avould not give way, and still pressed his 
request. So at last the lion gave way, and bidding the 
jackal couch in the den, climbed the peak and thence 


espied an elephant in rut. Returning to the mouth of 
the cave, he said, "Shine forth in thy might, jackal." 
Then from Gold Den the jackal nimbly bounded forth, 
looked around him on all four sides, and, thrice raising its 
howl, sprang at the elephant, meaning to fasten on its 
head. But missing his aim, he alighted at the elephant's 
feet. The infuriated brute raised its right foot and crushed 
the jackal's head, trampling the bones into powder. Then 
pounding the carcass into a mass, and dunging upon it, 
the elephant clashed trumpeting into the forest. Seeing 
all this, the Bodhisatta observed, " Now shine forth in thy 
might, jackal," and uttered this stanza : 

Tour mangled corpse, your brains mashed into clay, 
Prove how you've shone forth in your might to-day. 

Thus spake the Bodhisatta, and living to a good old 
age he passed away in the fulness of time to fare according 
to his deserts. 

See Jat. 204, p. 169, and parallels given there. Jat. 335 is a variant version. 


Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta was a sea-spirit. Now a crow with 
his mate came down in quest of food to the sea-shore 
where, just before, certain persons had been offering 
to the Nagas a sacrifice of milk, and rice, and fish, and 
meat and strong drink and the like. Up came the crow 
and with his mate ate freely of the elements of the sacrifice, 
and drank a great deal of the spirits. So they both got 
very drunk. Then they wanted to disport themselves in 
the sea, and were trying to swim on the surf, when a wave 


swept the hen-crow out to sea and a fish came and gobbled 
her up. 

" Oh, my poor wife is dead," cried the crow, bursting 
into tears and lamentations. Then a crowd of crows were 
drawn by his wailing to the spot to learn what ailed him. 
And when he told them how his wife had been carried out 
to sea, they all began with one voice to lament. Suddenly 
the thought struck them that they were stronger than the 
sea and that all they had to do was to empty it out and 
rescue their comrade ! So they set to work with their 
bills to empty the sea out by mouthfuls, betaking them- 
selves to dry land to rest so soon as their throats were sore 
with the salt water. And so they toiled away till their 
mouths and jaws were dry and inflamed and their eyes 
bloodshot, and they were ready to drop for weariness. 
Then in despair they turned to one another and said that 
it was in vain they laboured to empty the sea, for no sooner 
had they got rid of the water in one place than more 
flowed in, and there was all their work to do over again ; 
they would never succeed in baling the water out of the 
sea. And, so saying, they uttered this stanza : 

Our jaws are tired, our mouths are sore; 
The sea refllleth evermore. 

Then all the crows fell to praising the beauty of her 
beak and eyes, her complexion, figure and sweet voice, 
saying that it was her excellences that had provoked the 
sea to steal her from them. But as they talked this 
nonsense, the sea-spirit made a bogey appear from the sea 
and so put them all to flight. In this wise they were saved. 

A much mutilated version of P. (T.) i. 10, (B.) I. 12, Sandpiper and Sea. The eggs 
of the birds are carried away by the sea, but restored by Vishnu on the birds appealing 
to his bird Garutmat. Som. LX. 163 (ii. 36), K. D. (Syr.) I. 10, (Arab.) v. Cf. the fable 
of the dogs who try to drink a river dry in order to get out a hide, Phaedr. i. 20. 
Jacobs 71. 


Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta was re-born into life as a jackal 
and dwelt iu the forest by the river-side. Now an old 
elephant died by the banks of the Ganges, and the jackal, 
finding the carcass, congratulated himself on lighting upon 
such a store of meat. First he bit the trunk, but that was 
like biting a plough-handle. "There's no eating here," 
said the jackal and took a bite at a tusk. But that was 
like biting bones. Then he tried an ear, but that was like 
chewing the rim of a winnowing-basket. So he fell to on 
the stomach, but found it as tough as a grain-basket. The 
feet were no better, for they were like a mortar. Next he 
tried the tail, but that was like the pestle. "That won't 
do either," said the jackal ; and having failed elsewhere to 
find a toothsome part, he tried the rear and found that 
like eating a soft cake. " At last," said he, " I've found the 
right place,'' and ate his way right into the belly, where he 
made a plenteous meal off the kidneys, heart and the rest, 
quenching his thirst with the blood. And when night 
came on, he lay down inside. As he lay there, the thought 
came into the jackal's mind, " This carcass is both meat 
and house to me, and wherefore should I leave it ? ' So 
there he stopped, and dwelt in the elephant's inwards, 
eating away. Time wore on till the summer sun and the 
summer winds dried and shrank the elephant's hide, 
until the entrance by which the jackal had got in was 
closed and the interior was in utter darkness. Thus the 
jackal was, as it were, cut off from the world and confined 
in the interspace between the worlds. After the hide, the 
flesh dried up and the blood was exhausted. In a frenzy 


of despair, he rushed to and fro beating against his prison 
walls in the fruitless endeavour to escape. But as he 
bobbed up and down inside like a ball of rice in a boil- 
ing saucepan, soon a tempest broke and the downpour 
moistened the shell of the carcass and restored it to its 
former state, till light shone like a star through the way 
by which the jackal had got in. " Saved ! saved ! ' cried 
the jackal, and, backing into the elephant's head made a 
rush head-first at the outlet. He managed to get through, 
it is true, but only by leaving all his hair on the way. And 
first he ran, then he halted, and then sat down and sur- 
veyed his hairless body, now smooth as a palm-stem. 
"Ah!" he exclaimed, "this misfortune has befallen me 
because of my greed and my greed alone. Henceforth I 
will not be greedy nor ever again get into the carcass of an 
elephant." And his terror found expression in this stanza: 

Once bitten, twice shy. Ah, great was iny fear! 
Of elephants' inwards henceforth I'll steer clear. 

And with these words the jackal made oft", nor did he 
ever again so much as look either at that or at any other 
elephant's carcass. And thenceforth he was never greedy 

Hertel makes a far-fetched comparison with the fable in P. (B.) i. 2, where a 
jackal breaks open a drum and finds it empty, a fable which also occurs in K. 1>. 
(Syr.) i. 2, (Arab.) v., Som. LX. 56 (ii. 30). 


Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta was born into the family of a 
wealthy brahmin. Arriving at years of discretion, he went 
to study at Takkasila, where he received a complete edu- 
cation. In Benares as a teacher he enjoyed world-wide 

F. & T. 9 


fame and had five hundred young brahmins as pupils. 
Among these was one named Sanjlva, to whom the 
Bodhisatta taught the spell for raising the dead to life. 
But though the young mail was taught this, he was not 
taught the counter charm. Proud of his new power, he 
went with his fellow-pupils to the forest wood-gathering, 
and there came on a dead tiger. 

" Now see me bring the tiger to life again," said he. 

" You can't," said they. 

" You look and you will see me do it." 

" Well, if you can, do so," said they, and climbed up a 
tree forthwith. 

Then Saiijlva repeated his charm and struck the dead 
tiger with a potsherd. Up started the tiger and quick as 
lightning sprang at Sarijiva and bit him on the throat, 
killing him outright, Dead fell the tiger then and there, 
and dead fell Sanjlva too at the same spot. So there the 
two lay dead side by side. 

The young brahmins took their wood and went back to 
their master to whom they told the story. "My dear pupils," 
said he, " mark herein how by reason of shewing favour to 
the sinful and paying honour where it was not due, he has 
brought all this calamity upon himself." And so saying he 
uttered this stanza : 

Befriend a villain, aid him in his need, 

And, like that tiger which Sanjlva raised 

To life, he straight devours you for your pains. 

Such was the Bodhisatta's lesson to the young brahmins, 
and after a life of almsgiving and other good deeds he 
passed away to fare according to his deserts. 

P. (B.) v. 4, The Lion-makers, Vet. 21. This tale and Jat. 527, Vet. 16, are the 
only jatakas in common with Vet., except a doubtful parallel in Jat. 200, p. 168. 


Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta was king of 
Benares, the Bodhisatta was conceived by his Queen 
Consort; and the ceremonies proper to her state having 
been duly done 1 , she was afterwards safely delivered. On 
his name-day, the name they gave him was Prince Brah- 

In course of time, he grew up, and at sixteen years 
went to Takkasila 2 for his education ; where he mastered 
all branches of learning, and on his father's death he 
became king in his stead, and ruled with uprightness and 
all rectitude, administering justice with no regard had to 
his own will or whim. And as he ruled thus justly, his 
ministers on their part were also just; thus, while all 
things were justly done, there was none who brought a 
false suit into court. Presently all the bustle of suitors 
ceased within the precincts of the palace ; all day long the 
ministers might sit on the bench, and go away without 
seeing a single suitor. The courts w r ere deserted. 

O O 

Then the Bodhisatta thought to himself, "Because of 
my just government not one suitor comes to try issue in 
court ; the old hubbub is quiet ; the courts of law are 
deserted. Now I must search whether I have any fault 
in me; which if I find, I will eschew it, and live a good 
life hereafter." From that time he tried continually to 
find some one who would tell him of a fault; but of all 
who were about him at court he could not find one such; 
nothing could he hear but good of himself. "Perhaps," 
thought he, " they are all so much afraid of me that they 

1 Lit. "protection to the embryo"; doubtless some magical rite. 

2 The great University town of India (TaiXa); it was in the Punjab. 



say no ill of me but only good," and so he went about to 
try those who were outside his walls. But with these it 
was just the same. Then he made inquisition of the 
citizens at large, and outside the city questioned those 
who belonged to the suburbs at the four city gates. Still 
there was none who had any fault to find; nothing but 
praises could he hear. Lastly, with intent to try the 
country side, he entrusted all government to his ministers, 
and mounted in his carriage, and taking only the driver 
with him, left the city in disguise. All the country he 
traversed, even to the frontier; but not a fault-finder could 
he light upon ; all he could hear was only his own praises. 
So back he turned from the marches, and set his face 
homewards again by the high-road. 

Now it fortuned that at this very time Mallika, the king 
of Kosala, had done the very same thing. He too was a 
just king, and he had been searching for his faults; but 
amongst those about him there was none who had any 
fault to find ; and hearing nothing but praise, he had been 
making enquiry throughout all the country, and had but 
then arrived at that same spot. 

These two met, in a place where the carriage-road was 
deeply sunk between two banks, and there was no room 
for one carriage to pass another. 

" Get your carriage out of the way! " said king Mallika's 
driver to the driver of the king of Benares. 

" No, no, driver," said he, " out of the way with yours ! 
Know that in this carriage sits the great monarch Brahma- 
datta, lord of the kingdom of Benares!" 

"Not so, driver!" replied the other, "in this carriage 
sits the great king Mallika, lord of the realm of Kosala ! 
It is for you to make way, and to give place to the carriage 
of our king!" 


"Why, here's a king too," thought the driver of the 
king of Benares. " What in the world is to be done ? " 
Then a thought struck him ; he would enquire what should 
be the age of the two kings, so that the younger should 
give way to the elder. And he made enquiry of the other 
driver how old his king was ; but he learnt that both were 
of the same age. Thereupon he asked the extent of this 
king's power, wealth, and glory, and all points touching 
his caste and clan and his family; discovering that both 
of them had a country three hundred leagues long, and 
that they were alike in power, wealth, glory, and the nature 
of their family and lineage. Then he bethought him that 
place might be given to the better man ; so he requested 
that the other driver should describe his master's virtues. 
The man replied by the first verse of poetry following, in 
which he set forth his monarch's faults as though they 
were so many virtues: 

Rough to the rough, king- Mallika the mild with mildness sways, 
Masters the good by goodness, and the bad with badness pays. 
Give place, give place, driver! such are this monarch's ways! 

" Oh," said the man of the king of Benares, " is that all 
you have to say about your king's virtues ? " " Yes," said 
the other. " If these are his virtues, what must his vices 
be ! " " Vices be it, then," quoth he, " if you will ; but let 
us hear what your king's virtues may be like!" "Listen 
then," rejoined the first, and repeated the second verse: 

He conquers wrath by mildness, the bad with goodness sways, 
By gifts the miser vanquishes and lies with truth repays. 
Give place, give place, driver ! such are this monarch's ways l 1 

At these words both king Mallika and his driver de- 
scended from their carriage, and loosed the horses, and 
moved it out of the way, to give place to the king of 

1 Dhammapada, verse 223. 


Benares. Then the king of Benares gave good admonition 
to king Mallika, saying, " Thus and thus must you do " ; 
after which he returned to Benares, and there gave alms 
and did good all his life, till at the last he went to swell 
the hosts of heaven. And king Mallika took the lesson to 
heart ; and after traversing the length and breadth of the 
land, and lighting upon none who had any fault to find in 
him, returned to his own city; where he gave alms all his 
life and did good, till at the end he too attained to heaven. 

A similar contest of two minstrels occurs in the Kalerala (Crawford's translation, 
i. 30). The young fiercely drives into the old, who says, " Thou shouldst give me all 
the highway, for I am the older." "What matters that?" says the other; "let the 
least wise give place." There they stand and each sings his legends by way of 
deciding the matter. (Dr Rouse.) The jataka itself is a variant of the story of the 
kings Narada and Sivi in Mbh. in. ch. 194. 


Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta was king of 
Benares, there was a village of carpenters not far from 
the city, in which five hundred carpenters lived. They 
would go up the river in a vessel, and enter the forest, 
where they would shape beams and planks for house- 
building, and put together the framework of one-storey 
or two-storey houses, numbering all the pieces from the 
mainpost onwards ; these then they brought down to the 
river bank, and put them all aboard ; then rowing down 
stream again, they would build houses to order as it was 
required of them; after which, when they received their 
wage, they went back again for more materials for the 
building, and in this way they made their livelihood. 

Once it befell that in a place where they were at work 
in shaping timbers, a certain Elephant trod upon a splinter 
of acacia wood, which pierced his foot, and caused it to 


swell up and fester, and he was in great pain. In his 
agony, he caught the sound of these carpenters cutting 
wood. " There are some carpenters will cure me," thought 
he; and limping on three feet, he presented himself before 
them, and lay down close by. The carpenters, noticing 
his swollen foot, went up and looked; there was the 
splinter sticking in it. With a sharp tool they made in- 
cision about the splinter, and tying a string to it, pulled 
it right out. Then they lanced the gathering, and washed 
it with warm water, and doctored it properly; and in a 
very short time the wound was healed. 

Grateful for this cure, the Elephant thought: "My life 
has been saved by the help of these carpenters; now I 
must make myself useful to them." So ever after that, 
he used to pull up trees for them, or when they were 
chopping he would roll up the logs ; or bring them their 
adzes and any tools they might want, holding everything 
in his trunk like grim death. And the carpenters, when 
it was time to feed him, used to bring him each a portion 
of food, so that he had five hundred portions in all. 

Now this Elephant had a young one, white all over, a 
magnificent high-bred creature. The Elephant reflected 
that he was now old, and he had better bring his young 
one to serve the carpenters, and himself be left free to go. 
So without a word to the carpenters, he went off into the 
wood, and brought his son to them, saying, "This young- 
Elephant is a son of mine. You saved my life, and I give 
him to you as a fee for your leechcraft ; from henceforth 
he shall work for you." So he explained to the young 
Elephant that it was his duty to do the work which he 
had been used to do himself, and then went away into the 
forest, leaving him with the carpenters. So after that 
time the young Elephant did all their work, faithfully and 


obediently; and they fed him, as they had fed the other, 
with five hundred portions for a meal. 

His work once done, the Elephant would go play about 
in the river, and then return again. The carpenters' 
children used to pull him by the trunk, and play all sorts 
of pranks with him in water and out. Now noble creatures, 
be they elephants, horses, or men, never dung or stale in 
the water 1 . So this Elephant did nothing of the kind 
when he was in the water, but waited until he came out 
upon the bank. 

One day, rain had fallen up river; and by the flood a 
half-dry cake of his dung was carried into the river. This 
floated down to the Benares landing place, where it stuck 
fast in a bush. Just then the king's elephant keepers 
had brought down five hundred elephants to give them a 
bath. But the creatures scented this soil of a noble 
animal, and not one would enter the water ; up went their 
tails, and off they all ran. The keepers told this to the 
elephant trainers; who replied, "There must be something 
in the water, then." So orders were given to cleanse the 
water ; and there in the bushes this lump was seen. " That's 
Avhat the matter is ! " cried the men. So they brought a 
jar, and filled it with water; next powdering the stuff into 
it, they sprinkled the water over the elephants, whose 
bodies then became sweet. At once they went down into 
the river and bathed. 

When the trainers made their report to the king, they 
advised him to secure the Elephant for his own use and 

The king accordingly embarked upon a raft, and rowed 

1 Compare Ilesiod, Oj>. 7">7: prjSe TTOT' tv Trpo^ofj noTafj.a>v aXade 
eVl Kpqvauav ovpeiv. 1 1 (It. i. 138: (the Persians) es TTorafiov 8e otrre evovpiov&i 
(Dr Rouse.) 


up stream until he arrived at the place where the carpenters 
had settled. The young Elephant, hearing the sound of 
drums as he was playing in the water, came out and pre- 
sented himself before the carpenters, who one and all came 
forth to do honour to the king's coming, and said to him, 
" Sire, if woodwork is wanted, what need to come here ? 
Why not send and have it brought to you ? " 

" No, no, good friends," the king answered, " 'tis not for 
wood that I come, but for this elephant here." 

"He is yours, Sire!" -But the Elephant refused to 

" What do you want me to do, gossip Elephant ? " asked 
the king. 

" Order the carpenters to be paid for what they have 
spent on me, Sire." 

"Willingly, friend." And the king ordered an hundred 
thousand pieces of money to be laid by his tail, and trunk, 
and by each of his four feet. But this was not enough 
for the Elephant; go he would not. So to each of the 
carpenters was given a pair of cloths, and to each of their 
wives robes to dress in, nor did he omit to give enough 
whereby his playmates the children should be brought up ; 
then with a last look upon the carpenters, and the women, 
and the children, he departed in company with the king. 

To his capital city the king brought him; and city and 
stable were decked out with all magnificence. He led the 
Elephant round the city in solemn procession, and thence 
into his stable, which was fitted up with splendour and 
pomp. There he solemnly sprinkled the Elephant, and 
appointed him for his own riding; like a comrade he 
treated him, and gave him the half of his kingdom, taking 
as much care of him as he did of himself. After the coming 
of this Elephant, the king won supremacy over all India, 


In course of time the Bodhisatta was conceived by the 
Queen Consort; and when her time was near come to be 
delivered, the king died. Xow if the Elephant learnt 
news of the king's death, he was sure to break his heart ; 
so he was waited upon as before, and not a word said. 
But the next neighbour, the king of Kosala, heard of the 
king's death. " Surely the land is at my mercy," thought 
he; and marched with a mighty host to the city, and 
beleaguered it. Straight the gates were closed, and a 
message was sent to the king of Kosala: "Our Queen is 
near the time of her delivery; and the astrologers have 
declared that in seven days she shall bear a son. If she 
bears a son, we will not yield the kingdom, but on the 
seventh day we will give you battle. For so long we pray 
you wait ! " And to this the king agreed. 

In seven days the Queen bore a son. On his name-day 
they called him Prince Winheart, because, said they, he 
was born to win the hearts of the people. 

On the very same day that he was born, the townsfolk 
began to do battle with the king of Kosala. But as they 
had no leader, little by little the army gave way, great 
though it was. The courtiers told this news to the Queen, 
adding, " Since our army loses ground in this way, we fear 
defeat. But the state Elephant, our king's bosom friend, 
has never been told that the king is dead, and a son born 
to him, and that the king of Kosala is here to give us 
battle. Shall we tell him?" 

" Yes, do so," said the Queen. So she dressed up her 
son, and laid him in a fine linen cloth; after which she 
with all the court came down from the palace and entered 
the Elephant's stable. There she laid the babe at the 
Elephant's feet, saying, "Master, your comrade is dead, 
but we feared to tell it you lest you might break your 


heart. This is your comrade's son; the king of Kosala 
has run a leaguer about the city, and is making war upon 
your son ; the army is losing ground ; either kill your son 
yourself, or else win the kingdom back for him ! " 

At once the Elephant stroked the child with his trunk, 
and lifted him upon his own head ; then making moan 
and lamentation he took him down and laid him in his 
mother's arms, and with the words "I will master the 
king of Kosala ! " he went forth hastily. 

Then the courtiers put his armour and caparison 
upon him, and unlocked the city gate, and escorted him 
thither. The Elephant emerging trumpeted, and frightened 
all the host so that they ran away, and broke up the 
camp ; then seizing the king of Kosala by his topknot, he 
carried him to the young prince, at whose feet he let him 
fall. Some rose to kill him, but them the Elephant stayed ; 
and he let the captive king go with this advice: "Be 
careful for the future, and be not presumptuous by reason 
that our Prince is young." 

After that, the power over all India fell into the Bod- 
hisatta's own hand, and not a foe was able to rise up 
against him. The Bodhisatta was consecrated at the age 
of seven years, as King Winheart ; just was his reign, and 
when he came to life's end he attained to heaven. 

The story of Androcles or Androclus and the lion is given by Aulus Gellius, v. 14, 
on the authority of Apion, who says that he saw it in Rome with his own eyes, 
cf. Aelian, De An. Nat. vn. 48. Seneca, De Ben. n. 19, tells a similar story of a lion 
seen by himself in the amphitheatre, which recognised its former keeper and pro- 
tected him from the attacks of the other animals. In Gesta Rom. 104 (96) the 
story is of a soldier, who finds the lion while hunting, and is afterwards condemned 
by the king to be devoured. 


Once upon a time, while Brahmadatta was king of 
Benares, the Bodhisatta was born of a brahmin family. 
On growing up he left his worldly home and took to the 
religious life, and in time became the leader of a company 
of five hundred anchorites, who all lived together in the 
region of Himalaya. 

Amongst these anchorites was a headstrong and un- 
teachable person named Indasamanagotta. He had a 
pet elephant. The Bodhisatta sent for him when he found 
this out, and asked if he really did keep a young elephant ? 
Yes, the man said, he had an elephant which had lost its 
dam. " Well," the Bodhisatta said, " when elephants grow 
up they kill even those who foster them ; so you had 
better not keep it any longer. 1 ' " But I can't live without 
him, my Teacher!" was the reply. "Oh, well," said the 
Bodhisatta, "you'll live to repent it." 

Howbeit he still reared the creature, and by and by 
it grew to an immense size. 

It happened once that the anchorites had all gone far 
afield to gather roots and fruits in the forest, and they 
were absent for several days. At the first breath of the 
south wind this elephant fell in a frenzy. "Destruction 
to this hut ! " thought he, " I'll smash the water- jar ! I'll 
overturn the stone bench ! I'll tear up the pallet ! I'll kill 
the hermit, and then off I'll go ! " So he sped into the 
jungle, and waited watching for their return. 

His master came first, laden with food for his pet. As 
soon as he saw him, he hastened up, thinking all was well 1 . 
Out rushed the elephant from the thicket, and seizing 

1 Or, " with his usual greeting, or signal." 


him in his trunk, dashed him to the ground, then with a 
blow on the head crushed the life out of him ; and madly 
trumpeting, he scampered into the forest. 

The other anchorites brought this news to the Bod- 
hisatta. Said he, " We should have no dealings with the 
bad " ; and then he repeated these two verses : 

Friendship with evil let the good eschew, 
The good, who know what duty bids them do: 
They will work mischief, l)e it soon or late, 
Even as the elephant his master slew. 

But if a kindred spirit thou shalt see, 
In virtue, wisdom, learning like to thee, 

Choose such an one to be thy own true friend; 
Good friends and blessing go in company. 

In this way the Bodhisatta shewed his band of anchorites 
that it is well to be docile and not obstinate. Then he 
performed Indasamanagotta's obsequies, and cultivating 
the Excellences, came at last into Brahma's heaven. 

In Jat. 43 an ascetic keeps a tame viper in a bamboo tube. It is neglected for 
several days, and when taken out bites and kills him. Cf. Aesop, Countryman and 
frozen Snake, Halm 97, Babr. 167. Hausrath compares P. (B.) in. 5, The Gold- 
giving Snake. See on Jat. 136, p. 118. 


Once on a time, when Brahmadatta was king of Benares, 
the Bodhisatta was born in a certain village as one of a 
brahmin family. When he came of age, he was educated 
at Takkasila; then, renouncing the world he became a 
recluse, cultivated the Faculties and the Attainments, 
and dwelt in the region of Himalaya, living upon wild 
roots and fruits which he picked up in his goings to and 

At the end of his cloistered walk lived a Mongoose in 


an ant-heap; and not far off, a Snake lived in a hollow 
tree. These two, Snake and Mongoose, were perpetually 
quarrelling. The Bodhisatta preached to them the misery 
of quarrels and the blessing of cultivating friendship, and 
reconciled the two together, saying, "You ought to cease 
your quarrelling and live together at one." 

When the Serpent was abroad, the Mongoose at the 
end of the walk lay with his head out of the hole in his 
ant-hill, and his mouth open, and thus fell asleep, heavily 
drawing his breath in and out. The Bodhisatta saw him 
sleeping there, and asking him, " Why, what are you afraid 
of?" repeated the first stanza: 

Creature 1 , your egg-born enemy a faithful friend is made: 
Why sleep you there with teeth all bare ? of what are you afraid ? 

" Father," said the Mongoose, " never despise a former 
enemy, but always suspect him " : and he repeated the 
second stanza: 

Never despise an enemy nor ever trust a friend: 

A fear that springs from uufeared things uproots and makes an end. 

"Fear not," replied the Bodhisatta. "I have persuaded 
the Snake to do you no harm; distrust him no more." 
With this advice, he proceeded to cultivate the Four 
Excellences, and became destined for Brahma's heaven. 
And the others too passed away to fare hereafter ac- 
cording to their deeds. 

The doctrine of the mongoose is the same as that taught in The Crows and the 
Owls, the frame story of P. m. Cf. Jat. 141, p. 121. The jataka appears to be a 
folktale modified to counteract such morality. 

1 Lit. "O viviparous one." 


Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta was born as a young Lion, and 
was the king of many lions. With a suite of lions he 
dwelt in Silver Cave. Near by was a Jackal, living in 
another cave. 

One day, after a shower of rain, all the Lions were 
together at the entrance of their leader's cave, roaring 
loudly and gambolling about as lions use. As they were 
thus roaring and playing, the Jackal too lifted up his 
voice. " Here's this Jackal, giving tongue along with us ! " 
said the Lions ; they felt ashamed, and were silent. When 
they all fell silent, the Bodhisatta's cub asked him this 
question. " Father, all these Lions that were roaring and 
playing about have fallen silent for very shame on hearing 
yon creature. What creature is it that betrays itself thus 
by its voice ? " and he repeated the first stanza : 

Who is it with a mighty cry makes Daddara resound? 

Who is it, Lord of Beasts ? and why has he no welcome found ? 

At his son's words the old Lion repeated the second 
stanza : 

The Jackal, of all beasts most vile, 'tis he that makes that sound: 
The Lions loathe his baseness, while they sit in silence round. 

In P. (B.) iv. 4 a lion brings home a young jackal, which is brought up with two 
young lions, and through his cowardice makes them lose their courage. In Jat. 188 
a cub, a cross between a lion and a jackal, is like a lion in form, but is betrayed by 
his howl. Cf. Cullav. i. 18. 3 (S.B.E. xvii. 362), the offspring of a hen and crow caws 
when it tries to crow and vice cersa. 


Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, he had a Councillor who was his right-hand man 
and gave him advice in things spiritual and temporal. 
There was a rising on the frontier, and the troops there 
stationed sent the king a letter. The king started, rainy 
season though it was, and formed a camp in his park. 
The Bodhisatta stood before the king. At that moment 
the people had steamed some peas for the horses, and 
poured them out into a trough. One of the monkeys that 
lived in the park jumped down from a tree, filled his 
mouth and hands with the peas, then up again, and sitting 
down in the tree he began to eat. As he ate, one pea fell 
from his hand upon the ground. Down dropped at once 
all the peas from his hands and mouth, and down from 
the tree he came, to hunt for the lost pea. But that pea 
he could not find; so he climbed up his tree again, and 
sat still, very glum, looking like some one who had lost a 
thousand in some lawsuit. 

The king observed how the monkey had done, and 
pointed it out to the Bodhisatta. " Friend, what do you 
think of that ? " he asked. To which the Bodhisatta made 
answer: King, this is what fools of little wit are wont to 
do ; they spend a pound to win a penny " ; and he went 
on to repeat the first stanza: 

A foolish monkey, living- in the trees, 
king, when both his hands were full of peas, 
Has thrown them all away to look for one: 
There is no wisdom, Sire, in such as these. 

Then the Bodhisatta approached the king, and ad- 
dressing him again, repeated the second stanza: 

Such are we, mighty monarch, such all those that greedy be; 
Losing much to gain a little, like the monkey and the pea. 


On hearing this address the king turned and went 
straight back to Benares. And the outlaws hearing that 
the king had set forth from his capital to make mincemeat 
of his enemies, hurried away from the borders. 

K. D. (Syr.) rx. 2, (Arab.) xiv., where it is inserted in the story of Bilad (variant 
of Jat. 77, p. 78). 


Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta was king of 
Benares, the Bodhisatta was conceived as the son of the 
Queen Consort. She was safely delivered ; and on his 
name-day they gave him the name of Asadisa-Kumara, 
Prince Peerless. About the time he was able to walk, 
the Queen conceived one who was also to be a good being. 
She was safely delivered, and on the name-day they called 
the babe Brahmadatta-Kumara, or Prince Heaven-sent. 

When Prince Peerless was sixteen, he went to Tak- 
kasila for his education. There at the feet of a world- 
famed teacher he learnt the Three Vedas and the Eighteen 
Accomplishments ; in the science of archery he was peer- 
less; then he returned to Benares. 

When the king was on his deathbed he commanded 
that Prince Peerless should be king in his stead, and 
Prince Brahmadatta the viceroy. Then he died; after 
which the kingship was offered to Peerless, who refused, 
saying that he cared not for it. So they consecrated 
Brahmadatta to be king by sprinkling him. Peerless 
cared nothing for glory, and wanted nothing. 

While the younger brother ruled, Peerless lived in all 
royal state. The slaves came and slandered him to his 
brother ; " Prince Peerless wants to be king ! " said they. 

F. &T. 10 


Brahmadatta believed them, and allowed himself to be 
deceived ; he sent some men to take Peerless prisoner. 

One of Prince Peerless' attendants told him what was 
afoot. He w r axed angry with his brother, and went away 
into another country. When he arrived there, he sent in 


word to the king- that an archer was come, and awaited 
him. "What wages does he ask?" the king enquired. 
"A hundred thousand a year." "Good," said the king; 
"let him enter." 

Peerless came into the presence, and stood waiting. 
"Are you the archer?" asked the king. "Yes, Sire." "Very 
well, I take you into my service." After that Peerless 
remained in the service of this king. But the old archers 
were annoyed at the wage which was given him ; " Too 
much," they grumbled. 

One day it so happened that the king went out into 
his park. There, at foot of a mango tree, where a screen 
had been put up before a certain stone seat of ceremony, 
he reclined upon a magnificent couch. He happened to 
look up, and there right at the treetop he saw a cluster 
of mango fruit. " It is too high to climb for," thought he ; 
so summoning his archers, he asked them whether they 
could cut oft* yon cluster with an arrow, and bring it down 
for him. " Oh," said they, " that is not much for us to do. 
But your majesty has seen our skill often enough. The 
newcomer is so much better paid than we, that perhaps 
you might make him bring down the fruit." 

Then the king sent for Peerless, and asked him if he 
could do it. "Oh yes, your 3Iajesty, if I may choose my 
position." "What position do you want?" "The place 
where your couch stands." The king had the couch re- 
moved, and gave place. 

Peerless had no bow in his hand; he used to carry 


it underneath his body-cloth; so he must needs have a 
screen. The king ordered a screen to be brought and 
spread for him, and our archer went in. He doffed the 
white cloth which he wore over all, and put on a red cloth 
next his skin; then he fastened his girdle, and donned 
a red waistcloth. From a bag he took out a sword in 
pieces, which he put together and girt on his left side. 
Next he put on a mailcoat of gold, fastened his bow-case 
over his back, and took out his great ramshorn bow, made 
in several pieces, which he fitted together, fixed the bow- 
string, red as coral ; put a turban upon his head ; twirling 
the arrow with his nails, he threw open the screen and 
came out, looking like a Naga prince just emerging 
fi'om the riven ground. He went to the place of shooting, 
arrow set to bow, and then put this question to the king. 
"Your Majesty," said he, "am I to bring this fruit down 
with an upward shot, or by dropping the arrow upon it? ' 

"My son," said the king, "I have often seen a mark 
brought down by the upward shot, but never one taken 
in the fall. You had better make the shaft fall on it." 

"Your Majesty," said the archer, "this arrow will fly 
high. Up to the heaven of the Four Great Kings it will 
fly, and then return of itself. You must please be patient 
till it returns." The king promised. Then the archer 
said again, "Your Majesty, this arrow in its upshot will 
pierce the stalk exactly in the middle ; and when it comes 
down, it will not swerve a hairsbreadth either way, but 
hit the same spot to a nicety, and bring down the cluster 
with it." Then he sped the arrow forth swiftly. As the 
arrow went up it pierced the exact centre of the mango 
stalk. By the time the archer knew his arrow had 
reached the place of the Four Great Kings, he let fly 
another arrow with greater speed than the first. This 



struck the feather of the first arrow, and turned it back ; 
then itself went up as far as the heaven of the Thirty-three 
gods. There the deities caught and kept it. 

The sound of the falling arrow as it cleft the air was 
as the sound of a thunderbolt. "What is that noise?" 
asked every man. " That is the arrow falling," our archer 
replied. The bystanders were all frightened to death, for 
fear the arrow should fall on them ; but Peerless com- 
forted them. " Fear nothing," said he, " and I will see 
that it does not fall on the earth." Down came the arrow, 
not a hairbreadth out either way, but neatly cut through 
the stalk of the mango cluster. The archer caught the 
arrow in one hand and the fruit in the other, so that they 
should not fall upon the ground. " We never saw such a 
thing before ! " cried the onlookers, at this marvel. How 
they praised the great man ! how they cheered and clapped 
and snapped their fingers, thousands of kerchiefs waving 
in the air ! In their joy and delight the courtiers gave 
presents to Peerless amounting to ten millions of money. 
And the king too showered gifts and honours upon him 
like rain. 

While the Bodhisatta was receiving such glory and 
honour at the hands of this king, seven kings, who knew 
that there was no Prince Peerless in Benares, drew a 
leaguer around the city, and summoned its king to fight 
or yield. The king was frightened out of his life. " Where 
is my brother ? " he asked. " He is in the service of a 
neighbouring king," was the reply. " If my dear brother 
does not come," said he, " I am a dead man. Go, fall at 
his feet in my name, appease him, bring him hither!" 
His messengers came and did their errand. Peerless took 
leave of his master, and returned to Benares. He com- 
forted his brother and bade him fear nothing; then 


scratched 1 a message upon an arrow to this effect: "I, 
Prince Peerless, am returned. I mean to kill you all with 
one arrow which I will shoot at you. Let those who care 
for life make their escape." This he shot so that it fell 
upon the very middle of a golden dish, from which the 
seven kings were eating together. When they read the 
writing they all fled, half-dead Avith fright. 

Thus did our Prince put to flight seven kings, without 
shedding even so much blood as a little fly might drink ; 
then, looking upon his younger brother, he renounced his 
lusts, and forsook the world, cultivated the Faculties and 
the Attainments, and at his life's end came to Brahma's 

Hardy, Manual of Buddhism, 114. The latter part of the story is given very 
briefly in Mahdvastu 2. 82-3, Caraksepana Jdtaka. It is figured on the Bharhut 
Stupa, see Cunningham, p. 70, and plate xxvu. 13; and possibly on the Sanchi Tope, 
see Fergusson, Tree and Serpent Worship, pi. xxvi. p. 181. (Dr Rouse.) 


Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta w r as reigning in 
Benares, four brahmins, brothers, of the land of Kasi, left 
the world and became hermits; they built themselves four 
huts in a row in the highlands of the Himalaya, and there 
they lived. 

The eldest brother died, and was born as Sakka. 
Knowing who he had been, he used to visit the others 
every seven or eight days, and lend them a helping hand. 

One day, he visited the eldest of the anchorites, and 
after the usual greeting, took his seat to one side. " Well, 
Sir, how can I serve you ? " he enquired. The hermit, who 
w r as suffering from jaundice, replied, "Fire is what I 

1 In the Mahdvastu it is wrapt round it (2. p. 82. 14, parivethitva); so in Hardy. 


want.'' Sakka gave him a razor-axe. (A razor-axe is so 
called because it serves as razor or as axe according as 
you fit it into the handle.) "Why;' said the hermit, "who 
is there to get me firewood with this?" "If you want a 
fire, Sir," replied Sakka, "all you have to do is to strike 
your hand upon the axe and say ' Fetch wood and make 
a fire ! ' The axe will fetch the wood and make you the 

After giving him this razor-axe he next visited the 
second brother, and asked him the same question " How 
can I serve you, Sir?" Now there was an elephant track 
by his hut, and the creatures annoyed him. So he told 
Sakka that he was annoyed by elephants, and wanted 
them to be driven away. Sakka gave him a drum. "If 
you beat upon this side, Sir," he explained, " your enemies 
will run away; but if you strike the other, they will become 
your firm friends, and will encompass you with an army 
in fourfold array." Then he handed him the drum. 


Lastly he made a visit to the youngest, and asked as 
before how he could serve him. He too had jaundice, 
and what he said was "Please give me some curds." 
Sakka gave him a milk-bowl, with these words: "Turn 
this over if you want anything, and a great river will pour 
out of it, and will flood the whole place, and it will be 
able even to win a kingdom for you." With these words 
he departed. 

After this the axe used to make fire for the eldest 
brother, the second used to beat upon one side of his 
drum and drive the elephants away, and the youngest had 
his curds to eat. 

About this time a wild boar, that lived in a ruined 
village, lit upon a gem possessed of magic power. Picking 
up the gem in his mouth, he rose in the air by its magic. 


From afar he could see an isle in mid-ocean, and there 
he resolved to live. So descending he chose a pleasant 
spot beneath a fig tree, and there he made his abode. 

One day he fell asleep under the tree, with the jewel 
lying in front of him. Now a certain man from the Kasi 
country, who had been turned out of doors by his parents 
as a ne'er-do-well, had made his way to a seaport, where 
he embarked on shipboard as a sailors' drudge. In mid- 
sea the ship was wrecked, and he floated upon a plank 
to this island. As he wandered in search of fruit, he espied 
our boar fast asleep. Quietly he crept up, seized the 
gem, and found himself by magic rising through the air ! 
He alighted on the fig tree, and pondered. " The 
magic of this gem," thought he, "has taught yon boar 
to be a sky-walker; that's how he got here, I suppose. 
"Well! I must kill him and make a meal of him first; 
and then I'll be off." So he snapt off a twig, dropping it 
upon the boar's head. The boar woke up, and seeing no 
gem, ran trembling up and down. The man up in the 
tree laughed. The boar looked up, and seeing him ran 
his head against the tree, and killed himself. 

The man came down, lit a fire, cooked the boar and 
made a meal. Then he rose up in the sky, and set out 
.on his journey. 

As he passed over the Himalaya, he saw the hermits' 
settlement. So he descended, and spent two or three 
days in the eldest brother's hut, entertaining and enter- 
tained, and he found out the virtue of the axe. He made 
up his mind to get it for himself. So he shewed our 
hermit the virtue of his gem, and offered to exchange it 
for the axe. The hermit longed to be able to pass through 
mid-air 1 , and struck the bargain. The man took the axe, 

1 This was one of the supernatural powers much coveted by Buddhists. 


and departed ; but before he had gone very far, he struck 
upon it and said "Axe! smash that hermit's skull and 
bring the gem to me!" Off flew the axe, clove the hermit's 
skull, and brought the gem back. 

Then the man hid the axe away, and paid a visit to 
the second brother. With him the visitor stayed a few 
days, and soon discovered the power of his drum. Then 
he exchanged his gem for the drum, as before, and as 
before made the axe cleave the owner's skull. After this 
he went on to the youngest of the three hermits, found 
out the power of the milk-bowl, gave his jewel in exchange 
for it, and as before sent his axe to cleave the man's skull. 
Thus he was now owner of jewel, axe, drum, and milk- 
bowl, all four. 

He now rose up and passed through the air. Stopping 
hard by Benares, he wrote a letter which he sent by a 
messenger's hands, that the king must either fight him or 
yield. On receipt of this message the king sallied forth 
to "seize the scoundrel." But he beat on one side of 
his drum, and was promptly surrounded by an army in 
fourfold array. When he saw that the king had deployed 
his forces, he then overturned the milk-bowl, and a great 
river poured forth ; multitudes were drowned in the river 
of curds. Next he struck upon his axe. " Fetch me the 
king's head!" cried he; away went the axe, and came 
back and dropt the head at his feet. Not a man could 
raise hand against him. 

So encompassed by a mighty host, he entered the city, 
and caused himself to be anointed king under the title of 
king Dadhi-vahana, or Carried-on-the-Curds, and ruled 

One day, as the king was amusing himself by casting 
a net into the river, he caught a mango fruit, fit for the 


gods, which had floated down from Lake Kannamunda. 
When the net was hauled out, the mango was found, and 
shown to the king. It was a huge fruit, as big as a basin, 
round, and golden in colour. The king asked what the 
fruit was : Mango, said the foresters. He ate it, and had 
the stone planted in his park, and watered with milk-water. 

The tree sprouted up, and in three years it bore fruit. 
Great was the worship paid to this tree; milk-water was 
poured about it; perfumed garlands with five sprays 1 
were hung upon it; wreaths were festooned about it; a 
lamp was kept burning, and fed with scented oil ; and all 
round it was a screen of cloth. The fruit was sweet, and 
had the colour of fine gold. King Dadhi-vahana, before 
sending presents of these mangoes to other kings, used to 
prick with a thorn that place in the stone where the 
sprout would come from, for fear of their growing the like 
by planting it. When they ate the fruit, they used to 
plant the stone; but they could not get it to take root. 
They enquired the reason, and learnt how the matter was. 

One king asked his gardener whether he could spoil 
the flavour of this fruit, and turn it bitter on the tree. 
Yes, the man said he could; so his king gave him a 
thousand pieces and sent him on his errand. 

So soon as he had arrived in Benares, the man sent a 
message to the king that a gardener was come. The king 
admitted him to the presence. After the man had saluted 
him, the king asked, " You are a gardener ? " " Yes, Sire," 

1 The meaning of gandhapancangulikarh is uncertain. Perhaps a garland in 
which sprouts or twigs were arranged radiating like the fingers of a hand. See 
Morris in JPTS., 1884, p. 84. The spread hand is in many places a symbol used to 
avert the evil eye. In some villages of India it is marked on the house walls (North 
Ind. N. and Q., i. 42); it is carved on Phoenician tombstones (see those in the 
Biblioth&que Nationale in Paris); and I have seen it in all parts of Syria, on the 
houses of Jews, Chi-istians, and Moslems. (Dr Rouse.) 


said the man, and began to sound his own praises. " Very 
well," said the king, "you may go and assist my park- 
keeper." So after that these used both to look after the 
royal grounds. 

The new comer managed to make the park look more 
beautiful by forcing flowers and fruit out of their season. 
This pleased the king, so that he dismissed the former 
keeper and gave the park into sole charge of the new 
one. No sooner had this man got the park into his 
own hands than he planted nimbs and creepers about 
the choice mango tree. By and by the nimbs sprouted 
up. Above and below, root with root, and branch with 
branch, these were all entangled with the mango tree. 
Thus this tree, with its sweet fruit, grew bitter as the 
bitter-leaved nimb by the company of this noxious and 
sour plant. As soon as the gardener knew that the fruit 
had gone bitter, he took to his heels. 

King Dadhi-vahana went a-walking in his pleasaunce, 
and took a bite of the mango fruit. The juice in his 
mouth tasted like a nasty nimb ; swallow it he could not, 
so he coughed and spat it out. Now at that time the 
Bodhisatta was his temporal and spiritual counsellor. 
The king turned to him. " Wise Sir, this tree is as care- 
fully cared for as ever, and yet its fruit has gone bitter. 
What's the meaning of it ? " and asking this question, he 
repeated the first stanza : 

Sweet was once the mango's savour, sweet its scent, its colour gold : 
What has caused this bitter flavour? for we tend it as of old. 

The Bodhisatta explained the reason in the second 
stanza : 

Round about the trunk entwining, branch with branch, and root with 


See the bitter creeper climbing ; that is what has spoilt your fruit : 
So you see bad company will make the better follow suit. 


On hearing this the Bodhisatta caused all the nimbs 
and creepers to be removed, and their roots pulled up; 
the noxious soil was all taken away, and sweet earth put 
in its place; and the tree was carefully fed with sweet 
water, milk-water, scented water. Then by absorbing all 
this sweetness its fruit grew sweet again. The king put 
his former gardener in charge of the park, and after his 
life was done passed away to fare according to his deserts. 

This tale belongs to the same group as Grimm No. 36, The Wishing Table, the 
Gold- ASK, and the Cudgel in the Sack ; No. 54, The Knapsack, the Hat, and the 
Horn (to which see the bibliographical note in Hunt's edition). (Dr Rouse.) Of. 
also the note on Jat. 400, p. 269, and Clouston, i. 72 ff., on magical treasures. 


Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta was born in a farmer's family, 
and when he grew up he got a livelihood by tillage. 

At the same time there was a Merchant who used to 
go about hawking goods, which a donkey carried for him. 
Wherever he went, he used to take his bundle off the ass, 
and throw a lionskin over him, and then turn him loose 
in the rice and barley fields. When the watchmen saw 
this creature, they imagined him to be a lion, and so 
durst not come near him. 

One day this hawker stopped at a certain village, and 
while he was getting his own breakfast cooked, he turned 
the ass loose in a barley field with the lionskin on. The 
watchmen thought it was a lion, and durst not come near, 
but fled home and gave the alarm. All the villagers 
armed themselves, and hurried to the field, shouting and 
blowing on conchs and beating drums. The ass was 
frightened out of his wits, and gave a hee-haw ! Then the 


Bodhisatta, seeing that it was a donkey, repeated the first 
stanza : 

Nor lion nor tiger I see, 

Not even a panther is he: 

But a donkey the wretched old hack! 

With a liouskin over his back! 

As soon as the villagers learnt that it was only an ass, 
they cudgelled him till they broke his bones, and then went 
off* with the lionskin. When the Merchant appeared, and 
found that his ass had come to grief, he repeated the 
second stanza: 

The donkey, if he had been wise, 
Might long 1 the green barley have eaten; 
A lionskin was his disguise: 
But he gave a hee-haw, and got beaten! 

As he was in the act of uttering these words, the ass 
expired. The Merchant left him, and went his way. 

In P. (T.) in. 1 the skin is a panther's, and is evidence for the Kashmirian origin 
of this recension. In P. (B.) iv. 7 it is changed with the locality to a tiger-skin, 
more familiar further south. A trace of the earlier version is seen in the first stanza 
of the jataka, where a panther is referred to. In Aesop (Babr. 139, Halm 333), as 
Prof. Rhys David notes, a natural reason for the use of the skin is not given. Som. 
LXII. 18 (ii. 65) follows P. (T.). The earliest reference to the fable in Greek literature 
is Lucian, Piscat. c. 32, the supposed reference in Plato, Crat. 411 A, being to the 
lion's skin of Hercules, nor is there necessarily any reference in Hor. Sat. i. 6. 22, 
II. 1. 64. Cf. Hausrath, Jacobs 57. 


Once upon a time, when king Brahmadatta was reigning 
in Benares, the Bodhisatta was born of his chief queen. 
He came of age, and his father passed away ; and then he 
became king and ruled in righteousness. 

The Bodhisatta had a family priest named Ruhaka, 
and this Ruhaka had an old brahmin woman to wife. 

The king gave the brahmin a horse accoutred with all 


its trapping's, and he mounted the horse and went to wait 
upon the king. As he rode along on the back of his 
richly caparisoned steed, the people on this side and that 
were loud in its praise: "See that fine horse!" they cried; 
"what a beauty!" 

When he came home again, he went into his mansion 
and told his wife, "Goodwife," said he, "our horse is 
passing fine ! Right and left the people are all speaking 
in praise of it." 

Now his wife was no better than she should be, and full 
of deceit ; so she made reply to him thus. 

"Ah, husband, you do not know wherein lies the beauty 
of this horse. It is all in his fine trappings. Now if you 
would make yourself fine like the horse, put his trappings 
on yourself and go down into the street, prancing along 
horse-fashion. You will see the king, and he will praise 
you, and all the people will praise you." 

This fool of a brahmin listened to it all, but did not 
know what she purposed. So he believed her, and did as 
she had said. All that saw him laughed aloud: "There 
goes a fine professor ! " said they all. And the king cried 
shame on him. "Why, my Teacher," said he, "has your 
bile gone wrong? Are you crazy?" At this the brahmin 
thought that he must have behaved amiss, and he was 
ashamed. So he was wroth with his wife, and made haste 
home, saying to himself, "The woman has shamed me 
before the king and all his army : I will chastise her and 
turn her out of doors ! " 

But the crafty woman found out that he had come 
home in anger; she stole a march on him, and departed 
by a side door, and made her way to the palace, where 
she stayed four or five days. When the king heard of it, 
he sent for his priest, and said to him, 


"My Teacher, all womankind are full of faults; you 
ought to forgive this lady"; and with intent to make him 
forgive he uttered the first stanza: 

Even a broken bowstring 1 can be mended and made whole: 
Forgive your wife, and cherish not this anger in your soul. 

Hearing this, Ruhaka uttered the second : 

While there is bark and workmen too 
"Tis easy to buy bowstrings new. 
Another wife I will procure; 
I've had enough of this one, sure. 

So saying, he sent her away, and took him another 
brahmin woman to wife. 

P. (B.) iv. 6. The minister's wife makes him have his head shaved, and the king's 
wife drives her husband with a bridle. When the king asks his minister why he is 
shaven at the wrong time, the minister retorts on the king's folly. This latter point 
was probably omitted in the jataka in order to fit it into the bodhisatta theory. Cf. 
Benf. Einl. 187. 


Once upon a time, when king Brahmadatta reigned 
over Benares, the Bodhisatta was born as his chief queen's 
son. On his name-day, they called him Prince Paduma, 
the Lotus Prince. After him came six younger brothers. 
One after another these seven came of age and married 
and settled down, living as the king's companions. 

One day the king looked out into the palace courts, 
and as he looked he saw these men with a great following 
on their way to wait upon himself. He conceived the 
suspicion that they meant to slay him, and seize his 
kingdom. So he sent for them, and after this fashion 
bespake them. 

"My sons, you may not dwell in this town. So go 
elsewhere, and when I die you shall return and take the 
kingdom which belongs to our family." 


They agreed to their father's words ; and went home 
weeping and wailing. " It matters not where we go ! " they 
cried ; and taking their wives with them, they left the city, 
and journeyed along the road. By and by they came to 
a wood, where they could get no food or drink. And 
being unable to bear the pangs of hunger, they deter- 
mined to save their lives at the women's cost. They 
seized the youngest brother's wife, and slew her; they cut 
up her body into thirteen parts, and ate it. But the 
Bodhisatta and his wife set aside one portion, and ate 
the other between them. 

Thus they did six days, and slew and ate six of the 
women; and each day the Bodhisatta set one portion 
aside, so that he had six portions saved. On the seventh 
day the others would have taken the Bodhisatta's wife to 
kill her ; but instead he gave them the six portions which 
he had kept. "Eat these," said he; "to-morrow I will 
manage." They all did eat the flesh ; and when the time 
came that they fell asleep, the Bodhisatta and his wife 
made off together. 

When they had gone a little space, the woman said, 
" Husband, I can go no further." So the Bodhisatta took 
her upon his shoulders, and at sunrise he came out of the 
wood. When the sun was risen, said she "Husband, I 
am thirsty ! " 

" There is no water, dear wife ! " said he. 

But she begged him again and again, until he struck 
his right knee with his sword, and said, 

" Water there is none ; but sit you down and drink the 
blood here from my knee." And so she did. 

By and by they came to the mighty Ganges. They 
drank, they bathed, they ate all manner of fruits, and 
rested in a pleasant spot. And there by a bend of the 


river they made a hermit's hut and took up their abode 


in it. 

Now it happened that a robber in the regions of Upper 
Ganges had been guilt} 7 of high treason. His hands and 
feet, and his nose and ears had been cut off, and he was 
laid in a canoe, and left to drift down the great river. To 
this place he floated, groaning aloud with pain. The 
Bodhisatta heard his piteous wailing. 

" While I live," said he, " no poor creature shall perish 
for me!" and to the river bank he went, and saved the 
man. He brought him to the hut, and with astringent 
lotions and ointments he tended his wounds. 

But his wife said to herself, " Here is a nice lazy fellow 
he has fetched out of the Ganges, to look after ! " and she 
went about spitting for disgust at the fellow. 

Now when the man's wounds were growing together, 
the Bodhisatta had him to dwell there iii the hut along 
with his wife, and he brought fruits of all kinds from the 
forest to feed both him and the woman. And as they 
thus dwelt together, the woman fell in love with the fellow, 
and committed sin. Then she desired to kill the Bod- 
hisatta, and said to him, " Husband, as I sat on your 
shoulder when I came out from the forest, I saw yon hill, 
and I vowed that if ever you and I should be saved, and 
come to no harm, I would make offering to the holy spirit 
of the hill. Now this spirit haunts me: and I desire to 
pay my offering ! " 

"Very good," said the Bodhisatta, not knowing her 
guile. He prepared an offering, and delivering to her the 
vessel of offering, he climbed the hill-top. Then his wife 
said to him, 

" Husband, not the hill-spirit, but you are my chief of 
gods ! Then in your honour first of all I will offer wild 


flowers, and walk reverently round you, keeping you on 
the right, and salute you : and after that I will make my 
offering to the mountain spirit." So saying, she placed him 
facing a precipice, and pretended to salute him by offering 
flowers and walking round him. Thus getting behind 
him, she smote him on the back, and hurled him down 
the precipice. Then she cried in her joy, "I have seen 
the back of my enemy!" and she came down from the 
mountain, and went into the presence of her paramour. 

Now the Bodhisatta tumbled down the cliff; but he 
stuck fast in a clump of leaves on the top of a fig-tree 
where there were no thorns. Yet he could not get down 
the hill, so there he sat among the branches, eating the 
figs. It happened that a huge lizard king used to climb 
the hill from the foot of it, and would eat the fruit of this 
fig-tree. That day he saw the Bodhisatta and took to 
flight. On the next day, he came and ate some fruit on 
one side of it. Again and again he came, till at last he 
struck up a friendship with the Bodhisatta. 

" How did you get to this place ? " he asked ; and the 
Bodhisatta told him how. 

"Well, don't be afraid," said the lizard; and taking 
him on his own back, he descended the hill and brought 
him out of the forest. There he set him upon the high- 
road, and shewed him what way he should go, and himself 
returned to the forest. 

The other proceeded to a certain village, and dwelt 
there till he heard of his father's death. Upon this he 
made his way to Benares. There he inherited the king- 
dom which belonged to his family, and took the name of 
King Lotus; the ten rules of righteousness for kings he 
did not transgress, and he ruled uprightly. He built six 
Halls of Bounty, one at each of the four gates, one in the 

P. & T. 11 


midst of the city, and one before the palace ; and every 
day he distributed in gifts six hundred thousand pieces 
of money. 

Now the wicked wife took her paramour upon her 
shoulders, and came forth out of the forest ; and she went 
a-begging among the people, and collected rice and gruel 
to support him withal. If she was asked what the man 
was to her, she would reply, " His mother was sister to my 
father, he is my cousin 1 ; to him they gave me. Even if 
he were doomed to death I would take my own husband 
upon my shoulders, and care for him, and beg food for 
his living!" 

" What a devoted wife ! " said all the people. And 
thenceforward they gave her more food than ever. Some 
of them also offered advice, saying, "Do not live in this 
way. King Lotus is lord of Benares ; he has set all India 
in a stir by his bounty. It will delight him to see you ; 
so delighted will he be, that he will give you rich gifts. 
Put your husband in this basket, and make your way to 
him." So saying, they persuaded her, and gave her a 
basket of osiers. 

The wicked woman placed her paramour in the basket, 
and taking it up she repaired to Benares, and lived on 
what she got at the Halls of Bounty. Now the Bodhisatta 
used to ride to an alms-hall upon the back of a splendid 
elephant richly dight ; and after giving alms to eight or 
ten people, he would set out again for home. Then the 
wicked woman placed her paramour in the basket, and 
taking it up, she stood where the king was used to pass. 
The king saw her. "Who is this? " he asked. "A devoted 
wife," was the answer. He sent for her, and recognised 

1 The Panchatantra says " his kinsfolk persecuted him," which gives a reason for 
the state he was seen in. (Dr Rouse.) 


who she was. He caused the man to be put down from 
the basket, and asked her, "What is this man to you?" 
-"He is the son of my fathers sister, given me by my 
family, my own husband," she answered. 

"Ah, what a devoted wife!" cried they all: for they 
knew not the ins and outs of it; and they praised the 
wicked woman. 

" What is the scoundrel your cousin ? did your family 
give him to you?" asked the king; "your husband, is 

She did not recognise the king ; and " Yes, my lord ! " 
said she, as bold as you like. 

"And is this the king of Benares' son? Are you not 
the wife of prince Lotus, the daughter of such and such 
a king, your name so and so ? Did not you drink the 
blood from my knee ? Did you not fall in love with this 
rascal, and throw me down a precipice ? Ah, you thought 
that I was dead, and here you are with death written 
upon your own forehead and here am I, alive!" Then 
he turned to his courtiers. "Do you remember what I 
told you, when you questioned me? My six younger 
brothers slew their six wives and ate them ; but I kept my 
wife unhurt, and brought her to Ganges' bank, where I 
dwelt in a hermit's hut: I hauled a condemned criminal 
out of the river, and supported him; this woman fell in 
love with him, and threw me down a precipice, but I saved 
my life by shewing kindness. This is no other than the 
wicked woman who threw me off the crag: this, and no 
other, is the condemned wretch!" And then he uttered 
the following verses: 

'Tis I no other, and this quean is she; 
The handless knave, no other, there you see; 
Quoth she "This is the husband of my youth." 
Women deserve to die; they have no truth. 



With a great club beat out the scoundrel's life 
Who lies in wait to steal his neighbour's wife. 
Then take the faithful harlot by and by, 
And shear off nose and ears before she die. 

But although the Bodhisatta could not swallow his 
anger, and ordained this punishment for them, he did not 
do accordingly ; but he smothered his wrath, and had the 
basket fixed upon her head so fast that she could not 
take it off; the villain he had placed in the same, and 
they were driven out of his kingdom. 

The version in Som. LXV. (ii. 101) is a jataka and closely follows this. The 
woman's nose and ears are cut off, and this must have been the earlier ending of 
the present tale, as is implied by the verses. This feature is omitted in Tib. T. xxi. 
In P. (B.) iv. 5 the husband saves her life by giving her half his own. She afterwards 
pushes him into a well and goes to the city with the cripple, where the king (not her 
husband) gives them support. When her husband discovers her, she accuses him 
of being her enemy. He demands back what he has given her, she gives it him 
(i.e. her life 1 , and falls dead. In Som. xrv. (i. 98) the brahmin Ruru thus saves the 
life of his betrothed, who was bitten by a snake. Cf. Grimm 16, Anm. 


Once upon a time, there Avas in the island of Ceylon 
a goblin town called Sirisavatthu, peopled by she-goblins. 
When a ship is wrecked, these adorn and deck themselves, 
and taking rice and gruel, with trains of slaves, and their 
children on their hip, they come up to the merchants. 
In order to make them imagine that theirs is a city of 
human beings, they make them see here and there men 
ploughing and tending kine, herds of cattle, dogs, and 
the like. Then approaching the merchants they invite 
them to partake of the gruel, rice, and other food which 
they bring. The merchants, all unaware, eat of what is 
offered. When they have eaten and drunken, and are 
taking their rest, the goblins address them thus: "Where 

1 The magical Valaha horse is one of the king's seven treasures of Empire in 
Jat. 479, and OHC of the chariot-horses of Vishnu in the Mahabharata. 


do you live? where do you come from? whither are you 
going, and what errand brought you here?" "We were 
shipwrecked here," they reply. "Very good, noble sirs," 
the others make answer; "'tis three years ago since our 
own husbands went on board ship ; they must have perished. 
You are merchants too; we will be your wives." Thus 
they lead them astray by their women's wiles, and tricks, 
and dalliance, until they get them into the goblin city; 
then, if they have any others already caught, they bind 
these with magic chains, and cast them into the house of 
torment. And if they find no shipwrecked men in the 
place where they dwell, they scour the coast as far as the 
river Kalyani 1 on one side and the island of Nagadipa on 
the other. This is their way. 

Now it happened once that five hundred shipwrecked 
traders were cast ashore near the city of these she-goblins. 
The goblins came up to them and enticed them, till they 
brought them to their city; those whom they had caught 
before, they bound with magic chains and cast them into 
the house of torment. Then the chief goblin took the 
chief man, and the others took the rest, till five hundred 
had the five hundred traders; and they made the men 
their husbands. Then in the night time, when her man 
was asleep, the chief she-goblin rose up, and made her 
way to the house of death, slew some of the men and ate 
them. The others did the same. When the eldest goblin 
returned from eating men's flesh, her body was cold. The 
eldest merchant embraced her, and perceived that she 
was a goblin. "All the five hundred of them must be 
goblins!" he thought to himself: "we must make our 
escape ! " 

So in the early morning, when he went to wash his 

1 The modern Kselani-ganga (Journ. of the Pali Text Soc., 1888, p. 20). 


face, he bespake the other merchants in these words. 
" These are goblins, and not human beings ! As soon as 
other shipwrecked men can be found, they will make them 
their husbands, and will eat us ; come let us escape ! " 

Two hundred and fifty of them replied, "We cannot 
leave them : go ye, if ye will, but we will not flee away." 

Then the chief trader with two hundred and fifty, who 
were ready to obey him, fled away in fear of the goblins. 

Now at that time, the Bodhisatta had come into the 
world as a flying horse, white all over, and beaked like a 
crow, with hair like munja grass, possessed of super- 
natural power, able to fly through the air. From Himalaya 
he flew through the air until he came to Ceylon. There 
he passed over the ponds and tanks of Ceylon, and ate 
the paddy that grew wild there. As he passed on thus, 
he thrice uttered human speech filled with mercy, saying 
-"Who wants to go home? who wants to go home?" 
The traders heard his saying, and cried " We are going 
home, master!" joining their hands, and raising them 
respectfully to their foreheads. " Then climb up on my 
back," said the Bodhisatta. Thereat some of them climbed 
up, some laid hold of his tail, and some remained standing, 
with a respectful salute. Then the Bodhisatta took up 
even those who stood still saluting him, and conveyed all 
of them, even two hundred and fifty, to their own country, 
and set down each in his own place; then he went back 
to his place of dwelling. 

And the she-goblins, when other men came to that 
place, slew those two hundred and fifty who were left, and 
devoured them. 

Ditydvaddna 524, Kdrandavyuha 52, Beal, Rom. Leg. 332, a Tibetan version by 
Wenzel, JRAS., 1888, 503. The magic horse, which in the Pali is a previous incarna- 
tion of Buddha, is also an episode in the tale of Supriya (Dicydt. 120), and is there 
an incarnation of Maitrcya, and in the Karandavyuha of Avalokitesvara. Wenzel 


compares the myth of the sirens, and explains the magic horse as a myth of the moon, 
but Beal as the white crested waves at the change of the monsoon. It is illustrated 
on the bas-reliefs of the temple of Boro-Boedoer in Java (Leemans, Boro-Boudour, 
pi. 389, Leide, 1874), and on a railing at Mathura (Anderson, Catalogue of the Indian 
Museum, i. p. 189). Cf. Kuhn, p. 81. 


Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta was king of 
Benares, the Bodhisatta came into the world as a young 
parrot. His name was Radha, and his youngest brother 
was named Potthapada. While they were yet quite young, 
both of them were caught by a fowler and handed over to 
a brahmin in Benares. The brahmin cared for them as 
if they were his children. But the brahmin's wife was a 
wicked w r oman ; there w r as no watching her. 

The husband had to go away on business, and addressed 
his young parrots thus. "Little dears, I am going away 
on business. Keep watch on your mother in season and 
out of season; observe whether or not any man visits 
her." So off he went, leaving his wife in charge of the 
young parrots. 

As soon as he was gone, the woman began to do wrong ; 

night and day the visitors came and went there was no 

end to them. Potthapada, observing this, said to Radha 

" Our master gave this woman into our charge, and here 

she is doing wickedness. I will speak to her." 

" Don't," said Radha. But the other would not listen. 
" Mother," said he, " why do you commit sin ? " 

How she longed to kill him! But making as though 
she would fondle him, she called him to her. 

" Little one, you are my son ! I will never do it again ! 
Here, then, the dear ! " So he came out ; then she seized 
him crying, 


" What ! you preach to me \ you don't know your mea- 
sure!" and she wrung his neck, and threw him into the 

The brahmin returned. When he had rested, he asked 
the Bodhisatta: "Well, my dear, what about your mother 
-does she do wrong, or no ? " and as he asked the question, 
he repeated the first couplet: 

I come, my son, the journey done, and now I am at home again: 
Come tell me ; is your mother true ? does she make love to other men ? 

Radha answered, " Father dear, the wise speak not of 
things which do not conduce to blessing, whether they 
have happened or not"; and he explained this by re- 
peating the second couplet: 

For what he said he now lies dead, burnt up beneath the ashes there : 
It is not well the truth to tell, lest Potthapada's fate I share. 

Thus did the Bodhisatta hold forth to the brahmin; 
and he went on "This is no place for me to live in 
either"; then bidding the brahmin farewell, he flew away 
to the woods. 


A shorter variant in Jilt. 145. This is the frame story of Suk., and of the Persian 
and Turkish derivatives Ttitl-ndmeh. The Pali form is closer to these latter than 
to the Sanskrit. As in the Persian there are two birds, one of which is killed 
through his rashness, and the wife is put to death. In the Sanskrit there is one 
bird, which is given to the man to cure him of his evil courses, and the erring wife is 
finally pardoned, Gesta Rom. 68. Other variants in Clouston, ii. 196 ff. A Jain 
version is given in J. J. Meyer's Hindu Tales, 302. London, 1909. 


Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta ruled in Benares, 
the Bodhisatta was born as a brahmin's son. He came 
of aj>'e, and received his education at Takkasila; then on 

O " 7 

returning he became a famous teacher. 

Now there was a brahmin who had four daughters. 


These four were wooed by four persons as told above 1 . 
The brahmin could not decide to whom to give them. 
" I will enquire of the teacher," he thought, " and then he 
shall have them to whom they should be given." So he 
came into the teacher's presence, and repeated the first 

One is good, and one is noble ; one has beauty, one has years. 

Answer me this question, brahmin; of the four, which best appears? 

Hearing this, the teacher replied, " Even though there 
be beauty and the like qualities, a man is to be despised 
if he fail in virtue. Therefore the former is not the 
measure of a man ; those that I like are the virtuous." And 
in explanation of this matter, he repeated the second 

Good is beauty: to the aged shew respect, for this is right: 
Good is noble birth; but virtue virtue, that is my delight. 

When the brahmin heard this, he gave all his daughters 
to the virtuous wooer. 

Possibly a much moralised version of Vet. 2, where four wooers dispute for the 
hand of a brahmin's daughter. This occurs in Som. LXXVI. (ii. 242), the Hindi 
Baital Pachisi, and Burmese Precedents of Princess Sudharnmacarl (tr. by 
St John in Folkl. Journ. vii. 309 ff.), where there are only three wooers. 


Once upon a time, while Brahmadatta reigned as king 
in Benares, the Bodhisatta became a marsh crow, and 
dwelt by a certain pool. His name was Viraka, the 

There arose a famine in Kasi. Men could not spare 
food for the crows, nor make offering to goblins and 
nagas. One by one the crows left the famine-stricken 
land, and betook them to the woods. 

1 I.e. in the introductory story, in which Buddha is consulted by a brahmin whose 
daughters are wooed by four suitors, one handsome, one old, one of good family, and 
one good. 


A certain crow named Savitthaka, who lived at Benares, 
took with him his lady crow and went to the place where 
Viraka lived, making his abode beside the same pool. 

One day, this crow was seeking food about the pool. 
He saw how Viraka went down into it, and made a meal 
off some fish; and afterwards came up out of the water 
again, and stood drying his feathers. "Under the wing 
of that crow," thought he, " plenty of fish are to be got. 
I will become his servant." So he drew near. 

" What is it, Sir ? " asked Viraka. 

" I want to be your servant, my lord ! " was the reply. 

Viraka agreed, and from that time the other served 

O ' 

him. And from that time, Viraka used to eat enough fish 
to keep him alive, and the rest he gave to Savitthaka as 
soon as he had caught them; and when Savitthaka had 
eaten enough to keep him alive, he gave what was over to 
his wife. 

After a while pride came into his heart. " This crow," 
said he, " is black, and so am I : in eyes and beak and feet, 
too, there is no difference between us. I don't want his 
fish; I will catch my own!" So he told Viraka that for 
the future he intended to go down to the water and catch 
fish himself. Then Viraka said, " Good friend, you do not 
belong to a tribe of such crows as are born to go into 
water and catch fish. Don't destroy yourself!" 

But in spite of this attempt to dissuade him, Savitthaka 
did not take the warning to heart. Down he went to the 
pool, down into the water; but he could not make his 
way through the weeds and come out again there he 
was, entangled in the weeds, with only the tip of his beak 
appearing above the water. So not being able to breathe 
he perished there beneath the water. 

His mate noticed that he did not return, and went to 


Viraka to ask news of him. " My lord," she asked, " Savit- 
thaka is not to be seen: where is he?" And as she asked 
him this, she repeated the first stanza: 

have you seen Savitthaka, Viraka, have you seen 

My sweet-voiced mate whose neck is like the peacock in its sheen ? 

When Viraka heard it, he replied, " Yes, I know where 
he is gone," and recited the second stanza : 

He was not horn to dive beneath the wave, 
But what he could not do he needs must try; 

So the poor bird has found a watery grave, 
Entangled in the weeds, and left to die. 

When the lady-crow heard it, weeping, she returned to 

Cf. Jat. 143, p. 124, of which Jat. 335 is a variant, Aesop, The Fox and the Lion 
(Halm 41), La Fontaine, ir. 16, Le Corbeau voulant imiter VAigle. Jacobs 73. 


Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta was king of 
Benares, the Bodhisatta became an Antelope, and lived 
within a forest, in a thicket near a certain lake. Not far 
from the same lake, sat a Woodpecker perched at the top 
of a tree; and in the lake dwelt a Tortoise. And the 
three became friends, and lived together in amity. 

A hunter, wandering about in the wood, observed the 
Bodhisatta's footprint at the going down into the water; 
and he set a trap of leather, strong, like an iron chain, 
and went his way. In the first watch of the night the 
Bodhisatta went down to drink, and got caught in the 
noose: whereat he cried the cry of capture. Thereupon the 
Woodpecker flew down from her tree- top, and the Tortoise 
came out of the water, and consulted what was to be done. 


Said the Woodpecker to the Tortoise, " Friend, you 
have teeth bite this snare through ; I will go and see to 
it that the hunter keeps away; and if we both do our best, 
our friend will not lose his life." To make this clear he 
uttered the first stanza : 

Come, Tortoise, tear the leathern suare, and bite it through and through, 
And of the hunter I'll take care, and keep him off from you. 

The Tortoise began to gnaw the leather thong: the 
Woodpecker made his way to the hunter's dwelling. At 
dawn of day the hunter went out, knife in hand. As soon 
as the bird saw him start, he uttered a cry, napped his 
wings, and struck him in the face as he left the front door. 
"Some bird of ill omen has struck me!" thought the 
hunter; he turned back, and lay down for a little while. 
Then he rose up again, and took his knife. The bird 
reasoned within himself, "The first time he went out by 
the front door, so now he will leave by the back " : and he 
sat him down behind the house. The hunter, too, reasoned 
in the same way: "When I went out by the front door, I 
saw a bad omen, now will I go out by the back!" and so 
he did. But the bird cried out again, and struck him in 
the face. Finding that he was again struck by a bird of 
ill omen, the hunter exclaimed, "This creature will not 
let me go!" and turning back he lay down until sunrise, 
and when the sun was risen, he took his knife and started. 

The Woodpecker made all haste back to his friends. 
"Here comes the hunter!" he cried. By this time the 
Tortoise had gnawed through all the thongs but one tough 
thong: his teeth seemed as though they would fall out, 
and his mouth was all smeared with blood. The Bodhi- 
satta saw the young hunter coming on like lightning, knife 
in hand ; he burst the thong, and fled into the woods. The 
Woodpecker perched upon his tree-top. But the Tortoise 


was so weak, that he lay where he was. The hunter threw 
him into a bag, and tied it to a tree. 

The Bodhisatta observed that the Tortoise was taken, 
and determined to save his friend's life. So he let the 
hunter see him, and made as though he were weak. The 
hunter saw him, and thinking him to be weak, seized his 
knife and set out in pursuit. The Bodhisatta, keeping just 
out of his reach, led him into the forest; and when he saw 
that they had come far away, gave him the slip and re- 
turned swift as the wind by another way. He lifted the 
bag with his horns, threw it upon the ground, ripped it 
open and let the Tortoise out. And the Woodpecker 
came down from the tree. 

Then the Bodhisatta thus addressed them both: "My 
life has been saved by you, and you have done a friend's 
part to me. Now the hunter will come and take you ; so 
do you, friend Woodpecker, migrate elsewhere with your 
brood, and you, friend Tortoise, dive into the water." 
They did so. 

The Master, as the All-enlightened One, uttered the 
second stanza: 

The Tortoise went into the pond, the Deer into the wood, 
And from the tree the Woodpecker carried away his brood. 

The hunter returned, and saw none of them. He 
found his bag torn ; picked it up, and went home sorrow- 
ful. And the three friends lived all their life long in 
unbroken amity, and then passed away to fare according 
to their deeds. 

The latter part of the frame story of P. u. (crow, mouse, and antelope). Cf. 
Jat. 33, p. 32. Figured on the Bharhut Stupa, pi. xxvu. 9. 


Once upon a time, while Brahmadatta was king of 
Benares, the Bodhisatta came to life at the foot of Hima- 
laya as a Monkey. He grew strong and sturdy, big of 
frame, well-to-do, and lived by a curve of the river Ganges 
in a forest haunt. 

Now at that time there was a Crocodile dwelling in the 
Ganges. The Crocodile's mate saw the great frame of the 
monkey, and she conceived a longing for his heart to eat. 
So she said to her lord : " Sir, I desire to eat the heart of 
that great king of the monkeys ! " 

" Good wife," said the Crocodile, " we live in the water 
and he lives on dry land : how can we catch him ? " 

" By hook or by crook," she replied, " caught he must 
be. If I don't get him, I shall die." 

"All right," answered the Crocodile, consoling her, 
" don't trouble yourself. I have a plan ; I will give you his 
heart to eat." 

So when the Bodhisatta was sitting on the bank of the 
Ganges, after taking a drink of water, the Crocodile drew 
near, and said : 

" Sir Monkey, why do you live on bad fruits in this old 
familiar place ? On the other side of the Ganges there is 
no end to the mango trees, and bread-fruit trees 1 , with fruit 
sweet as honey ! Is it not better to cross over and have all 
kinds of wild fruit to eat ? " 

" Lord Crocodile," the Monkey made answer, "deep and 
wide is the Ganges : how shall I get across ? " 

" If you will go, I will mount you on my back, and carry 
you over." 

1 Artocarpus Lacucha (Childers). 


The Monkey trusted him, and agreed. "Come here, 
then," said the other, " up on my back with you ! " and up 
the monkey climbed. But when the Crocodile had swum 
a little way, he plunged the Monkey under the water. 

"Good friend, you are letting me sink!" cried the 
Monkey. "What is that for?" 

Said the Crocodile, " You think I am carrying you out 
of pure good nature ? Not a bit of it ! My wife has 
a longing for your heart, and I want to give it her to 
eat ! " 

" Friend," said the Monkey, " it is nice of you to tell 
me. Why, if our heart were inside us when we go jumping 
among the tree-tops, it would be all knocked to pieces ! " 

" Well, where do you keep them ? " asked the other. 

The Bodhisatta pointed out a fig-tree, with clusters of 
ripe fruit, standing not far off. " See," said he, " there are 
our hearts hanging on yon fig-tree." 

" If you will shew me your heart," said the Crocodile, 
" then I won't kill you." 

" Take me to the tree, then, and I will point it out to 
you hanging upon it." 

The Crocodile brought him to the place. The Monkey 
leapt off his back, and climbing up the fig-tree sat upon it. 
" O silly Crocodile ! " said he, " you thought that there were 
creatures that kept their hearts in a tree-top ! You are a 
fool, and I have outwitted you ! You may keep your fruit 
to yourself. Your body is great, but you have no sense." 
And then to explain this idea he uttered the following 
stanzas : 

Kose-apple, bread-fruit, mangoes too across the water there I see; 
Enough of them, I want them not; my fig is good enough for me! 

Great is your body, verily, but how much smaller is your wit! 
Now go your ways, Sir Crocodile, for I have had the best of it. 


The Crocodile, feeling as sad and miserable as if he had 
lost a thousand pieces of money, went back sorrowing to 
the place where he lived. 

Frame story of P. iv. A tale widely spread by means of buddhism in Asia. 
Variants in Jat. 57, 342, Cariya-Pit. in. 7, Mahatastu n. 108, O'Connor, Folktales 
from Tibet 20, Griffis, Japanese Fairy World, No. 17, Beal, Romantic Legend, 
231, K. D. (Syr.) in. (Arab.) ix. Benfey compares Aesop (Halm 363), Monkey and 
Dolphin. In Jat. 57 the monkey has to leap on a rock which is occupied by the 
crocodile. The monkey addresses the rock, and the crocodile reveals himself by 
replying. This incident is parallel to P. (T.) in., Anhang in., (B.) m. 14, The Fox and 
the speaking Hole. This fable is first found in Greek in Plato, Alcib. I. 123 A. In 
Jat. 21 an antelope speaks to a tree in which he suspects a hunter. Dr Rouse gives 
a Jewish form given by Mr I. Xestor Schnunnann, who heard it from his 
nurse (about 1860). "Once upon a time, the King of the Fishes was Avanting in 
wisdom. His advisers told him that once he could get the heart of the fox, he would 
become wise. So he sent a deputation, consisting of the great magnates of the 
sea, whales and others. 'Our king wants your advice on some state affairs.' The 
fox, flattered, consented. A whale took him on his back. On the way the waves 
beat upon him; at last he asked what they really wanted. They said, what their 
king really wanted was to eat his heart, by which he hoped to become clever. He 
said, ' Why didn't you tell me that before ? I would gladly sacrifice my life for such 
a worthy object. But we foxes always leave our hearts at home. Take me back 
and I'll fetch it. Otherwise I'm sure your king will be angry.' So they took him 
back. As soon as he got near the shore, he leaped on land, and cried 'Ah you 
fools! Have you ever heard of an animal not carrying his heart with him?' and 
ran off. The fish had to return empty." See The fox's heart in The Book of 
Delight (Philadelphia, 1912) by I. Abrahams, who gives the Jewish version from the 
Alphabetum Siracidis, and much information on the folklore of eating the heart. 


Once upon a time, while Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta was born as one of a family of 
poor acrobats, that lived by begging. So when he grew 
up, he was needy and squalid, and by begging he lived. 

There was at the time, in a certain village of Kasi, a 


brahmin whose wife Avas bad and wicked, and did wrong. 
And it befell that the husband went abroad one day upon 
some matter, and her lover watching his time went to visit 
the house. After she had received him, he said, " I will 
eat a bit before I go." So she made ready the food, and 
served up rice hot with sauce and curry, and gave it him, 
bidding him eat : she herself stood at the door, watching 
the brahmin's coming. And while the lover was eating, the 
Bodhisatta stood waiting for a morsel. 

At that moment the brahmin set his face for home. 
And his wife saw him drawing nigh, and ran in quickly- 
"Up, my man is coming!" and she made her lover go 
down into the store-room. The husband came in ; she gave 
him a seat, and water for washing the hands ; and upon 
the cold rice that was left by the other she turned out 
some hot rice, and set it before him. He put his hand 
into the rice, and felt that it was hot above and cold 
below. " This must be some one else's leavings," thought 
he ; and so he asked the woman about it in the words 
of the first stanza : 

Hot at top, and cold at bottom, not alike it seems to be: 
I would ask you for the reason : come, my lady, answer me ! 

Again and again he asked, but she, fearing lest her 
deed should be discovered, held her peace. Then a 
thought came into our tumbler's mind. " The man down 
in the store-room must be a lover, and this is the master 
of the house : the wife says nothing, for fear that her deed 
be made manifest. Soho ! I will declare the whole 
matter, and shew the brahmin that a man is hidden in 
his larder." And he told him the whole matter : how that 
when he had gone out from his house, another had come 
in, and had done evil ; how he had eaten the first rice, and 
the wife had stood by the door to watch the road ; and 

F. &T. 12 


how the other man had been hidden in the store-room. 
And in so saying, he repeated the second stanza : 

I am a tumbler, Sir: I came on begging- here intent; 

He that you seek is hiding- in the store-room, where he went! 

By his top-knot he haled the man out of the store-room, 
and bade him take care not to do the like again ; and then 
he went away. The brahmin rebuked and beat them both, 
and gave them such a lesson that they were not likely to do 
the same again. Afterwards he passed away to fare ac- 
cording to his deserts. 

Cf. Oldeuberg, The Akhyana Type and the Jdtakas, JPTS. 1910-12 (=Nach- 
richten cler k. Gesell. der Wiss. zu Gottingen, 1911), for a discussion of this as a 
typical form of jataka. 


Once on a time Brahmadatta was king of Benares, and 
the Bodhisatta, being born to one of the king's court, grew 
up, and became the king's adviser in all things human and 
divine. But this king was very talkative; and when he 
talked there was no chance for any other to get in a word. 
And the Bodhisatta, wishing to put a stop to his much 
talking, kept watching for an opportunity. 

Now there dwelt a Tortoise in a certain pond in the 
region of Himalaya. Two young wild Geese, searching for 
food, struck up an acquaintance with him; and by and 
by they grew close friends together. One day these two 
said to him : " Friend Tortoise, we have a lovely home in 
Himalaya, on a plateau of Mount Cittakuta, in a cave of 
gold ! Will you come with us ? ' 

" Why," said he, " how can I get there ? " 

" Oh, we will take you, if only you can keep your mouth 
shut, and say not a word to anybody." 

" Yes, I can do that," said he ; " take me along ! " 


So they made the Tortoise hold a stick between his 
teeth: and themselves taking hold of the two ends, they 
sprang up into the air. 

The village children saw this, and exclaimed " There 
are two geese carrying a tortoise by a stick ! " 

(By this time the geese flying swiftly had arrived at the 
space above the palace of the king at Benares.) The 
Tortoise wanted to cry out " Well, and if my friends do 
carry me, what is that to you, you caitiffs ? ' -and he let 
go the stick from between his teeth, and falling into the 
open courtyard he split in two. What an uproar there was ! 
"A tortoise has fallen in the courtyard, and broken in 
two ! " they cried. The king, with the Bodhisatta, and all 
his court, came up to the place, and seeing the tortoise 
asked the Bodhisatta a question. " Wise Sir, what made 
this creature fall ? " 

" Now's my time ! " thought he. " For a long while 
I have been wishing to admonish the king, and I have 
gone about seeking my opportunity. No doubt the truth 
is this : the tortoise and the geese became friendly ; the 
geese must have meant to carry him to Himalaya, and so 
made him hold a stick between his teeth, and then lifted 
him into the air ; then he must have heard some remark, 
and wanted to reply ; and not being able to keep his 
mouth shut he must have let himself go ; and so he must 
have fallen from the sky and thus come by his death." So 
thought he ; and addressed the king : " O king, they that 
have too much tongue, that set no limit to their speaking, 
ever come to such misfortune as this " ; and he uttered the 
following verses : 

The Tortoise needs must speak aloud, 

Although between his teeth 
A stick he bit: yet, spite of it, 

He spoke and fell beneath. 

1 9 O 

J. w 


And now, mighty master, mark it well. 

See thou speak wisely, see thou speak in season. 
To death the Tortoise fell: 

He talked too much: that was the reason. 

"He is speaking of me ! " the king thought to himself; 
and asked the Bodhisatta if it was so. 

" Be it you, O great king, or be it another," replied he, 
" whosoever talks beyond measure comes by some misery 
of this kind " ; and so he made the thing manifest. And 
thenceforward the king abstained from talking, and became 
a man of few words. 

P. (T.) i. 11, (B.) i. 13, Som. LX. 168 (ii. 37), K. D. (Syr.) i. 11, (Arab.) v., Julien 14, 
Dods. n. 11, The Tortoise and two Ducks. Cf. Babr. 115, Halm 419, the fable of 
the tortoise that wishes to learn to fly, and is taken up by an eagle, who drops him 
on the rocks and kills him. In Phaedr. n. 6 the eagle on the advice of the raven 
intends to kill him. Jacobs 60. 


Once upon a time, while Brahmadatta was king of 
Benares, the Bodhisatta came into this world as the son of 
one in the king's court. When he grew up he was made a 
Lord Justice. 

At that time, two traders, one from a village and one 
of the town, were friends together. The villager deposited 
with the townsman five hundred ploughshares. The other 
sold these, and kept the price, and in the place where 
they were he scattered mouse dung. By and by came 
the villager, and asked for his ploughshare. " The mice 
have eaten them up 1 !" said the cheat, and pointed out 
the mouse dung to him. 

1 Things gnawed by mice or rats were unlucky; cp. Jat. 87 (vol. I. p. 215), Tevijja- 
Sutta Mafidsllam i (trans, in S.B.E., Buddhist Suttas, p. 196). The man here 
goes further than he need ; if the mice had but nibbled the ploughshares perhaps he 


" Well, well, so be it," replied the other : " what can be 
done with things which the mice have eaten ? ' 

Now at the time of bathing he took the other trader's 
son, and set him in a friend's house, in an inner chamber, 
bidding them not suffer him to go out any whither. And 
having washed himself he went to his friend's house. 

" Where is my son ? " asked the cheat. 

"Dear friend," he replied, "I took him with me and 
left him on the river-side ; and when I was gone down 
into the water, there came an osprey, and seized your son 
in his extended claws, and flew up into the air. I beat 
the water, shouted, struggled but could not make him 
let go." 

" Lies ! " cried the rogue. " No osprey could carry off 
a boy ! " 

" Let be, dear friend : if things happen that should not, 
how can I help it ? Your son has been carried off by an 
osprey, as I say." 

The other reviled him. " Ah, you scoundrel ! you 
murderer! Now I will go to the judge, and have you 
dragged before him ! " And he departed. The villager 
said, "As you please," and went to the court of justice. 
The rogue addressed the Bodhisatta thus: 

" My lord, this fellow took my son with him to bathe, 
and when I asked where he was, he answered, that an 
osprey had carried him oif. Judge my cause ! " 

" Tell the truth," said the Bodhisatta, asking the other. 

" Indeed, my lord," he answered, " I took him with me, 
and a hawk has carried him off." 

might throw them away. We may also have a reference -to an old proverb, found 
both in Greek and Latin: "where mice eat iron" meant "nowhere." Herondas 
3. 75 ov8' OKU>S XtopiJ? ol pvs oy.oia>s rov (riSrjpov rpcoyovcriv. Seneca, Apocolocyntosis 
chap. 7 (to Claudius in heaven) venisti hue ubi mures ferrum rodunt. (Dr Rouse.) 


" But where in the world are there ospreys which carry 
off boys ? " 

" My lord," he answered, " I have a question to ask you. 
If ospreys cannot carry off boys into the air, can mice 
eat iron ploughshares ? " 

" What do vou mean bv that ? " 

/ V 

" My lord, I deposited in this man's house five hundred 
ploughshares. The man told me that the mice had de- 
voured them, and shewed me the droppings of the mice 
that had done it. My lord, if mice eat ploughshares, then 
ospreys carry off boys : but if mice cannot do this, neither 
will hawks carry the boy off. This man says the mice ate 
my ploughshares. Give sentence whether they are eaten 
or no. Judge my cause ! " 

"He must have meant," thought the Bodhisatta, "to 
fight the trickster with his own weapons. Well devised ! " 
said he, and then he uttered these two verses : 

Well planned indeed! The biter bit, 
The trickster tricked a pretty hit! 
If mice can eat a ploughshare, why, 
Ospreys away with boys can fly! 

A rogue out-rogued with tit for tat! 
Give back the plough, and after that 
Perhaps the man who lost the plough 
M;iy give your son back to you now! 1 

Thus he that had lost his son received him again, and 
he received his ploughshare that had lost it ; and after- 
wards both passed away to fare according to their deeds. 

P. (T.) i. 17, (B.) i. 21, Som. LX. 237 (ii. 41), Suk. xxxix. There is confusion 
throughout the story as to the number of the ploughshares. The singular, which 
occurs in the stanza, is probably original. The confusion may have arisen through 
an expression denoting the weight. In P. it is a balance weighing 100 pounds. 
There is a similar confusion between hawks and ospreys as in Jat. 330, p. 238. 

1 A like repartee is found in North Ind. N. and Q. iii. 214 ( The Judgement of the 
Jackal} ; Swynnerton, Ind. Nights' Entertainment, p. 142 ( The Traveller and the Oil- 
man} ; and a story of an oilman in Sturnme's Tunisische Mdrchen, vol. ii. (Dr Rouse.) 


Once upon a time reigned at Benares a king named 
Yasapani, the Glorious. His chief captain was named 
Kalaka, or Blackie. At that time the Bodhisatta was his 
family priest, and had the name of Dhammaddhaja, the 
Banner of the Faith. There was also a man Chattapani, 
maker of ornaments to the king. The king was a good 
king. But his chief captain swallowed bribes in the 
judging of causes; he was a backbiter; he took bribes, 
and defrauded the rightful owners. 

On a day, one who had lost his suit was departing from 
the court, weeping and stretching out his arms, w r hen he 
fell in with the Bodhisatta as he was going to pay his 
service to the king. Falling at his feet, the man cried out, 
telling how he had been worsted in his cause : " Although 
such as you, my lord, instruct the king in the things of this 
world and the next, the Commander-in-Chief takes bribes, 
and defrauds rightful owners ! " 

The Bodhisatta pitied him. " Come, my good fellow,'' 
said he, " I will judge your cause for you ! " and he pro- 
ceeded to the court-house. A great company gathered 
together. The Bodhisatta reversed the sentence, and 
gave judgment for him that had the right. The spectators 
applauded. The sound was great. The king heard it, 
and asked "What sound is this I hear?" 

" My lord king," they answered, " it is a cause wrongly 
judged that has been judged aright by the wise Dham- 
maddhaja ; that is why there is this shout of applause." 

The king was pleased and sent for the Bodhisatta. 
" They tell me," he began, " that you have judged a 
cause ? " 


"Yes, great king, I have judged that which Kalaka 
did not judge aright." 

"Be you judge from this day," said the king; "it will 
be a joy for my ears, and prosperity for the world ! " 
He was unwilling, but the king begged him " In mercy 
to all creatures, sit you in judgment ! " and so the king- 
won his consent. 

From that time Kalaka received no presents; and 
losing his gains he spoke calumny of the Bodhisatta before 
the king, saying, " O mighty king, the Avise Dhammaddhaja 
covets your kingdom ! " But the king would not believe ; 
and bade him sav not so. 


" If you do not believe me," said Kalaka, " look out 
of the window at the time of his coming. Then you 
will see that he has got the whole city into his own 

The king saw the crowd of those that were about him 
in his judgment hall. " There is his retinue," thought he. 
He gave way. " What are we to do, Captain ? " he asked. 

" My lord, he must be put to death." 

" How can we put him to death without having found 
him out in some great wickedness ? " 

" There is a way," said the other. 

" What way ? " 

" Tell him to do what is impossible, and if he cannot, 
put him to death for that." 

" But what is impossible to him ? " 

" My lord king," replied he, " it takes two years or twice 
two for a garden with good soil to bear fruit, being 
planted and tended. Send for him, and say ' We want 
a garden to disport ourselves in to-morrow. Make us a 
garden ! ' This he will not be able to do ; and we will slay 
him for that fault." 


The king addressed himself to the Bodhisatta. " Wise 
Sir, we have sported long enough in our old garden ; now 
we crave to sport in a new. We shall sport to-morrow. 
Make us a garden ! If you cannot make it, you must die." 

The Bodhisatta reasoned, " It must be that Kalaka has 
set the king against me, because he gets no presents.- 
If I can," he said to the king, " O mighty king, I will see 
to it." And he went home. After a good meal he lay 
upon his bed, thinking. Sakka's palace grew hot 1 . Sakka 
reflecting perceived the Bodhisatta's difficulty. He made 
haste to him, entered his chamber, and asked him "Wise 
Sir, what think you on ? ' -poised the while in mid-air. 

" Who are you ? " asked the Bodhisatta. 

" I am Sakka." 

1 This was supposed to happen when a good man was in straits. Some modern 
superstitions, turning upon the pity of a god for creatures in pain, may be seen in 
North Ind. N. and Q. iii. 285. As this : " Hot oil is poured into a dog's ear and the 
pain makes him yell. It is believed that his yells are heard by Raja Indra, who in 
pity stops the rain." (Dr Rouse.) 

In brahmin works Indra (Sakka) is represented as becoming disturbed, when he 
sees mortals practising severe penance, or performing great sacrifices, because he 
fears that the person may acquire merit enough to take his place. In such cases 
he comes down and tempts the ascetic with sensual pleasures or hinders the 
sacrifice. This idea is retained by the Buddhists, but the more characteristic motive 
in buddhism is that the god comes down to help the person who is in difficulty, as 
here, or to test him by giving him an opportunity of performing an act of merit, as 
in Jat. 316, 499. In the jatakas the person's merit causes Sakka's throne to become 
hot, or his palace to be shaken (Jat. 292). In Burmese tales his throne becomes 
stiff. See L. Allan Goss in We-than-da-ya, a Buddhist Legend, p. 93, Rangoon, 
1895. There is a curious parallel in the story of St Martin of Tours, given by 
Sulpicius Severus in his Dialogues n. 5, where St Martin visits the emperor Valen- 
tinian, who does not wish to see him. The seat of the emperor bursts into flames, 
and he is compelled to get up and listen to the saint. " Nequaquam adsurgere est 
dignatus adstanti, donee regiam sellam ignis operiret, ipsumque regem ea parte 
corporis qua sedebat, adflaret incendium. Ita e solio suo superbus excutitur et 
Martino invitus adsurgit." The Dialogues contain tales of Egyptian monks which 
have a buddhistic colouring. In Jat. 527 the incident of St Martin dividing his 
cloak is paralleled, where a girl, having worked for three years to earn a scarlet 
robe, divides it, and gives half to an ascetic, who had been robbed of his clothes. 


" The king bids me make a garden : that is what I am 
thinking upon." 

" Wise Sir, do not trouble : I will make you a garden 
like the groves of Nandana and Cittalata ! In what place 
shall I make it?" 

" In such and such a place," he told him. Sakka made 
it, and returned to the city of the gods. 

Next day, the Bodhisatta beheld the garden there in 
very truth, and sought the king's presence. " O king, the 
garden is ready : go to your sport ! '' 

The king came to the place, and beheld a garden girt 
with a fence of eighteen cubits, vermilion tinted, having 
gates and ponds, beautiful with all manner of trees, laden 
heavy with flowers and fruit! "The sage has done my 
bidding," said he to Kalaka : " now what are we to do ? " 

" O mighty king ! " replied he, " if he can make a 
garden in one night, can he not seize upon your king- 
dom ? ' 

"Well, what are we to do?" 

" We will make him perform another impossible thing." 

"What is that?" asked the king. 

" We will bid him make a lake possessed of the seven 
precious jewels ! " 

The king agreed, and thus addressed the Bodhisatta : 

" Teacher, you have made a park. Make now a lake to 
match it, with the seven precious jewels. If you cannot 
make it, you shall not live ! " 

"Very good, great king," answered the Bodhisatta, 
" I will make it if I can." 

Then Sakka made a lake of great splendour, having 
an hundred landing-places, a thousand inlets, covered over 
with lotus plants of five different colours, like the lake in 


Next day, the Bodhisatta beheld this also, and told the 
king : " See, the lake is made ! " And the king saw it, and 
asked of Kalaka what was to be done. 

" Bid him, my lord, make a house to suit it," said he. 

" Make a house, Teacher," said the king to the Bodhi- 
satta, " all of ivory, to suit with the park and the lake : it 
you do not make it, you must die ! " 

Then Sakka made him a house likewise. The Bodhi- 
satta beheld it next day, and told the king. When the 
king had seen it, he asked Kalaka again, what was to do. 
Kalaka told him to bid the Bodhisatta make a jewel 
to suit the house. The king said to him, "Wise Sir, 
make a jewel to suit with this ivory house ; I will 
go about looking at it by the light of the jewel : if you 
cannot make one, you must die ! " Then Sakka made him 
a jewel too. Next day the Bodhisatta beheld it, and told the 
king. When the king had seen it, he again asked Kalaka 
what was to be done. 

" Mighty king ! " answered he, " I think there is some 
divinity who does each thing that the Brahmin Dham- 
maddhaja wishes. Now bid him make something which 
even a divinity cannot make. Not even a deity can make 
a man with all four virtues ; therefore bid him make a 
keeper with these four." So the king said, "Teacher, you 
have made a park, a lake, and a palace, and a jewel 
to give light. Now make me a keeper with four virtues, 
to watch the park ; if you cannot, you must die." 

"So be it," answered he, "if it is possible, I will see 
to it." He went home, had a good meal, and lay down. 
When he awoke in the morning, he sat upon his bed, and 
thought thus. " What the great king Sakka can make by 
his power, that he has made. He cannot make a park- 
keeper with four virtues. This being so, it is better to 


die forlorn in the woods, than to die at the hand of other 
men." So saying no word to any man, he went down from 
his dwelling and passed out of the city by the chief gate, 
and entered the woods, where he sat him down beneath a 
tree and reflected upon the religion of the good. Sakka 
perceived it ; and in the fashion of a forester he approached 
the Bodhisatta, saying, 

"Brahmin, you are young and tender: why sit you 
here in this wood, as though you had never seen pain 
before?" As he asked it, he repeated the first stanza: 

You look as though your life must happy be; 
Yet to the wild woods you would homeless go, 
Like some poor wretch whose life was misery, 
And pine beneath this tree in lonely woe. 

To this the Bodhisatta made answer in the second 
stanza : 

I look as though my life must happy be; 
Yet to the wild woods I would homeless go, 
Like some poor wTetch whose life was misery, 
And pine beneath this tree in lonely woe, 
Pondering the truth that all the saints do know. 

Then Sakka said, " If so, then why, Brahmin, are you 
sitting here ? " 

" The king," he made answer, " requires a park-keeper 
with four good qualities ; such an one cannot be found ; 
so I thought Why perish by the hand of man ? I will off 
to the woods, and die a lonely death. So here I came, and 
here I sit." 

Then the other replied, " Brahmin, I am Sakka, king of 
the gods. By me was your park made, and those other 
things. A park-keeper possessed of four virtues cannot 
be made ; but in your country there is one Chattapani, 
who makes ornaments for the head, and he is such a 
man. If a park-keeper is wanted, go and make this 


workman the keeper." With these words Sakka de- 
parted to his city divine, after consoling him and bidding 
him fear no more. 

The Bodhisatta went home, and having broken his fast, 
he repaired to the palace gates, and there in that spot he 
saw Chattapani. He took him by the hand, and asked 
him " Is it true, as I hear, Chattapani, that you are en- 
dowed with the four virtues ? " 

" Who told you so ? " asked the other. 

" Sakka, king of the gods." 

" Why did he tell you ? " He recounted all, and told 
the reason. The other said, 

" Yes, I am endowed with the four virtues." The Bod- 
hisatta taking him by the hand led him into the king's 
presence. " Here, mighty monarch, is Chattapani, endowed 
with four virtues. If there is need of a keeper for the 
park, make him keeper." 

" Is it true, as I hear," the king asked him, " that you 
have four virtues ? " 

" Yes, mighty king." 

"What are they?" he asked. 

I envy not, and drink no wine; 
No strong 1 desire, no wrath is mine, 
said he. 

"Chattapani," cried the king, "did you say you have 
no envy?" 

"Yes, O king, I have no envy." 

" What experience was it that made you to be without 
envy ? " 

" Listen, my lord ! " said he ; and then he told him why 
he felt no envy in the following lines 1 : 

1 In the verses he refers to his virtuous action when he was king in Jat. 120. 
After wrongly suspecting his family priest he releases him and all his guilty slaves, and 
forgives his queen who had been the cause. See note on The Wicked Stepmother. 


A chaplain once in bonds I threw 
Which thing a woman made me do; 
He built me up in holy lore; 
Since when I never envied more. 

Then the king said, " Dear Chattapani, what has made 
you to abstain from strong drink ? And the other answered 
in the following verse l : 

Once I was drunken, and I ate 
My own son's flesh upon my plate; 
Then, touched with sorrow and with pain, 
Swore never to touch drink again. 

Then the king said, " But what has made you to be 
indifferent, without love ? " The man explained it in these 
w r ords 2 : 

King Kitavasa was my name; 

A mighty king was I; 
My boy a Buddha's basin broke 

And so he had to die. 

Said the king then, "What was it, good friend, that 
made you to be without anger ? " And the other made the 
matter clear in these lines : 

As Araka, for seven years 

I practised charity; 
And then for seven ages dwelt 

In Brahma's heaven on high. 

When Chattapani had thus explained his four attri- 
butes, the king made a sign to his attendants. And in an 
instant all the court, priests and laymen and all, rose up, 
and cried out upon Kalaka " Fie, bribe-swallowing thief 
and scoundrel ! You couldn't get your bribes, and so 
you would murder the wise man by speaking ill of him ! " 
They seized him by hand and foot, and bundled him out 

1 The commentary explains that this happened in his birth as king of Benares. 
'* The boy broke the basin of a pacceka-buddha, and as his sin bore fruit at once 
he burst into flame and perished. 


of the palace ; and catching up whatever they could get 
hold of, this a stone, and this a staff', they broke his head 
and did him to death : and dragging him by the feet they 
cast him upon a dunghill. 

Thenceforward the king ruled in righteousness, until 
he passed away according to his deserts. 

A form of the Hero's Tasks. Cf. Grimm 29, Anm. A. Lang, Custom and Myth 
( a far- travelled Tale}. 


Once upon a time reigned at Benares a wicked and 
unjust king named Maha-pingala, the Great Yellow King, 
who did sinfully after his own will and pleasure. With 
taxes and fines, and many mutilations and robberies, he 
crushed the folk as it were sugar-cane in a mill ; he was 
cruel, fierce, ferocious. For other people he had not a 
grain of pity; at home he was harsh and implacable 
towards his wives, his sons and daughters, to his brahmin 
courtiers and the householders of the country. He was 
like a speck of dust that falls in the eye, like gravel in the 
broth, like a thorn sticking in the heel. 

Now 7 the Bodhisatta was a son of king Maha-pingala. 
After this king had reigned for a long time, he died. 
When he died all the citizens of Benares were overjoyed 
and laughed a great laugh ; they burnt his body with a 
thousand cartloads of logs, and quenched the place of 
burning with thousands of jars of water, and consecrated 
the Bodhisatta to be king: they caused a drum of re- 
joicing to beat about the streets, for joy that they had got 
them a righteous king. They raised flags and banners, 
and decked out the city ; at every door was set a pavilion, 


and scattering parched corn and flowers, they sat them 
down upon the decorated platforms under fine canopies, 
and did eat and drink. The Bodhisatta himself sat upon 
a fine divan on a great raised dais, in great magnificence, 
with a white parasol stretched above him. The courtiers 
and householders, the citizens and the doorkeepers stood 
around their king. 

But one doorkeeper, standing not far from the king, 
was sighing and sobbing. " Good Porter," said the Bodhi- 
satta, observing him, " all the people are making merry 
for joy that my father is dead, but you stand weeping. 
Come, was my father good and kind to you ? " And with 
the question he uttered the first stanza : 

The Yellow King was cruel to all men; 

Now he is dead, all freely breathe again. 

Was he, the yellow-eyed, so very dear? 

Or, Porter, why do you stand weeping here ? 

The man heard, and answered : " I am not weeping for 
sorrow that Pingala is dead. My head would be glad 
enough. For King Pingala, every time he came down 
from the palace, or went up into it, would give me eight 
blows over the head with his fist, like the blows of a black- 
smith's hammer. So when he goes down to the other 
world, he will deal eight blows on the head of Yama, the 
gatekeeper of hell, as though he were striking me. Then 
the people will cry He is too cruel for us ! and will send 
him up again. And I fear he will come and deal fisticuffs 
on my head again, and that is why I weep/' To explain 
the matter he uttered the second stanza : 

The Yellow King was anything but dear: 

It is his coming back again I fear. 

What if he beat the king of Death, and then 

The king of Death should send him back again ? 

Then said the Bodhisatta : " That king has been burnt 


with a thousand cartloads of wood ; the place of his 
burning has been soaked with water from thousands of 
pitchers, and the ground has been dug up all round; beings 
that have gone to the other world, otherwise than by 
re-birth, do not return to the same bodily shape as they 
had before ; do not be afraid ! " and to comfort him, he 
repeated the following stanza : 

Thousands of loads of wood have burnt him quite, 
Thousands of pitchers quenched what still did burn; 
The earth is dug about to left and right- 
Fear not the king will never more return. 

After that, the porter took comfort. And the Bodhi- 
satta ruled in righteousness ; and after giving gifts and 
doing other good acts, he passed away to fare according 
to his deserts. 

For tales of overcoming the King of Death and striking terror into the Devil, 
cf. Clouston, i. 385 ff. 


Once upon a time, Brahmadatta was king of Benares, 
and the Bodhisatta was his family priest; and he had 
mastered the three Vedas and the eighteen branches of 
knowledge. He knew the spell entitled * Of subduing the 
World.' (Now this spell is one which involves religious 

One day, the Bodhisatta thought that he would recite 
this spell ; so he sat down in a place apart upon a flat stone, 
and there went through his reciting of it. It is said that 
this spell could be taught to no one without use of a 
special rite ; for which reason he recited it in the place 
just described. It so happened that a Jackal lying in a 

F. &. T. 13 


hole heard the spell at the time that he was reciting it, 
and got it by heart. We are told that this jackal in a 
previous existence had been some brahmin who had learnt 
the charm * Of subduing the World.' 

The Bodhisatta ended his recitation, and rose up, 
saying "Surely I have that spell by heart now." Then 
the Jackal arose out of his hole, and cried " Ho, brahmin ! 
I have learnt the spell better than you know it yourself!" 
and off he ran. The Bodhisatta set off in chase, and 
followed some way, crying " Yon jackal will do a great 
mischief catch him, catch him ! M But the jackal got 
clear off into the forest. 

The Jackal found a she-jackal, and gave her a little 
nip upon the body. "What is it, master?" she asked. 
" Do you know me," he asked, " or do you not ? ' "I do 
not know you." He repeated the spell, and thus had 
under his orders several hundreds of jackals, and gathered 
round him all the elephants and horses, lions and tigers, 
swine and deer, and all other fourfooted creatures; and 
their king he became, under the title of Sabbadatha, or 
Alltusk, and a she-jackal he made his consort, On the 
back of two elephants stood a lion, and on the lion's back 
sat Sabbadatha, the jackal king, along with his consort the 
she-jackal ; and great honour was paid to them. 

Now the Jackal was tempted by his great honour, and 
became puffed up with pride, and he resolved to capture 
the kingdom of Benares. So with all the fourfooted 
creatures in his train, he came to a place near to 
Benares. His host covered twelve leagues of ground. 
From his position there he sent a message to the king, 
" Give up your kingdom, or fight for it." The citizens of 
Benares, smitten with terror, shut close their gates and 
stayed within. 


Then the Bodhisatta drew near the king, and said to 
him, " Fear not, mighty king ! leave me the task of fighting 
with the jackal king, Sabbadatha. Except only me, no 
one is able to fight with him at all." Thus he gave heart 
to the king and the citizens. " I will ask him at once," he 
went on, " what he will do in order to take the city." So 
he mounted the tower over one of the gates, and cried 
out " Sabbadatha, what will you do to get possession of 
this realm ? ' 

"I will cause the lions to roar, and with the roaring 
I will frighten the multitude : thus will I take it ! " 

"Oh, that's it," thought the Bodhisatta, and down he 
came from the tower. He made proclamation by beat of 
drum that all the dwellers in the great city of Benares, 
over all its twelve leagues, must stop up their ears with 
flour. The multitude heard the command ; they stopped 
up their own ears with flour, so that they could not hear 
each other speak : nay, they even did the same to all their 
animals down to the cats. 

Then the Bodhisatta went up a second time into the 
tower, and cried out " Sabbadatha ! " 

" What is it, Brahmin ? " quoth he. 

" How will you take this realm ? " he asked. 

"I will cause the lions to roar, and I will frighten 
the people, and destroy them; thus will I take it!" he 

"You will not be able to make the lions roar; these 
noble lions, with their tawny paws and shaggy manes, will 
never do the bidding of an old jackal like you ! " 

The jackal, stubborn with pride, answered, " Not only 
will the other lions obey me, but I'll make this one, upon 
whose back I sit, roar alone ! " 

" Very well," said the Bodhisatta, " do it if you can." 



So he tapped with his foot on the lion which he sat 
upon, to roar. And the lion resting his mouth upon the 
Elephant's temple, roared thrice, without any manner of 
doubt. The elephants were terrified and dropped the 
Jackal down at their feet ; they trampled upon his head 
and crushed it to atoms. Then and there Sabbadatha 
perished. And the elephants, hearing the roar of the 
lion, were frightened to death, and wounding one another, 
they all perished there. The rest of the creatures, deer 
and swine, down to the hares and cats, perished then and 
there, all except the lions ; and these ran off and took 
to the woods. There was a heap of carcasses covering 
the ground for twelve leagues. 

The Bodhisatta came down from the tower, and had 
the gates of the city thrown open. By beat of drum he 
caused proclamation to be made throughout the city: 
" Let all the people take the flour from out of their ears, 
and they that desire meat, meat let them take ! " The 
people all ate what meat they could fresh, and the rest 
they dried and preserved. 

It was at this time, according to tradition, that people 
first began to dry meat. 


Once on a time Brahmadatta the king of Benares had 
four sous. One day they sent for the charioteer, and said 
to him, 

" We want to see a Judas-tree l ; shew us one ! " 
" Very well, 1 will," the charioteer replied. But he did 
not shew it them all together. He took the eldest at once 

1 Kimsuku = B>tt<><i , frondosa. 


to the forest in the chariot, and shewed him the tree at 
the time when the buds were just sprouting from the stem. 
To the second he shewed it when the leaves were green, to 
the third at the time of blossoming, and to the fourth when 
it was bearing fruit. 

After this it happened that the four brothers were 
sitting together, and some one asked, "What sort of a 
tree is the Judas-tree ? " Then the first brother answered, 

" Like a burnt stump ! " 

And the second cried, " Like a banyan-tree ! " 

And the third "Like a piece of meat 1 !" 

And the fourth said, " Like the acacia ! " 

They were vexed at each other's answers, and ran to 
find their father. " My lord," they asked, " what sort of a 
tree is the Judas-tree ? " 

" What is that you say ? " he asked. They told him the 
manner of their answers. Said the king, 

"All four of you have seen the tree. Only when the 
charioteer shewed you the tree, you did not ask him 
' What is the tree like at such a time ? ' or ' at such another 
time ? ' You made no distinctions, and that is the reason 
of your mistake." And he repeated the first stanza : 

All have seen the Judas-tree 
What is your perplexity? 
No one asked the charioteer 
What its form the livelong 1 year! 

Cf. the dispute of the lion and tiger, Jat. 17 (p. 20), Dods. n. 3, The Camelion (two 
travellers dispute as to its colourX In Julien (8) king Adarsamukha (Adasamukha 
of the next tale) shews an elephant to four blind men, who each describe it differently. 
Udana vi. 4. Cf. Rh. Davids, Dial, of the Buddha, i. 187. 

1 It has pink flowers. 


Once upon a time, Brethren, when Janasandha was 
reigning in Benares, the Bodhisatta came to life as the 
son of his chief queen. His face was resplendent, wearing 
a look of auspicious beauty, like a golden mirror well 
polished. On the day of his naming they called him 
Adasa-mukha, Prince Mirror-face. 

Within the space of seven years his father caused him 
to be taught the three Vedas, and all the duties of this 
world ; and then he died, when the lad was seven years 
old. The courtiers performed the king's obsequies with 
great pomp, and made the offerings for the dead ; and on 
the seventh day they gathered together in the palace 
court, and talked together. The prince was very young, 
they thought, and he could not be made king. 

Before they made him king, they would test him. So 
they prepared a court of justice, and set a divan. Then 
they came into the prince's presence, and said they, " You 
must come, my lord, to the law-court." To this the prince 
agreed ; and with a great company he repaired thither, and 
sat upon the dais. 

Now at the time when the king sat down for judg- 
ment, the courtiers had dressed up a monkey, in the garb 
of a man who is skilled in the lore which tells what are 
good sites for a building. They made him go upon two 
feet, and brought him into the judgment hall. 

"My lord," said they, "in the time of the king your 
father this man was one who divined by magic as to 
desirable sites, and well did he know his art. Down in the 
earth as deep as seven cubits he can see a fault. By his 
help there was a place chosen for the king's house ; let the 
king provide for him, and give him a post." 


The prince scanned him from head to foot. " This is 
no man, but a monkey," he thought; "and monkeys can 
destroy what others have made, but of themselves can 
neither make anything nor carry out such a thing." And 
so he repeated the first stanza to his court : 

It is not a clever builder, but an ape with a wrinkled face; 
He can destroy what others make; that is the way of his race. 

" It must be so, my lord ! " said the courtiers, and took 
him away. But after a day or two they dressed this same 
creature in grand clothes, and brought him again to the 
judgment hall. " In the king your father's time, my lord, 
this was a judge who dealt justice. Him should you take 
to help you in the awarding of justice." 

The prince looked at him. Thought he, " A man with 
mind and reason is not so hairy as all that. This witless 
ape cannot dispense justice " ; and he repeated the second 
stanza : 

There's no wit in this hairy creature; he breeds no confidence; 
He knows nought, as my father taught : the animal has no sense ! 

" So it must be, my lord ! " said the courtiers, and led 
him away. Yet once again did they dress up the very 
same monkey, and bring him to the hall of judgment. 
"Sire," said they, "in the time of the king your father 
this man did his duty to father and mother, and paid 
respect to old age in his family. Him you should keep 
with you." 

Again the prince looked at him, and thought- 
" Monkeys are fickle of mind ; such a thing they cannot 
do." And then he repeated the third stanza: 

One thing Dasaratha 1 has taught me ; no help such a creature would send 
To father or mother, to sister or brother, or any who call him friend ! 

1 Dasaratha is another name for his father (Schol.). 


"So must it be, my lord!" answered they, and took 
him away again. And they said amongst themselves, 
" 'Tis a wise prince ; he will be able to rule " ; and they 
made the Bodhisatta king; and throughout the city by 
beat of drum they made proclamation, saying, " The edicts 
of king Mirror-face ! " 

From that time the Bodhisatta reigned righteously; 
and his wisdom was noised abroad throughout all India. 
To shew forth the matter of this wisdom of his, these 
fourteen problems were brought to him to decide: 

An ox, a lad, a horse, a basket-knight, 
A squire, a light-o'-love, and a young dame, 
A snake, a deer, a partridge, and a sprite, 
A snake, ascetics, a young priest I name. 

This happened as we shall now explain. When the 
Bodhisatta was inaugurated king, a certain servant of 
king Janasandha, named Gamani-canda, thus considered 
within himself: " This kingdom is glorious if it be governed 
by aid of those who are of an age with the king. Now 
I am old, and I cannot wait upon a young prince: so 
I will get me a living by farming in the country." So he 
departed from the city a distance of three leagues, and 
abode in a certain village. But he had no oxen for 
farming. And so, after rain had fallen, he begged the 
loan of two oxen from a friend ; all day long he ploughed 
with them, and then he gave them grass to eat, and went 
to the owner's house to give them back again. At the 
moment it happened that the owner sat at meat with his 
wife; and the oxen entered the house, quite at home. 
As they entered, the master was raising his plate, and the 
wife putting hers down. Seeing that they did not invite 
him to share the meal, Gamani-canda departed without 


formally making over the oxen. During the night, thieves 
broke into the cow-pen, and stole the oxeii away. 

Early on the morrow, the owner of these oxen entered 
the cow-shed, but cattle there were none; he perceived 
that they had been stolen away by thieves. "I'll make 
Gamani pay for it ! " thought he, and to Gamani he 

" I say, return me my oxen ! " cried he. 

" Are not they in their stall ? " 


" Now did you return them to me ? ' 

"No, I didn't." 

" Here's the king's officer : come along ! " 

Now this people have a custom that they pick up 
a bit of stone or a potsherd, and say " Here's the king's 
officer : come along ! " If any man refuses to go, he is 
punished. So when Gamani heard the word " officer," he 
went along. 

So they went together towards the king's court. On 
the way, they came to a village where dwelt a friend of 
Gamani's. Said he to the other, 

"I say, I'm very hungry. Wait here till I go in and 
get me something to eat ! " and he entered his friend's 

But his friend was not at home. The wife said, 

" Sir, there is nothing cooked. Wait but a moment ; 
I will cook at once and set before you." 

She climbed a ladder to the grain store, and in her 
haste she fell to the ground. And as she was seven months 
gone with child, a miscarriage followed. 

At that moment, in came the husband, and saw what 
had happened. "You have struck my wife," cried he, 
" and brought her labour upon her untimely ! Here's a 
king's officer for you come along !" and he carried him off. 


After this they went on, the two of them, with Gamani 

As they w^ent, there was a horse at a village gate ; and 
the groom could not stop it, but it ran along with them. 
The horsekeeper called out to Gamani- 

"Uncle 1 Candagamani,hit the horse with something, and 
head him back ! " Gamani picked up a stone, and threw it 
at the horse. The stone struck his foot, and broke it like 
the stalk of a castor-oil plant. Then the man cried, 

"Oh, you've broken my horse's leg! Here's a king's 
officer for vou ! " and he laid hold of him. 


Gamani was thus three men's prisoner. As they led 
him along, he thought : " These people will denounce me 
to the king ; I can't pay for the oxen ; much less the fine 
for causing an untimely birth ; and then where shall I get 
the price of the horse? I were better dead." So, as 
they went along, he saw a wood hard by the road, and in 
it a hill with a precipice on one side of it. In the shadow 
of it were two basket-makers, father and son, weaving a 
mat. Said Gamani, 

" I say, I want to retire for a moment : wait here, while 
I go aside " ; and with these words he climbed the hill, and 
threw himself down the precipice. He fell upon the back 
of the elder basket-maker, and killed him on the spot. 
Gamani got up, and stood still. 

"Ah, you villain! you've murdered my father!" cried 
the younger basket-maker ; " here's the king's officer ! " 
He seized Gamani's hands, and came out of the thicket. 

"What's this?" asked the others. 

" The villain has murdered my father ! " 

So on they went, the four of them, with Gamani in the 

1 It is worth noting that this term of affection means a mother's brother. 


They came to the gate of another village. The head- 
man was there, who hailed Gamani : "Uncle (Janda, whither 

away ? " 

" To see the king," says Gamani. 

"Oh indeed, to see the king. I want to send him a 
message ; will you take it ? ' 

"Yes, that I will." 

"Well I am usually handsome, rich, honoured, and 
healthy; but now I am miserable and have the jaundice 
too. Ask the king why this is. He is a wise man, so they 
say ; he will tell you, and you can bring me his message 

To this the other agreed. 

At another village a light-o'-love called out to him- 
" Whither bound, Uncle Canda?" 


" To see the king," says he. 

" They say the king is a wise man ; take him a message 
from me," says the woman. "Aforetime I used to make 
great gains ; now I don't get the worth of a betel-nut, and 
nobody courts me. Ask the king how this may be, and 
then you can tell me." 

At a third village, there was a young woman who told 
Gamani, " I can live neither with my husband nor with my 
own family. Ask the king how this is, and then tell me." 

A little further on there was a snake living in an ant- 
hill near the road. He saw Gamani, and called out, 

" Whither away, Canda ? " 

"To see the king." 

" The king is wise ; take him a message from me. 
When I go out to get my food, I leave this ant-hill faint 
and famishing, and yet I fill the entrance hole with my 
body, and I get out with difficulty, dragging myself along. 
But when I come in again, I feel satisfied, and fat, yet 


I pass quickly through the hole without touching the 
sides. How is this ? ask the king, and bring me his 


And further on a deer saw him, and said " I can't eat 
grass anywhere but underneath this tree. Ask the king 
the reason." And again a partridge said, " When I sit at 
the foot of this ant-heap, and utter my note, I can make 
it prettily ; but nowhere else. Ask the king why." And 
again, a tree spirit saw him, and said, 

"Whither away, Canda?" 

"To the king." 

"The king's a wise man, they say. In former times 
I was highly honoured ; now I don't receive so much as 
a handful of twigs. Ask the king what the reason is." 

And further on again he was seen by a naga king, 
who spoke to him thus: "The king is said to be a wise 
man: then ask him this question. Heretofore the water 
in this pool has been clear as crystal. Why is it that now 
it has become turbid, with scum all over it ? " 

Further on, not far from a town, certain ascetics who 
dwelt in a park saw him, and said, in the same way, "They 
say the king is wise. Of yore there were in this park 
sweet fruits in plenty, now they have grown tasteless and 
dry. Ask him what the reason is." Further on again, he 
was accosted by some brahmin students who were in a hall 
at the gate of a town. They said to him, 

" Where are you going, Canda, eh ? " 

" To the king," says Canda. 

" Then take a message for us. Till now, whatever 
passage we learnt was bright and clear ; now it does not 
stay with us, it is not understood, but all is darkness,- 
it is like water in a leaky jar. Ask the king what the 
reason is." 


Gamani-canda came before the king with his fourteen 
questions. When the king saw him, he recognised him, 
" This is my father's servant, who used to dandle me in his 
arms. Where has he been living all this time?" And 
"Canda," said he, "where have you been living all this 
time ? We have seen nothing of you for a long while ; 
what brings you here ? " 

"Oh, my lord, when my lord the late king went to 
heaven, I departed into the country and kept myself by 
farming. Then this man summoned me for a suit regard- 
ing his cattle, and here he has brought me." 

" If you had not been brought here, you had never 
come ; but I'm glad that you were brought anyhow. Now 
I can see you. Where is that man?" 

" Here, my lord." 

" Is it you that summoned our friend Canda ? " 

" Yes, my lord." 


" He refuses to give back my pair of oxen ! " 

" Is this so, Canda ? " 

" Hear my story too, my lord ! " said Canda ; and told 
him the whole. When he had heard the tale, the king 
accosted the owner of the oxen. " Did you see the oxen," 
said he, " entering the stall ? " 

" No, my lord," the man replied. 

" Why, man, did you never hear my name ? They call 
me king Mirror-face. Speak out honestly." 

" I saw them, my lord ! " said he. 

" Now, Canda," said the king, " you failed to return the 
oxen, and therefore you are his debtor for them. But this 
man, in saying that he had not seen them, told a direct 
lie. Therefore you with your own hands shall pluck his 
eyes out, and you shall yourself pay him twenty-four 


pieces of money as the price of the oxen." Then they led 
the owner of the oxen out of doors. 

" If I lose my eyes, what do I care for the money ? " 
thought he. And he fell at Gamani's feet, and besought 
him "O master Canda, keep those twenty-four pieces, 
and take these too ! " and he gave him other pieces, and 
ran away. 

The second man said, " My lord, this fellow struck my 
wife, and made her miscarry." " Is this true, Canda ? " 
asked the king. Canda begged for a hearing, and told 
the whole story. 

"Did you really strike her, and cause her to miscarry?" 
asked the king. 

" No, my lord ! I did no such thing." 

" Now, can you " -to the other " can you heal the mis- 
carriage which he has caused ? " 

" No, my lord, I cannot." 

" Now, what do you want to do ? " 

" I ought to have a son, my lord." 

"Now then, Canda you take the man's wife to your 
house ; and when a son shall be born to you, hand him 
over to the husband." 

Then this man also fell at Canda's feet, crying, " Don't 
break up my home, master ! " threw down some money, 
and made off. 

The third man then accused Canda of laming his horse's 
foot. Canda as before told what had happened. Then the 
king asked the owner, 

" Did you really bid Canda strike the horse, and turn 
him back ? " 

" No, my lord, I did not." But on being pressed, he 
admitted that he had said so. 

"This man," said the king, "has told a direct lie, in 


saying that he did not tell you to head back the horse. You 
may tear out his tongue ; and then pay him a thousand 
pieces for the horse's price, which I will give you." But 
the fellow even gave him another sum of money, and 

Then the basket-maker's son said, 

" This fellow is a murderer, and he killed my father ! " 

" Is it so, Canda ? " asked the king. " Hear me, my lord," 
said Canda, and told him about it. 

" Now, what do you want ? " asked the king. 

" My lord, I must have my father." 

" Canda," said the king, " this man must have a father. 
But you cannot bring him back from the dead. Then 
take his mother to your house, and do you be a father 
to him." 

" Oh, master ! " cried the man, " don't break up my dead 
father's home ! " He gave Gamani a sum of money, and 
hurried away. 

Thus Gamani won his suit, and in great delight he said 
to the king, 

" My lord, I have several questions for you from several 
persons ; may I tell you them ? " 

" Say on," said the king. 

So Gamani told them all in reverse order, beginning 
with the young brahmins. The king answered them 
in turn. To the first question, he answered: "In the 
place where they lived there used to be a crowing cock 
that knew the time. When they heard his crow, they 
used to rise up, and repeat their texts, until the sun rose, 
and thus they did not forget what they learnt. But now 
there is a cock that crows out of season; he crows at 
dead of night, or in broad day. When he crows in the 
depth of night, up they rise, but they are too sleepy to 


repeat the text. When he crows in broad day, they rise 
up, but they have not the chance to repeat their texts. 
Thus it is, that whatever they learn, they soon forget." 

To the second question, he answered : " Formerly 
these men used to do all the duties of the ascetic, and 
they induced the mystic trance. Now they have neglected 
the ascetic's duties, and they do what they ought not to 
do ; the fruits which grow in the park they give to their 
attendants; they live in a sinful way, exchanging their 
alms 1 . This is why this fruit does not grow sweet. If 
they once more with one consent do their duty as 
ascetics, again the fruit will grow sweet for them. Those 
hermits know not the wisdom of kings ; tell them to live 
the ascetic life." 

He heard the third question, and answered, " Those 
naga chiefs quarrel one with another, and that is why 
the water becomes turbid. If they make friends as 
before, the water will be clear again." After hearing 
the fourth, "The tree-spirit," said he, "used formerly to 
protect men passing through the wood, and therefore it 
received many offerings. Now it gives them no protection, 
and so it receives no offerings. If it protects them as 
before, it will receive choice offerings again. It knows 
not that there are kings in the world. Tell it, then, to 
guard the men who go up into that wood." And on 
hearing the fifth, " Under the ant-hill where the partridge 
finds himself able to utter a pleasant cry is a crock of 
treasure ; dig it up and get it." To the sixth he answered, 
"On the tree under which the deer found he could eat 
grass, is a great honeycomb. He craves the grass on 
which this honey has dropped, and so he can eat no other. 
You get the honeycomb, send the best of it to me, and eat 

1 Some staying at home, while others beg for all, to save trouble. 


the rest yourself." Then on hearing the seventh, " Under 
the snake's ant-heap lies a large treasure-crock, and there he 
lives guarding it. So when he goes out, from greed for this 
treasure his body sticks fast ; but after he has fed, his 
desire for the treasure prevents his body from sticking, and 
he goes in quickly and easily. Dig up the treasure, and 
keep it." Then he replied to the eighth question, "Between 
the villages where dwell the young woman's husband and 
her parents lives a lover of hers in a certain house. She 
remembers him, and her desire is toward him ; therefore 
she cannot stay in her husband's house, but says she will 
go and see her parents, and on the way she stays a few 
days with her lover. When she has been at home a few 
days, again she remembers him, and saying she will 
return to her husband, she goes again to her lover. Go, 
tell her there are kings in the land ; say, she must dwell 
with her husband, and if she will not, let her have a care, 
the king will cause her to be seized, and she shall die." 
He heard the ninth, and to this he said, "The woman 
used formerly to take a price from the hand of one, and 
not to go with another until she was off with him, and 
that is how she used to receive much. Now she has 
changed her manner, and without leave of the first she 
goes with the last, so that she receives nothing, and none 
seek after her. If she keeps to her old custom, it will be 
as it was before. Tell her that she should keep to that." 
On hearing the tenth, he replied, " That village headman 
used once to deal justice indifferently, so that men were 
pleased and delighted with him ; and in their delight they 
gave him many a present. This is what made him hand- 
some, rich, and honoured. Now he loves to take bribes, 
and his judgment is not fair ; so he is poor and miserable, 
and jaundiced. If he judges once again with righteousness, 

F. & T. 14 


he will be again as he was before. He knows not that 
there are kings in the land. Tell him that he must use 
justice in giving judgment." 

And Gamani-canda told all these messages, as they 
were told to him. And the king having resolved all these 
questions by his wisdom, like Buddha omniscient, gave 
rich presents to Gamani-canda ; and the village where 
Canda dwelt he gave to him, as a brahmin's gift, and let 
him go. Canda went out of the city, and told the king's 
answer to the brahmin youths, and the ascetics, to the 


naga and to the tree-spirit ; he took the treasure from 
the place where the partridge sat, and from the tree 
beneath which the deer did eat, he took the honeycomb, 
and sent honey to the king ; he broke into the snake's ant- 
hill, and gathered the treasure out of it ; and to the young 
woman, and the light-o'-love, and the village headman he 
said even as the king had told him. Then he returned to 
his own village, and dwelt there so long as he lived, and 
afterward passed away to fare according to his deserts. 
And king Mirror-face also gave alms, and wrought good- 
ness, and finally after his death attained to heaven. 

Tib. T. in. Adarsamukha, where there are seven problems, only five of which 
liave a correspondence with the jataka. The same story in Schmidt, 340 ff., quoted 
by Benf. Einl. 166. Cf. The Nineteen Problems, and Clouston, i. 6164, Grimm 29, 
Anm. On the influence of buried gold in the fifth question cf. Jat. 39, p. 40. 


Once on a time, when Brahmadatta was king of 
Benares, there was a great lake in Himalaya, wherein 
was a great golden Crab. Because he lived there, the 
place was known as the Crab Tarn. The Crab was very 
large, as big round as a threshing floor; it would catch 
elephants, and kill and eat them ; and from fear of it the 
elephants durst not go down and browse there. 

Now the Bodhisatta was conceived by the mate of an 
elephant, the leader of a herd, living hard by this Crab 
Tarn. The mother, in order to be safe till her delivery, 
sought another place on a mountain, and there she was 
delivered of a son ; who in due time grew to years of 
wisdom, and was great and mighty, and prospered, and he 
was like a purple mountain of collyrium. 

He chose another elephant for his mate, and he re- 
solved to catch this Crab. So with his mate and his 
mother, he sought out the elephant herd, and finding his 
father, proposed to go and catch the Crab. 

" You will not be able to do that, my son," said he. 

But he begged the father again and again to give him 
leave, until at last he said, " Well, you may try." 

So the young Elephant collected all the elephants 
beside the Crab Tarn, and led them close by the lake. 
"Does the Crab catch them when they go down, or 
while they are feeding, or when they come up again ? " 

They replied, " When the beasts come up again." 

" Well then," said he, " do you all go down to the lake 
and eat whatever you see, and come up first; I will follow 
last behind you." And so they did. Then the Crab, 
seeing the Bodhisatta coming up last, caught his feet tight 
in his claw, like a smith who seizes a lump of iron in a 



huge pair of tongs. The Bodhisatta's mate did not leave 
him, but stood there close by him. The Bodhisatta 
pulled at the Crab, but could not make him budge. 
Then the Crab pulled, and drew him towards himself. 
In deadly fear the Elephant roared the cry of capture ; 
hearing which all the other elephants, in deadly terror, 
ran off trumpeting, and dropping excrement. Even his 
mate could not stand, but began to make off Then to tell 
her how he was held a prisoner, he uttered the first stanza, 
hoping to stay her from her flight : 

Gold-clawed 1 creature with projecting eyes, 
Tarn-bred, hairless, clad in bony shell, 
He has caught me! hear my woful cries! 
Mate! don't leave me for you love me well! 

Then his mate turned round, and repeated the second 
stanza to his comfort : 

Leave you? never! never will I go- 
Noble husband, with your years threescore. 
All four quarters of the earth can shew 
None so dear as you have been of yore. 

In this way she encouraged him ; and saying, " Noble 
sir, now I will talk to the Crab a while to make him let you 
go," she addressed the Crab in the third stanza: 

Of all the crabs that in the sea, 
Ganges, or Nerbudda be, 
You are best and chief, I know: 
Hear me let my husband go! 

As she spoke thus, the Crab's fancy was smitten with 
the sound of the female voice, and forgetting all fear he 
loosed his claws from the Elephant's leg, and suspected 

1 Singi means either ' horned ' or ' gold,' and the scholiast gives both interpre- 
tations. As the word suggested both to the writer, I use a word which expresses 
both in English. (Dr Rouse.) 


^ >\ >* I -I- 


(Jdlnh-n -KM, p. 211) 


nothing of what he would do when he was set free. Then 
the Elephant lifted his foot, and stepped upon the Crab's 
back ; and at once his eyes started out. The Elephant 
shouted the joy-cry. Up ran the other elephants all, 
pulled the Crab along and set him upon the ground, and 
trampled him to mincemeat. His two claws broken from 
his body lay apart. And this Crab Tarn, being near the 
Ganges, when there was a flood in the Ganges, was filled 
with Ganges water; when the water subsided it ran 
from the lake into the Ganges. Then these two claws 
were lifted and floated along the Ganges. One of them 
reached the sea, the other was found by the ten royal 
brothers while playing in the water, and they took it and 
made of it the little drum called Anaka. The Titans 
found that which reached the sea, and made it into the 
drum called Alambara. These afterwards being worsted 
in battle with Sakka, ran off and left it behind. Then 
Sakka caused it to be kept for his own use ; and it is 
of this they say, "There is thunder like the Alambara 
cloud ! " 

The tale of the ten royal brothers is part of the Krishna legend. Krishna slays 
a demon Pancajana in the form of a conch shell, of which he makes a war-horn. 
Vishnu Pur. v. 21. The father of the royal brothers, who in the Vishnu Pur. iv. 15 
is called Vasudeva, has the epithet Anakadundubhi, 'he who has a war-drum 
(anaka}.' See further, The ten Slave-brethren. 


Once upon a time, the people who lived in the first 
cycle of the world gathered together, and took for their 
king a certain man, handsome, auspicious, commanding, 
altogether perfect. The quadrupeds also gathered, and 
chose for king the Lion ; and the fish in the ocean chose 


them a fish called Ananda. Then all the birds in the 
Himalayas assembled upon a flat rock, crying, 

"Among men there is a king, and among the beasts, and 
the fish have one too ; but amongst us birds king there is 
none. We should not live in anarchy; we too should 
choose a king. Fix on some one fit to be set in the king's 
place ! " 

They searched about for such a bird, and chose the 
Owl ; " Here is the bird we like," said they. And a bird 
made proclamation three times to all that there would be 
a vote taken on this matter. After patiently hearing this 
announcement twice, on the third time up rose a Crow, 
and cried out, 

" Stay now ! If that is what he looks like when he is 
being consecrated king, what will he look like when he is 
angry? If he only looks at us in anger, we shall be 
scattered like sesame seeds thrown on a hot plate. I don't 
want to make this fellow king ! " and enlarging upon this 
he uttered the first stanza : 

The owl is king-, you say, o'er all bird-kind: 
With your permission, may I speak my mind? 

The Birds repeated the second, granting him leave to 
speak : 

You have our leave, Sir, so it be good and right: 
For other birds are young, and wise, and bright. 

Thus permitted, he repeated the third : 

I like not (with all deference be it said) 
To have the Owl anointed as our Head. 
Look at his face! if this good humour be, 
What will he do when he looks angrily? 

Then he flew up into the air, cawing out " I don't like 
it ! I don't like it ! " The Owl rose and pursued him. 


Thenceforward those two nursed enmity one towards 
another. And the birds chose a golden Mallard for their 
king, and dispersed. 

P. (T.) ni. 2, Som. LXII. 34 (ii. 65), K. D. (Syr.) vi. 1, (Arab.) vm. In Julien 7 the 
parrot objects to the owl and is chosen himself. In Aesop (Halm 398) the peacock 
is chosen, and the jackdaw says, " If you are king, and the eagle attacks us, how will 
YOU defend us ? " 


Once on a time, when Brahmadatta reigned in Benares, 
the Bodhisatta was born into a Brahmin family in the 
realm of Kasi. On growing up, he was educated at 
Takkasila, and lived among his family ; but when his 
parents died, much distressed he retired to the life of a 
recluse in the Himalaya, and there he cultivated the 

A long time passed, and he came down to inhabited 
parts for salt and savouring, and took up his quarters in 
the gardens of the king of Benares. Next day, on his 
begging rounds, he came to the door of an elephant- 
trainer. This man took a fancy to his ways and manners, 
fed him, and gave him lodging in his own grounds, waiting 
upon him continually. 

Now it happened just then that a man whose business it 
was to gather firewood failed to get back to town from 
the woods in time. He lay down for the night in a 
temple, placing a bundle of sticks under his head for 
a pillow 7 . At this temple there were a number of cocks 
quite free, which had perched close by on a tree. Towards 
morning, one of them, who was roosting high, let fall a 
dropping on the back of a bird below. " Who dropt that 
on me?" cried this one. "I did," cried the first. "And 


why?" "Didn't think," said the other; and then did it 
again. Hereupon they both began to abuse each other, 
crying " What power have you ? what power have you ? " 
At last the lower one said, " Anybody who kills me, and 
eats my flesh roasted on the coals, gets a thousand pieces 
of money in the morning ! " And the one above answered 
-" Pooh, pooh, don't boast about a little thing like that ! 
Anybody who eats my fleshy parts will become king ; if 
he eats my outside, he'll become commander-in-chief or 


chief queen, according as he's man or woman ; if he 
eats the flesh by my bones, he'll get the post of royal 
Treasurer, if he be a householder ; or, if a holy man, will 
become the king's favourite ! " 

The stick-picker heard all this, and pondered. "Now 
if I become king, there'll be no need of a thousand pieces 
of money." Quietly he climbed the tree, caught the top- 
most cock and killed him : he fastened him in a fold of 
his dress, saying to himself " Now I'll be king ! " As 
soon as the gates were opened, in he walked. He plucked 
the fowl, and cleaned it, and gave it to his wife, bidding 
her make the meat nice for eating. She got ready the 
meat with some rice, and set it before him, bidding her 
lord eat. 

" Goodwife," said he, " there's great virtue in this meat. 
By eating it I shall become king, and you my queen ! " 
So they took the meat and rice down to the Ganges 
bank, intending to bathe before eating it. Then, putting 
meat and rice down upon the bank, in they went to bathe. 

Just then a breeze stirred up the water, which washed 
away the meat. Down the river it floated, till it came in 
sight of an elephant-trainer, a great personage, who was 
giving his elephants a bath lower down. "What have we 
here ? " said he, and picked it up. " It's fowl and rice, my 


lord," was the reply. He bade wrap it up, and seal it, and 
sent it home to his wife, with a message not to open it till 
he returned. 

The stick-picker also ran off, with his belly puffed out 
with sand and water which he had swallowed. 

Now a certain ascetic, who had divine vision, the family 
priest of the elephant-trainer, was thinking to himself, 
" My patron friend does not leave his post with the 
elephants. When will he attain promotion ? " As he thus 
pondered, he saw this man by his divine insight, and per- 
ceived what was a-doing. He went on before, and sat in 
the patron's house. 

When the master returned, he greeted him respect- 
fully and sat down on one side. Then sending for the 
parcel, he ordered food and water to be brought for the 
ascetic. The ascetic took the rice which was offered ; but 
not the meat, and said, "I will divide this meat." The 
master gave him leave. Then separating the meat into 
portions, he gave to the elephant-trainer the fleshy parts, 
the outside to his wife, and took the flesh about the bones 
for his own share. After the meal was over, he said, " On 
the third day from this you will become king. Take care 
what you do ! " and away he went. 

On the third day a neighbouring king came and 
beleaguered Benares. The king told his elephant-trainer 
to dress in the royal robes, bidding him go mount his 
elephant and fight. He himself put on a disguise, and 
mingled with the ranks ; swift came an arrow, and pierced 
him, so that he perished then and there. The trainer, 
learning that the king was dead, sent for a great quantity 
of money, and beat the drum, proclaiming, "Let those who 
want money, advance, and fight ! " The warrior host in a 
twinkling slew the hostile king. 


After the king's obsequies the courtiers deliberated 
who was to be made king. Said they, "While our king 
was yet alive, he put his royal robes upon the elephant- 
trainer. This very man has fought and won the kingdom. 
To him the kingdom shall be given ! " And they conse- 
crated him king, and his wife they made the chief queen. 
The Bodhisatta became his confidant. 

The episode of eating the cock's flesh occurs in Jat. 445, Tib. T. vin., Steele and 
Temple, Wideawake Stories, p. 139. Miklosich ( Ueber die Mundarten der Zigeuner, 
iv. p. 25) gives a tale of the gipsies of Bukowina. A poor man with three sons buys 
a hen which lays a diamond, and a second and third, on the last of which is written, 
" he who eats the head of the hen will become emperor, he who eats the heart will 
have 1000 gold pieces under his head every night, and he who eats the feet will 
be a prophet." The luck falls to the three sons. Of. Jat. 136, p. 1 1 7, Clouston, i. 93 ff., 
Grimm 60. On the folklore of eating the heart see p. 176. 


Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta was born as a rich merchant's son ; 
and after his father's death, took his place. In his house 
was buried a treasure of four hundred million. He had 
an only son. The Bodhisatta gave alms and did good 
until he died, and then he came to life again as Sakka, 
king of the gods. His son proceeded to make a pavilion 
across the road, and sat down with many friends round 
him, to drink. He paid a thousand pieces to runners 
and tumblers, singers and dancers, and passed his time in 
drinking, gluttony, and debauchery; he wandered about, 
asking only for song, music, and dancing, devoted to his 
boon-companions, sunk in sloth. So in a short time he 
squandered all his treasure of four hundred millions, all 
his property, goods, and furniture, and got so poor and 
miserable that he had to go about clad in rags. 


Sakka, as he meditated, became aware how poor he 
was. Overcome with love for his son, he gave him a 
Wishing Cup, with these words: "Son, take care not to 
break this cup. So long as you keep it, your wealth will 
never come to an end. So take good care of it ! " and then 
he returned to heaven. 

After that the man did nothing but drink out of it. 
One day, he was drunk, and threw the cup into the air, 
catching it as it fell. But once he missed it. Down it fell 
upon the earth, and smashed ! Then he got poor again, 
and went about in rags, begging, bowl in hand, till at last 
he lay down by a wall, and died. 

Cf. Uhland's ballad of the Luck of Edenhall (translated by Longfellow), which 
was suggested to him by Ritson's Fairy Tales, xix. (1831). The shattering of the 
cup and ruin of the place was Uhland's invention. The cup still exists in the 
possession of the Musgrave family. Ritson says that the Duke of Wharton once 
accidentally dropped it, but that the butler caught it in a napkin. See E. S. Hart- 
land, The Science of Fairy Tales, p. 153, London, 1891. 


Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta was king of 
Benares, the Bodhisatta became a tree-spirit in a certain 
rose-apple grove. A Crow perched upon a branch of his 
tree, and began to eat the fruit. Then came a Jackal, and 
looked up and spied the Crow. Thought he, " If I flatter 
this creature, perhaps I shall get some of the fruit to eat ! " 
So in flattery he repeated the first stanza : 

Who is it sits in a rose-apple tree- 
Sweet singer! whose voice trickles gently to me? 
Like a young- peacock she coos with soft grace, 
And ever sits still in her place. 


The Crow, in his praise, responded with the second : 

He that is noble in breeding- and birth 
Can praise others' breeding 1 , knows what they are worth. 
Like a young- tiger thou seemest to be : 
Come, eat what I give, Sir, to thee! 

With these words she shook the branch and made 
some fruit drop. Then the spirit of the tree, beholding 
these two eating, after flattering each other, repeated the 
third stanza : 

Liars, foregather, I very well know. 
Here, for example, a carrion Crow, 
And corpse-eating Jackal, with puerile clatter 
Proceed one another to flatter! 

After repeating this stanza, the tree-spirit, assuming a 
fearful shape, scared them both away. 

Cf. Aesop, The Fox and the Croie, Babr. 77, Halm 204, Phaedr. i. 13. It was 
known to Horace, Sat. n. 5. 56, Ep. i. 17. 50, A. P. 437. In Jat. 295 a crow on a 
tree Hatters a jackal in order to share the flesh that he is eating. Jacobs 65. It is 
the jackal that usually takes the place in Indian fables of the fox of Aesop. 


Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta reigned king in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta came to life as Sakka, king of 
the gods. At that time a Wolf lived on a rock by the 
Ganges bank. The winter floods came up and surrounded 
the rock. There he lay upon the rock, with no food and 
no way of getting it. The water rose and rose, and the 
wolf pondered : " No food here, and no way to get it. 
Here I lie, with nothing to do. I may as well keep a sabbath 
fast." Thus resolved to keep a sabbath, as he lay he 
solemnly resolved to keep the religious precepts. Sakka in 
his meditations perceived the wolf's weak resolve. Thought 


he, " I'll plague that wolf" ; and taking the shape of a wild 
goat, he stood near, and let the wolf see him. 

" I'll keep sabbath another day ! " thought the Wolf, as 
he spied him ; up he got, and leapt at the creature. But 
the goat jumped about so that the Wolf could not catch 
him. When our Wolf saw that he could not catch him, 
he came to a standstill, and went back, thinking to himself 
as he lay down again, "Well, my sabbath is not broken 
after all." 

Then Sakka, by his divine power, hovered above in the 
air ; said he, 

" What have such as you, all unstable, to do with keep- 
ing a sabbath ? You didn't know that I was Sakka, 
and wanted a meal of goafs-flesh ! " and thus plaguing 
and rebuking him, he returned to the world of the gods. 

A variant of De lupo et ariete of Marie de France (L, Roquefort, LXXIII.), in 
Berekhyah ha-Naqdan, Mishle Shu'allm 36. It occurs as follows in the Paris 
Promptuarium Exemplorum, 20 (a work dependent on Marie) : De lupo uouente, 
quod lion comederet carnes per totum XL. Qui duni iret per siluam, uidit vnum 
pinguem arietem soluni. Qui dixit in corde suo, quod uotum amplius non seruaret, 
sed comederet mutonem loco salmonis, qui carius emitur. Jacobs 172, gives a 
translation of the Hebrew. 

Cf. Lessing's fable, n. 4, of The Wolf on his Deathbed, who confesses his sins, 
but remembers that he once refrained from devouring a lamb, and took no notice 
of the mockery of a sheep. The fox reminds him that it was at the time when he 
was afflicted with the bone in his throat. See Jat. 308, p. 223. 


Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was king at 
Benares, the Bodhisatta was his minister and his temporal 
and spiritual adviser. 

Now one day the king stood at an open window looking 
into the palace court. And at this very moment the 
daughter of a fruiterer, a beautiful girl in the flower of 
her youth, stood with a basket of jujubes on her head 


crying, "Jujubes, ripe jujubes, who'll buy my jujubes?" 
But she did not venture into the royal court. 

And the king no sooner heard her voice than he fell in 
love with her, and when he learned that she was un- 
married he sent for her and raised her to the dignity of 
chief queen, and bestowed great honour upon her. Now 
she was dear and pleasing in the king's eyes. And one 
day the king sat eating jujubes in a golden dish. And the 
queen Sujata, when she saw the king eating jujubes, asked 
him, saying, " My lord, what in the world are you eating ? " 
And she uttered the first stanza : 

What is this egg-shaped fruit, my lord, so pretty and red of hue, 
In a gold dish set before thee? Pray tell me, where they grew. 

And the king was wroth and said, "O daughter of a 
greengrocer, dealer in ripe jujubes, do you not recognise 
the jujubes, the special fruit of your own family ? " And 
he repeated two stanzas : 

Bare-headed and meanly clad, my queen, thou once didst feel no shame, 
To fill thy lap with the jujube fruit, and now thou dost ask its name; 

Thou art eaten up with pride, my queen, thou findest no pleasure in life, 
Begone and gather thy jujubes again. Thou shalt be no longer my wife. 

Then the Bodhisatta thought, " No one, except myself, 
will be able to reconcile this pair. I will appease the 
king's anger and prevent him from turning her out of 
doors." Then he repeated the fourth stanza: 

These are the sins of a woman, my lord, promoted to high estate : 
Forgive her and cease from thine anger, king, for 'twas thou didst 
make her great. 

So the king at his word put up with the offence of the 
queen and restored her to her former position. And 
thenceforth they lived amicably together. 

Ja.t 108 (Buddhaghosha xvr., The Modest Girl) is a similar tale of a king who 
marries a village girl because of her good behaviour. The ballad of king Cophetua 


and the beggar-maid (Percy's Rel. i. 189, ed. 1876) appears to have been known to 
Shakspere, cf. L. L. L. i. 90, 311 and iv. 1. 66. It contains the same feature as the 

She had forgot her gowiie of gray, 

Which she did weare of late. 
The proverb old is come to passe, 
The priest, when he begins his masse, 
Forgets that ever clerke he was. 

The tale is here told of a previous birth of Pasenadi, king of Kosala, who wished 
to marry into the Sakya clan, but was tricked into marrying a slave-girl, the daughter 
of a Sakyan prince. 


Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta came to life as a woodpecker in 
the Himalaya country. 

Now a certain lion, while devouring his prey, had a 
bone stick in his throat. His throat swelled up so that 
he could not take any food and severe pains set in. Then 
this woodpecker, while intent on seeking its own food, as 
it was perched on a bough, saw the lion and asked him, 
saying, " Friend, what ails you ? " He told him what was 
the matter, and the bird said, " I would take the bone out 
of your throat, friend, but I dare not put my head into 
your mouth, for fear you should eat me up.' 1 

" Do not be afraid, friend ; I will not eat you up. Only 
save my life." 

" All right," said the bird, and ordered the lion to lie 
down upon his side. Then it thought : " Who knows what 
this fellow will be about?" And to prevent his closing 
his mouth, it fixed a stick between his upper and lower 
jaw, and then entering into the lion's mouth, it struck 
the end of the bone with its beak. The bone fell out and 


disappeared. And then the woodpecker came out of the 
lion's mouth, and with a blow from its beak knocked out 
the stick, and hopping off sat on the top of a bough. 

The lion recovered from his sickness, and one day was 
devouring a wild buffalo which he had killed. Thought 
the woodpecker : " I will now put him to the test," and 
perching on a bough above the lion's head, it fell to con- 
versing with him and uttered the first stanza : 

Kindness as much as in us lay, 
To thee, my lord, we once did shew : 

On us in turn, we humbly pray, 
Do thou a trifling boon bestow. 

On hearing this the lion repeated the second stanza : 

To trust thy head to a lion's jaw, 
A creature red in tooth and claw, 
To dare such a deed and be living still, 
Is token enough of my good will. 

The woodpecker on hearing this uttered two more 
stanzas : 

From the base ingrate hope not to obtain 
The due requital of good service done; 

From bitter thought and angry word refrain, 
But haste the presence of the wretch to shun. 

With these words the woodpecker flew away. 

Tib. T. xxvii., Jdtakamdla, xxxiv., Aesop, The Wolf and the Crane, Babr. 94, 
Halm 276, Phaedr. I. 8. Cf. Jacobs 55. 


Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta came to life as a young hare and 
lived in a wood. On one side of this wood was the foot of 
a mountain, on another side a river, and on the third side 
a border-village. The hare had three friends a monkey, 
a jackal and an otter. These four wise creatures lived 
together and each of them got his food on his own 
hunting- ground, and in the evening they again came 
together. The hare in his wisdom by way of admonition 
preached the Truth to his three companions, teaching 
that alms are to be given, the moral law to be observed, 
and holy days to be kept. They accepted his admonition 
and went each to his own part of the jungle and dwelt 

And so in the course of time the Bodhisatta one day 
observing the sky, and looking at the moon knew that 
the next day would be a fast-day, and addressing his three 
companions he said, "To-morrow is a fast-day. Let all 
three of you take upon you the moral precepts, and 
observe the holy day. To one that stands fast in moral 
practice, almsgiving brings a great reward. Therefore 
feed any beggars that come to you by giving them food 
from your own table." They readily assented, and abode 
each in his own place of dwelling. 

On the morrow quite early in the morning, the otter 
sallied forth to seek his prey and went down to the bank 
of the Ganges. Now it came to pass that a fisherman had 
landed seven red fish, and stringing them together on a 
withe, he had taken and buried them in the sand on 
the river's bank. And then he dropped down the stream, 

F. & T. 15 


catching more fish. The otter scenting the buried fish, dug 
up the sand till he came upon them, and pulling them 
out cried thrice, "Does anyone own these fish?" And 
not seeing any owner he took hold of the withe with his 
teeth and laid the fish in the jungle where he dwelt, 
intending to eat them at a fitting time. And then he lay 
down, thinking how virtuous he was ! The jackal too 
sallied forth in quest of food and found in the hut of a 
field-watcher two spits, a lizard and a pot of milk-curd. 
And after thrice crying aloud, " To whom do these belong?" 
and not finding an owner, he put on his neck the rope for 
lifting the pot, and grasping the spits and the lizard with 
his teeth, he brought and laid them in his own lair, think- 
ing, " In due season I will devour them," and so lay down, 
reflecting how virtuous he had been. 

The monkey also entered the clump of trees, and 
gathering a bunch of mangoes laid them up in his part of 
the jungle, meaning to eat them in due season, and then 
lay down, thinking how virtuous he was. But the Bodhi- 
satta in due time came out, intending to browse on the 
kusa-grass, and as he lay in the jungle, the thought 
occurred to him, "It is impossible for me to offer grass 
to any beggars that may chance to appear, and I have no 
sesame, rice, and such like. If any beggar shall appeal to 
me, I shall have to give him my own flesh to eat." At this 
splendid display of virtue, Sakka's white marble throne 
manifested signs of heat. Sakka on reflection discovered 
the cause and resolved to put this royal hare to the test. 
First of all he w r ent and stood by the otter's dwelling-place, 
disguised as a brahmin, and being asked why he stood 
there, he replied, "Wise Sir, if I could get something 
to eat, after keeping the fast, I would perform all my 
ascetic duties." The otter replied, " Very well, I will give 


you some food," and as he conversed with him he repeated 
the first stanza : 

Seven red fish I safely brought to land from Ganges flood, 
brahmin, eat thy fill, I pray, and stay within this wood. 

The brahmin said, "Let be till to-morrow. I will see 
to it by and by." Next he went to the jackal, and when 
asked by him why he stood there, he made the same 
answer. The jackal, too, readily promised him some 
food, and in talking with him repeated the second 
stanza : 

A lizard aud a jar of curds, the keeper's evening' meal, 

Two spits of roasted flesh withal I wrongfully did steal: 

Such as I have I give to thee: brahmin, eat, I pray, 

If thou shouldst deign within this wood a while with us to stay. 

Said the brahmin, "Let be till to-morrow. I will see 
to it by and by." Then he went to the monkey, and 
when asked what he meant by standing there, he answered 
just as before. The monkey readily offered him some food, 
and in conversing with him gave utterance to the third 
stanza : 

An icy stream, a mango ripe, and pleasant greenwood shade, 
'Tis thine to enjoy, if thou canst dwell content in forest glade. 

Said the brahmin, "Let be till to-morrow. I will see 
to it by and by." And he went to the wise hare, and on 
being asked by him why he stood there, he made the 
same reply. The Bodhisatta on hearing what he wanted 
was highly delighted, and said, " Brahmin, you have done 
well in coming to me for food. This day will I grant you 
a boon that I have never granted before, but you shall 
not break the moral law by taking animal life. Go, friend, 
and when you have piled together logs of wood, and 
kindled a fire, come and let me know, and I will sacrifice 
myself by falling into the midst of the flames, and when 



my body is roasted, you shall eat my flesh and fulfil all 
your ascetic duties." And in thus addressing him the hare 
uttered the fourth stanza : 

Nor sesame, nor beans, nor rice have I as food to give, 

But roast with fire my flesh I yield, if thou with us wouldst live. 

Sakka, on hearing what he said, by his miraculous 
power caused a heap of burning coals to appear, and 
came and told the Bodhisatta. Rising from his bed of 
kusa-grass and coming to the place, he thrice shook him- 
self that if there were any insects within his coat, they 
might escape death. Then offering his whole body as a 
free gift he sprang up, and like a royal swan, alighting on 
a cluster of lotuses, in an ecstasy of joy he fell on the heap 
of live coals. But the flame failed even to heat the pores 
of the hair on the body of the Bodhisatta, and it was as 
if he had entered a region of frost. Then he addressed 
Sakka in these words : " Brahmin, the fire you have 
kindled is icy-cold : it fails to heat even the pores of the 
hair on my body. What is the meaning of this ? " " Wise 
Sir," he replied, " I am no brahmin. I am Sakka, and 
I have come to put your virtue to the test." The Bodhi- 
satta said, " If not only thou, Sakka, but all the inhabitants 
of the world were to try me in this matter of almsgiving, 
they would not find in me any unwillingness to give," and 
with this the Bodhisatta uttered a cry of exultation like 
a lion roaring. Then said Sakka to the Bodhisatta, 
"O wise hare, be thy virtue known throughout a whole 
seon." And squeezing the mountain, with the essence thus 
extracted, he daubed the sign of a hare on the orb of the 
moon. And after depositing the hare on a bed of young 
kusa-grass, in the same w r ooded part of the jungle, Sakka 
returned to his own place in heaven. And these four wise 


creatures dwelt happily and harmoniously together, ful- 
filling the moral law and observing holy days, till they 
departed to fare according to their deeds. 

This tale is apparently not found outside buddhist sources. Jatakamala vi., 
Car. Pit. i. 10. Hiuen Thsang Mem. sur les Contrees occidentales tr. Julien i. 375. 
It was found among the buddhist Kalmuks by Pallas in 1769 (Reise (lurch ver- 
schiedene Provinzen des Rmsischen Reichs. i. 343) and by Bergmann in 1802 (Nom. 
Streif. iii. 204). The sign of the hare in the moon is mentioned in Jat. 20 (p. 25), 
454, P. (T.) in. 3, (B.) in. 1. In Sanskrit the moon is called sasin 'having a hare,' 
as well as mrgahka and harinahka 'having the mark of a deer.' Of. Benf. Einl. 
143. In works on folklore the story is sometimes corrupted by making Buddha, 
not Sakka, the god who requires the sacrifice. The confusion occurs first in Douce's 
Illustrations of Shakspeare, i. 16 (1807), followed by Grimm, and Harley Moan, 


Once upon a time when Brahmadatta reigned in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta came to life as a young singila 
bird. And when he grew to be a big bird, he settled in 
the Himalaya country and built him a nest to his fancy, 
that was proof against the rain. Then a certain monkey in 
the rainy season, when the rain fell without intermission, 
sat near the Bodhisatta, his teeth chattering by reason 
of the severe cold. The Bodhisatta, seeing him thus 
distressed, fell to talking with him, and uttered the first 
stanza : 

Monkey, in feet and hands and face 

So like the human form, 
Why buildest thou no dwelling-place, 

To hide thee from the storm? 

The monkey, on hearing this, replied with a second 
stanza : 

In feet and hands and face, bird, 

Thoug-h close to man allied, 
Wisdom, chief boon on him conferred, 
To me has been denied. 


The Bodhisatta, on hearing this, repeated yet two more 
couplets : 

He that inconstancy betrays, a light and fickle mind, 
Unstable proved in all his ways, no happiness may find. 

Monkey, in virtue to excel, do thou thy utmost strive, 

And safe from wintry blast to dwell, go, hut of leaves contrive. 

Thought the monkey, " This creature, though dwelling 
in a place that is sheltered from the rain, despises me. 
I will not suffer him to rest quietly in this nest." Accord- 
ingly, in his eagerness to catch the Bodhisatta, he made a 
spring upon him. But the Bodhisatta flew up into the 
air, and winged his way elsewhere. And the monkey, 
after smashing up and destroying his nest, betook him- 
self off. 

P. (B.) i. 18. The bird, which in the Panchatantra is an example of the folly of 
misplaced advice, here becomes an incarnation of the All-enlightened One. In 
Purnabhadra's recension of P. it is iv. 9. It does not occur in T., but a variant 
is found in the corresponding place (i. 14) in which the monkeys try to blow a 
fire-fly into a blaze, and finally kill the officious bird. Som. LX. 204 (ii. 39) follows 
this version. 


Once upon a time when Brahmadatta reigned in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta came to life as a young lion. 
And when fully grown he lived in a wood. At this time 
there -was near the Western Ocean a grove of palms 
mixed with vilva trees. A certain hare lived here beneath 
a palm sapling, at the foot of a vilva tree. One day this 
hare after feeding came and lay down beneath the young- 
palm tree. And the thought struck him : " If this earth 
should be destroyed, what would become of me?" And 
at this very moment a ripe vilva fruit fell on a palm leaf. 


At the sound of it, the hare thought : " This solid earth is 
collapsing," and starting up he fled, without so much as 
looking behind him. Another hare saw him scampering 
off, as if frightened to death, and asked the cause of his 
panic flight. "Pray, don't ask me," he said. The other 
hare cried, " Pray, Sir, what is it ? " and kept running after 
him. Then the hare stopped a moment and without look- 
ing back said, " The earth here is breaking up." And at 
this the second hare ran after the other. And so first 
one and then another hare caught sight of him running, 
and joined in the chase till one hundred thousand hares 
all took to flight together. They were seen by a deer, a 
boar, an elk, a buffalo, a wild ox, a rhinoceros, a tiger, 
a lion and an elephant. And when they asked what it 
meant and were told that the earth was breaking up, they 
too took to flight. So by degrees this host of animals 
extended to the length of a full league. 

When the Bodhisatta saw this headlong flight of the 
animals, and heard the cause of it was that the earth was 
coming to an end, he thought: "The earth is nowhere 
coming to an end. Surely it must be some sound which 
was misunderstood by them. And if I don't make a great 
effort, they will all perish. I will save their lives." So 
with the speed of a lion he got before them to the foot of a 
mountain, and lion-like roared three times. They were 
terribly frightened at the lion, and stopping in their flight 
stood all huddled together. The lion went in amongst 
them and asked why they were running away. 

" The earth is collapsing," they answered. 

" Who saw it collapsing ? " he said. 

" The elephants know all about it," they replied. 

He asked the elephants. " We don't know," they said, 
"the lions know." But the lions said, "We don't know, 


the tigers know." The tigers said, "The rhinoceroses 
know." The rhinoceroses said, "The wild oxen know." 
The wild oxen, " the buffaloes." The buffaloes, " the elks." 
The elks, "the boars." The boars, "the deer." The deer 
said, " We don't know, the hares know." When the hares 
were questioned, they pointed to one particular hare and 
said, " This one told us." 

So the Bodhisatta asked, " Is it true, Sir, that the earth 
is breaking up ? " 

" Yes, Sir, I saw it," said the hare. 

"Where," he asked, "were you living, when you 

i n i 

saw it { 

"Near the ocean, Sir, in a grove of palms mixed 
with vilva trees. For as I was lying beneath the shade 
of a palm sapling at the foot of a vilva tree, methought, 
' If this earth should break up, where shall I go ? ' And at 
that very moment I heard the sound of the breaking up 
of the earth and I fled." 

Thought the lion: "A ripe vilva fruit evidently must 
have fallen on a palm leaf and made a 'thud,' and this 
hare jumped to the conclusion that the earth was coming 
to an end, and ran away. I will find out the exact truth 
about it." So he reassured the herd of animals, and said, 
" I will take the hare and go and find out exactly whether 
the earth is coming to an end or not, in the place pointed 
out by him. Until I return, do you stay here." Then 
placing the hare on his back, he sprang forward with the 
speed of a lion, and putting the hare down in the palm 
grove, he said, " Come, shew us the place you meant." 

" I dare not, my lord," said the hare. 

" Come, don't be afraid," said the lion. 

The hare, not venturing to go near the vilva tree, 
stood afar off and cried, "Yonder, Sir, is the place of 


c u 



n :}-24. fin, win'*. j>/>. -'.}:]. 234) 



dreadful sound," and so saying, he repeated the first 

stanza : 

From the spot where I did dwell 

Issued forth a fearful 'thud'; 
What it was I could not tell, 

Nor what caused it understood. 

After hearing what the hare said, the lion went to the 
foot of the vilva tree, and saw the spot where the hare 
had been lying beneath the shade of the palm tree, and 
the ripe vilva fruit that fell on the palm leaf, and having 
carefully ascertained that the earth had not broken 
up, he placed the hare on his back and with the speed of 
a lion soon came again to the herd of beasts. 

Then he told them the whole story, and said, " Don't 
be afraid." And having thus reassured the herd of beasts, 
he let them go. Verily, if it had not been for the Bodhi- 
satta at that time, all the beasts would have rushed into 
the sea and perished. It was all owing to the Bodhisatta 
that they escaped death. 

Tib. T. xxii. The Flight of the Beasts. 


Once upon a time the Bodhisatta was born in a 
merchant family and plied his trade. At that time a 
certain religious mendicant, clad in a leather garment, in 
going his rounds for alms, came to the rams' fighting 
ground, and on seeing a ram falling back before him, he 
fancied it did this as a mark of respect, and did not him- 
self retire. " In the whole world," he thought, " this ram 
alone recognises my merits," and raising his joined hands in 
respectful salutation he stood and repeated the first stanza: 

The kindly beast obeisance makes before 
The high-caste brahmin versed in holy lore. 

Good honest creature thou, 
Famous above all other beasts, I vow! 


At this moment the wise merchant sitting in his stores, 
to restrain the mendicant, uttered the second stanza : 

Brahmin, be not so rash this beast to trust, 
Else will he haste to lay thee in the dust, 

For this the ram falls back, 
To grain an impetus for his attack. 

While this wise merchant was still speaking, the ram 
came on at full speed, and striking the mendicant on the 
thigh, knocked him down. He was maddened with the pain 
and lay groaning. The Master, to explain the incident, gave 
utterance to the third stanza : 

With broken leg and bowl for alms upset, 

His damaged fortune he will sore regret. 

Let him not weep with outstretched arms in vain, 

Haste to the rescue, ere the priest is slain. 

Then the mendicant repeated the fourth stanza : 

Thus all that honour to the unworthy pay, 
Share the same fate that I have met to-day; 
Prone in the dust by butting ram laid low 
To foolish confidence my death I owe. 

Thus lamenting he there and then came by his death. 

Illustrated on the Bharhut Stupa, pi. XLI. 1 and 3. 


Once upon a time when Bramadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta was born into a brahmin family. 
And when he grew up, he studied all the arts at Takkasila 
and then returned to his parents. In this Birth the 
Great Being became a holy young student. Then his 
parents told him they w r ould look out a wife for him. 

" I have no desire for a married life," said the Bodhi- 
satta. "When you are dead, I will adopt the religious life 
of an ascetic." 


And being greatly importuned by them, he had a 
golden image made, and said, " If you can find me a 
maiden like unto this, I will take her to wife." His 
parents sent forth some emissaries with a large escort, 
and bade them place the golden image in a covered 
carriage and go and search through the plains of India, 
till they found just such a young brahmin girl, when they 
were to give this golden image in exchange, and bring the 
girl back with them. Now at this time a certain holy 
man passing from the Brahma world was born again in 
the form of a young girl in a town in the kingdom of 
Kasi, in the house of a brahmin worth eighty crores, and 
the name given her was Sammillabhasini. At the age of 
sixteen she was a fair and gracious maiden, like to an 
Apsaras, endued with all the marks of female beauty. 
And since no thought of evil was ever suggested to her 
by the power of sinful passion, she was perfectly pure. 
So the men took the golden image and wandered about 
till they reached this village. The inhabitants on seeing 
the image asked, " Why is SammillabhasinI, the daughter 
of such and such a brahmin, placed there?" The mes- 
sengers on hearing this found the brahmin family, and 
chose SammillabhasinI for the young man's bride. She 
sent a message to her parents, saying, " When you are dead, 
I shall adopt the religious life ; I have no desire for the 
married state." They said, "What art thou thinking of, 
maiden ? " And accepting the golden image they sent off 
their daughter with a great retinue. The marriage cere- 
mony took place against the wishes of both the Bodhisatta 
and SammillabhasinI. Though sharing the same room 
and the same bed they did not regard one another with 
the eye of passion, but dwelt together like two holy men or 
two female saints. 


By and by the father and mother of the Bodhisatta 
died. He performed their funeral rites and calling to 
him Sammillabhasim, said to her, "My dear, my family 
property amounts to eighty crores, and yours too is worth 
another eighty crores. Take all this and enter upon house- 
hold life. I shall become an ascetic." 

"Sir," she answered, "if you become an ascetic, I will 
become one too. I cannot forsake you.' 


" Come then," he said. So spending all their wealth in 
almsgiving and throwing up their worldly fortune as it 
were a lump of phlegm, they journeyed into the Himalaya 
country and both of them adopted the ascetic life. There 
after living for a long time on wild fruits and roots, they 
at length came down from the Himalayas to procure salt 
and vinegar, and gradually found their way to Benares, 
and dwelt in the royal grounds. And while they were living 
there, this young and delicate female ascetic, from eating 
insipid rice of a mixed quality, was attacked by dysentery 
and not being able to get any healing remedies, she grew 
very weak. The Bodhisatta at the time for going his 
rounds to beg for alms, took hold of her and carried her 
to the gate of the city and there laid her on a bench in a 
certain hall, and himself went into the citv for alms. He had 


scarce gone out when she expired. The people, beholding 
the great beauty of this female ascetic, thronged about 
her, weeping and lamenting. The Bodhisatta after going 
his round of begging returned, and hearing of her death 
he said, "That which has the quality of dissolution is 
dissolved. All impermanent existences are of this kind." 
With these words he sat down on the bench whereon she 
lay and eating the mixture of food he rinsed out his mouth. 
The people that stood by gathered round him and said, 
" Reverend Sir, what was this female ascetic to you ? " 


" When I was a layman," he replied, " she was my wife." 
" Holy Sir," they said, " while we weep and lament and 
cannot control our feelings, why do you not weep ? ' 

The Bodhisatta said, " While she was alive, she belonged 
to me in some sort. Nothing belongs to her that is 
gone to another world: she has passed into the power 
of others. Wherefore should I weep?" And teaching 
the people the Truth, he recited these stanzas: 

Why should I shed tears for thee, 
Fair Sammillabhasim ? 
Passed to death's majority 
Thou art henceforth lost to me. 

Wherefore should frail man lament 
What to him is only lent? 
He too draws his mortal breath 
Forfeit every hour to death. 

Be he standing 1 , sitting 1 still, 
Moving 1 , resting 1 , what he will, 
In the twinkling 1 of an eye, 
In a moment death is nig-h. 

Life I count a thing- unstable, 
Loss of friends inevitable. 
Cherish all that are alive, 
Sorrow not shouldst thou survive. 

Thus did the Great Being teach the Truth, illustrating 
by these four stanzas the impermanence of things. The 
people performed funeral rites over the female ascetic. 
And the Bodhisatta returned to the Himalayas, and 
entering on the higher knowledge arising from mystic 
meditation was destined to birth in the Brahma-world. 

The variant in Tib. T. ix. is converted into a story contemporary with Buddha, 
and the hero becomes the buddhist elder Mahakassapa. The incident of the golden 
image occurs also in Jat. 531, The Ugly Bridegroom. 


This was a story told by the Master when at Jetavana, about a brahmin who 
was ever proving his virtue. Two similar stories have been told before 1 . In this 
case the Bodhisatta was the family priest of the king of Benares. 

In testing his virtue he for three days took a coin 
from the royal treasurer's board. They informed against 
him as a thief, and when brought before the king, he 

said : 

Power on earth beyond compare, 

Thus virtue owns a wondrous charm-. 
Putting 1 on a virtuous air 
The deadly snake escapes all harm. 

After thus praising virtue in the first stanza, he gained 
the king's consent and adopted the ascetic life. Now 
a hawk seized a piece of meat in a butcher's shop and 
darted up into the air. The other birds surrounded him 
and struck at him with feet, claws and beaks. Unable to 
bear the pain he dropped the piece of meat. Another 
bird seized it. It too in like manner being hard pressed 
let the meat fall. Then another bird pounced on it, and 
whosoever got the meat was pursued by the rest, and who- 
soever let it go was left in peace. The Bodhisatta on 
seeing this thought, " These desires of ours are like pieces 
of meat. To those that grasp at them is sorrow, and to 
those that let them go is peace." And he repeated the 
second stanza : 

While the bird had aught to eat, 

Ospreys pecked at him full sore, 
When perforce he dropped the meat, 

Then they pecked at him no more. 

The ascetic going forth from the city, in the course of 
his journey came to a village, and at evening lay down in 

1 Jat. 86 and 290. The above passage is a very brief example of a Story of the 
Present ; for other examples see pp. 78, 243. 


a certain man's house. Now a female slave there named 
Pingala made an assignation with a man, saying, "You 
are to come at such and such an hour." After she had 
bathed the feet of her master and his family, when they 
had lain down, she sat on the threshold, looking out for 
the coming of her lover, and passed the first and the 
middle watch, repeating to herself, "Now he will be 
coming," but at daybreak, losing hope, she said, " He will 
not come now," and lay down and fell asleep. The Bodhi- 
satta seeing this happen said, " This woman sat ever so 
long in the hope that her lover would come, but now that 
she knows he will not come, in her despair, she slumbers 
peacefully." And with the thought that while hope in 
the passions brings sorrow, despair brings peace, he uttered 
the third stanza : 

The fruit of hope f ulfiUed is bliss ; 
How differs loss of hope from this? 
Though dull despair her hope destroys, 
Lo! Pingala calm sleep enjoys. 

Next day going forth from that village he entered into 
a forest, and beholding a hermit seated on the ground and 
indulging in meditation he thought, " Both in this world 
and in the next there is no happiness beyond the bliss of 
meditation." And he repeated the fourth stanza : 

In this world and in worlds to be 

Nought can surpass ecstatic joy: 
To holy calm a devotee, 

Himself unharmed, will none annoy. 

Then he went into the forest and adopted the ascetic 
life of a Rishi and developed the higher knowledge born 
of meditation, and became destined to birth in the Brahma- 

The first episode of the testing of virtue is given in Jat. 290 and 362, and more 
fully in Jat. 86. In the latter the Bodhisatta, when being brought before the king, 


sees a performing snake, and is told that it will not bite, as it is good. This explains 
the reference to the snake in the first stanza. 

The episodes of the hawk and of Pirigala are referred to in the Sahkhya 
Aphorisms iv. 5 and 11, and according to Franke probably come from a source 
which is the common source of the jataka and of the stories as given in Mbh. xn. 
chs. 174, 178. 

In the second stanza ospreys are spoken of, as in the Mbh., although the prose 
speaks of a hawk. K. D. (Arab.) iv. also has a hawk. Cf. the similar confusion in 
Jat. 218, p. 180. 


Once upon a time when Brahmadatta reigned in Be- 
nares, the Bodhisatta was a far-famed teacher at Takkasila 
and trained many young princes and sons of brahmins in 
the arts. Now the son of the king of Benares, when he 
was sixteen years old, came to him and after he had 
acquired the three Vedas and all the liberal arts and 
was perfect in them, he took leave of his master. The 
teacher regarding him by his gift of prognostication 
thought, " There is danger coming to this man through his 
son. By my magic power I will deliver him from it." And 
composing four stanzas he gave them to the young prince 
and spoke as follows : " My son, after you are seated on 
the throne, when your sou is sixteen years old, utter the 
first stanza while eating your rice ; repeat the second 
stanza at the time of the great levee ; the third, as you 
are ascending to the palace roof, standing at the head of 
the stairs, and the fourth, when entering the royal chamber, 
as you stand on the threshold." 

The prince readily assented to this and saluting his 
teacher went away. And after acting as viceroy, on his 
father's death he ascended the throne. His son, when he was 
sixteen years of age, on the king's going forth to take his 


pleasure in the garden, observing his father's majesty and 
power was filled with a desire to kill him and seize upon 
his kingdom, and spoke to his attendants about it. They 
said, "True, Sir, what is the good of obtaining power, 
when one is old ? You must by some means or other kill 
the king and possess yourself of his kingdom." The 
prince said, " I will kill him by putting poison in his food." 
So he took some poison and sat down to eat his evening 
meal with his father. The king, when the rice was just 
served in the bowl, spoke the first stanza: 

With sense so nice, the husks from rice 

Eats keen are to discriminate: 
They cared not much the husks to touch, 

But grain by grain the rice they ate. 

" I am discovered," thought the prince, and not daring 
to administer the poison in the bowl of rice, he rose up 
and bowing to the king went away. He told the story to 
his attendants and said, " To-day I am found out. How now 
shall I kill him ? " From this day forth they lay concealed 
in the garden, and consulting together in whispers said, 
"There is still one expedient. When it is time to attend the 
great levee, gird on your sword, and taking your stand 
amongst the councillors, when you see the king off* his 
guard, you must strike him a blow with your sword and 
kill him." Thus they arranged it. The prince readily 
agreed, and at the time of the great levee, he girt on his 
sword and moving about from place to place looked out 
for an opportunity to strike the king. At this moment the 
king uttered the second stanza : 

The secret counsel taken in the wood 

By me is understood: 
The village plot soft whispered in the ear 

That too I hear. 

F. * T. 16 


Thought the prince, " My father knows that I am his 
enemy," and ran away and told his attendants. After the 
lapse of seven or eight days they said, " Prince, your father 
is ignorant of your feeling towards him. You only fancy 
this in your own mind. Put him to death." So one day 
he took his sword and stood at the top of the stairs in the 
royal closet. The king standing at the head of the stair- 
case spoke the third stanza: 

A monkey once did cruel measures take 
His tender offspring- impotent to make. 

Thought the prince, "My father wants to seize me," 
and in his terror he fled away and told his attendants he 
had been threatened by his father. After the lapse of a 
fortnight they said, " Prince, if the king knew this, he 
would not have put up with it so long a time. Your 
imagination suggests this to you. Put him to death." So 
one day he took his sword and entering the royal chamber 
on the upper floor of the palace he lay down beneath the 
couch, intending to slay the king, as soon as he came. 
At the close of the evening meal, the king sent his 
retinue away, wishing to lie down, and entering the royal 
chamber, as he stood on the threshold, he uttered the 
fourth stanza: 

Thy cautious creeping- ways 

Like one-eyed g-oat in mustard field that strays, 
And who thou art that lurkest here below, 

This too I know. 

Thought the prince, "My father has found me out. 
Now he will put me to death." And seized with fear he 
came out from beneath the couch, and throwing down his 
sword at the king's feet and saying, " Pardon me, my lord," 
he lay grovelling before him. The king said, " You thought, 
no one knows what I am about." And after rebuking 


him he ordered him to be bound in chains and put 
into the prison house, and set a guard over him. Then 
the king meditated on the virtues of the Bodhisatta. And 
by and by he died. When they had celebrated his funeral 
rites, they took the young prince out of prison and set him 
on the throne. 

A close variant occurs in Jat. 373, and in Buddhaghosha vi., in a form in which 
the royal barber is bribed to kill the king. Cf. Clouston, ii. 317 ff., A king's life 
saved by a Maxim, and Gesta Rom. 103 (95). 

The mention of the monkey in the third stanza is to Jat. 58, in which a parent 
monkey is jealous of his offspring, much as Saturn, who devoured his children 
(Hesiod, Theog. 473). 


This story was told by the Master at Jetavana, con- 
cerning a heron that lived in the house of the king of 
Kosala. She carried messages, they say, for the king, and 
had two young ones. The king sent this bird with a letter 
to some other king. When she was gone away, the boys 
in the royal family squeezed the young birds to death hi 
their hands. The mother bird came back and missing 
her young ones, asked who had killed her offspring. 
They said, "So and so." And at this time there was 
a fierce and savage tiger kept in the palace, fastened 
by a strong chain. Now these boys came to see the 
tiger and the heron went with them, thinking, "Even 
as my young ones were killed by them, just so will 
I deal with these boys," and she took hold of them and 
threw them down at the foot of the tiger. The tiger with 
a growl crunched them up. The bird said, "Now is the 
wish of my heart fulfilled," and flying up into the air 
made straight for the Himalayas. On hearing what had 
happened they started a discussion in the Hall of Truth, 
saying, " Sirs, a heron, it is said, in the king's palace threw 



down before a tiger the boys who killed her young ones, 
and when she had thus brought about their death, she 
made off." The Master came and inquired what it was 
the Brethren were discussing and said, "Not now only, 
Brethren, but formerly also did she bring about the death 
of those who killed her young ones." And herewith he 
related a legend of the past. 

Once upon a time the Bodhisatta at Benares ruled his 
kingdom with justice and equity. A certain heron in his 
house carried messages for him. And so on just as before. 
But the special point here is that in this case the bird, 
having let the tiger kill the boys, thought, " I can no 
longer remain here. I will take my departure, but 
though I am going away I will not leave without telling the 
king, but as soon as I have told him I will be off." And 
so she drew nigh and saluted the king, and standing a 
little way off said, "My lord, it was through your carelessness 
that the boys killed my young ones, and under the influence 
of passion I in revenge caused their death. Now I can no 
longer live here." And uttering the first stanza she said : 

Long- I held this house as mine, 

Honour great I did receive, 
It is due to act of thine 

I am now compelled to leave. 

The king on hearing this repeated the second stanza : 

Should one to retaliate, 

Wrong 1 with equal wrong 1 repay, 
Then his anger should abate; 

So, good heron, prithee stay. 

Hearing this the bird spoke the third stanza : 

Wronged can with wrong-doer ne'er 

As of old be made at one : 
Nought, O king can keep me here, 

Lo! from henceforth I am gone. 


The king, on hearing this, spoke the fourth stanza : 

Should they wise, not foolish be, 

With the wronged wrong-doer may 
Live in peace and harmony: 

So, good heron, prithee, stay. 

The bird said, " As things are, I cannot stay, my lord," 
and saluting the king she flew up into the air and made 
straight for the Himalayas. 

K. D. (Syr.) vn., (Arab.) xir. The king and the bird Fanzah. Mbh. xn. ch. 139, 
The bird Pujanl. The word translated ' heron ' is kuntanl, which is given as a 
synonym of konca 'heron' in the Abhidhdnappadipikd 641 ; but it is probably a 
corruption of Pujanl, of the Mbh., a change which is possible only in Kharosthi script 
(Franke), and implies a N.W. Indian locality for the jataka. Hertel finds a distant 
resemblance in P. (T.) i. 4, (B.) i. 6, where a crow takes revenge on a snake that eats 
its young ones by stealing a gold band and hanging it over the snake's dwelling. 
The owners come for it and kill the snake. 


Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta was born as his son, and after 
acquiring all the arts at Takkasila, on his father's death, 
he ruled his kingdom righteously. 

At that time a certain neatherd, who was tending cattle 
in their sheds in the forest, came home and inadvertently 
left behind him a cow that was in calf. Between the 
cow and a lioness sprang up a firm Mendship. The two 
animals became fast friends and went about together. 
So after a time the cow brought forth a calf and the 
lioness a cub. These two young creatures also by force of 
family ties became fast friends and wandered about to- 
gether. Then a certain forester, after observing their 
affection, took such wares as are produced in the forest 
and went to Benares and presented them to the king. 
And when the king asked him, "Friend, have you seen 
any unusual marvel in the forest ? " he made answer, 


" I saw nothing else that was wonderful, my lord, but I did 
see a lion and a bull wandering about together, very 
friendly one towards another." 

"Should a third animal appear," said the king, "there 
will certainly be mischief. Come and tell me, if you see 
the pair joined by a third animal." 

" Certainly, my lord," he answered. 

Now when the forester had left for Benares, a jackal 
ministered to the lion and the bull. When he returned 
to the forest and saw this he said, " I will tell the king that 
a third animal has appeared," and departed for the city. 
Now the jackal thought, "There is no meat that I have 
not eaten except the flesh of lions and bulls. By setting 
these two at variance, I will get their flesh to eat." And 
he said, " This is the way he speaks of you," and thus 
dividing them one from another, he soon brought about a 
quarrel and reduced them to a dying condition. 

But the forester came and told the king, " My lord, a 
third animal has turned up." " What is it ? " said the king. 
"A jackal, my lord." Said the kin<\ "He will cause them 
to quarrel, and will bring about their death. We shall find 
them dead when we arrive." And so saying, he mounted 
upon his chariot and travelling- on the road pointed out 
by the forester, he arrived just as the two animals had by 
their quarrel destroyed one another. The jackal highly 
delighted was eating, now the flesh of the lion, now that of 
the bull. The king when he saw that they were both dead, 
stood just as he was upon his chariot, and addressing his 
charioteer gave utterance to these verses : 

Nought in common had this pair, 
Neither wives nor food did share; 
Yet behold how slanderous word, 
Keen as any two-edged sword, 


Did devise with cunning 1 art 
Friends of old to keep apart. 
Thus did bull and lion fall 
Prey to meanest beast of all: 

So will all bed-fellows be 

With this pair in misery, 

If they lend a willing- ear 

To the slanderer's whispered sneer. 

But they thrive exceeding well, 
E'en as those in heaven that dwell, 
Who to slander ne'er attend 
Slander parting- friend from friend. 

The king- spoke these verses, and bidding them gather 
together the mane, skin, claws, and teeth of the lion, 
returned straight to his own city. 

The frame story of P. i., in which only the bull is killed, Hitop. n., Som. LX. 

(ii. 27), K. D. (Syr.) i., (Arab.) v. Tib. T. xxxm. first version. The second version 

corresponds to Jat. 361, in which the wiles of the jackal are defeated, as also in 
Julien 26. 


Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta came to life as a young elephant, 
and growing up a fine comely beast, he became the leader 
of the herd, with a following of eighty thousand elephants, 
and dwelt in the Himalayas. At that time a quail laid 
her eggs in the feeding-ground of the elephants. When 
the eggs were ready to be hatched, the young birds broke 
the shells and came out. Before their wings had grown, 
and when they were still unable to fly, the Great Being 
with his following of eighty thousand elephants, in ranging 
about for food, came to this spot. On seeing them the 
quail thought, "This royal elephant will trample on my 
young ones and kill them. Lo ! I will implore his 
righteous protection for the defence of my brood." Then 


she raised her two wings and standing before him repeated 

the first stanza : 

Elephant of sixty years, 
Forest lord amongst thy peers, 
I am but a puny bird, 
Thou a leader of the herd; 
With my wings I homage pay, 
Spare my little ones, I pray. 

The Great Being said, " O quail, be not troubled. I will 
protect thy offspring." And standing over the young 
birds, while the eighty thousand elephants passed by, he 
thus addressed the quail: "Behind us comes a solitary 
rogue elephant. He will not do our bidding. When he 
comes, do thou entreat him too, and so insure the safety 
of thy offspring." And with these words he made off 
And the quail went forth to meet the other elephant, and 
with both wings uplifted, making respectful salutation, she 
spoke the second stanza : 

Roaming over hill and dale 

Cherishing thy lonely way, 
Thee, forest king, I hail, 

And with wings my homage pay. 
I am but a wretched quail, 

Spare my tender brood to slay. 

On hearing her words, the elephant spoke the third 

stanza : 

I will slay thy young ones, quail; 
What can thy poor help avail ? 
My left foot can crush with ease 
Many thousand birds like these. 

And so saying, with his foot he crushed the young birds 
to atoms, and staling over them washed them away in a 
flood of water, and went off loudly trumpeting. The quail 
sat down on a bough of a tree and said, " Then be off with 
you and trumpet away. You shall very soon see what 
I will do. You little know what a difference there is 



lid '1")7, tli ri'i' KiTin-.f, />/>. '24','. i'4!>) 


between strength of body and strength of mind. Well ! 
I will teach you this lesson." And thus threatening him 
she repeated the fourth stanza : 

Power abused is not all gain, 
Power is often folly's bane. 
Beast that didst my young ones kill, 
I will work thee mischief still. 

And so saying, shortly afterwards she did a good turn 
to a crow, and when the crow, who was highly pleased, 
asked, " What can I do for you ? " the quail said, " There is 
nothing else, Sir, to be done, but I shall expect you to 
strike with your beak and to peck out the eyes of this 
rogue elephant." The crow readily assented, and the quail 
then did a service to a blue fly, and when the fly asked, 
"What can I do for you?" she said, "When the eyes of 
this rogue elephant have been put out by the crow, then 
I want you to let fall a nit upon them." The fly agreed, 
and then the quail did a kindness to a frog, and when the 
frog asked what it was to do, she said, " When this rogue 
elephant becomes blind, and shall be searching for water 
to drink, then take your stand and utter a croak on the 
top of a mountain, and when he has climbed to the top, 
come down and croak again at the bottom of the pre- 
cipice. This much I shall look for at your hands." After 
hearing what the quail said, the frog readily assented. 
So one day the crow with its beak pecked out both the 
eyes of the elephant, and the fly dropped its eggs upon 
them, and the elephant being eaten up with maggots was 
maddened by the pain, and overcome with thirst wandered 
about seeking for water to drink. At this moment the 
frog standing on the top of a mountain uttered a croak. 
Thought the elephant, " There must be water there," and 
climbed up the mountain. Then the frog descended, and 


standing at the bottom croaked again. The elephant 
thought, " There will be water there," and moved forward 
towards the precipice, and rolling over fell to the bottom 
of the mountain and was killed. When the quail knew 
that the elephant was dead, she said, " I have seen the 
back of mine enemy," and in a high state of delight 
strutted over his body, and passed away to fare according 
to her deeds. 

P. (B.) I. 15, where the friends of the bird are a woodpecker, frog, and fly which 
hums pleasantly in the elephant's ear, while the woodpecker pecks his eyes out. In 
K. D. (Arab.) i. the fly does not occur. 


Once upon a time king Tamba reigned in Benares, 
and his queen-consort named Sussondi was a woman of 
surpassing beauty. At that time the Bodhisatta came to 
life as a young Garuda. Now the Naga island was then 
known as Seruma island, and the Bodhisatta lived on this 
island in the abode of the Garudas. And he went to 
Benares, disguised as a youth, and played at dice with 
king Tamba. Remarking his beauty they said to Sussondi, 
"Such and such a youth plays at dice with our king." 
She longed to see him, and one day she adorned herself 
and repaired to the dice-chamber. There taking her 
stand amongst the attendants, she fixed her gaze on the 
youth. He too gazed on the queen, and the pair fell in 
love with one another. The Garuda king by an act of 
supernatural power stirred up a storm in the city. The 
people, through fear of the house falling, fled out of the 
palace. By his power he caused it to be dark, and carry- 
ing off the queen with him in the air, he made his way to 
his own abode in Naga island. But no one knew of the 
coming or going of Sussondi. The Garuda took his 


pleasure with her, and still came to play at dice with the 
king. Now the king had a minstrel named Sagga, and 
not knowing where the queen had gone, the king addressed 
the minstrel and said, "Go now and explore every land 
and sea, and discover what has become of the queen." 
And so saying he bade him begone. 

He took what was necessary for his journey, and 
beginning the search from the city gate, at last came 
to Bharukaccha. At that time certain merchants of 
Bharukaccha were setting sail for the Golden Land. He 
approached them and said, "I am a minstrel. If you 
remit my passage money, I will act as your minstrel. 
Take me with you." They agreed to do so, and putting 
him on board weighed anchor. When the ship was fairly 
off, they called him and bade him make music for them. 
He said, " I would make music, but if I do, the fish will be 
so excited that your vessel will be wrecked." " If a mere 
mortal," they said, "make music, there will be no excite- 
ment on the part of the fish. Play to us." " Then do not 
be angry with me," he said, and tuning his lute and keeping 
perfect harmony between the words of his song and the 
accompaniment of the lute string, he made music for 
them. The fish were maddened at the sound and splashed 
about. And a certain sea monster leaping up fell upon 
the ship and broke it in two. Sagga lying on a plank was 
carried along by the wind till he reached a banyan tree in 
the Naga island, where the Garuda king lived. Now queen 
Sussondi, whenever the Garuda king went to play at dice, 
came down from her place of abode, and as she was 
wandering on the edge of the shore, she saw and recognised 
the minstrel Sagga, and asked him how he got there. He 
told her the whole story. And she comforted him and 
said, " Do not be afraid," and embracing him in her arms, 


she carried him to her abode and laid him on a couch. 
And when he was greatly revived, she fed him with heavenly 
food, bathed him in heavenly scented-water, arrayed him 
in heavenly raiment, and adorned him with flowers of 
heavenly perfume, and made him recline upon a heavenly 
couch. Thus did she watch over him, and whenever the 
Garuda king returned, she hid her lover, and so soon as 
the king was gone, under the influence of passion she took 
her pleasure with him. At the end of a month and a half 
from that time some merchants, who dwelt at Benares, 
landed at the foot of the banyan tree in this island, to get 
fire-wood and water. The minstrel went on board ship 
with them, and on reaching Benares, as soon as he saw 
the king, while he was playing at dice, Sagga took his lute, 
and making music recited the first stanza: 

I scent the fragrance of the tiraira grove, 
I hear the moaning 1 of the weary sea: 

Tamba, I am tormented with iny love, 
For fair Sussondi dwells afar from me. 

On hearing this the Garuda king uttered the second 

stanza : 

How didst thou cross the stormy main, 
And Seruma in safety gain? 
How didst thou, Sagga, tell me, pray, 
To fair Sussondi win thy way? 

Then Sagga repeated three stanzas : 

With trading-folk from Bharukaccha land 

My ship was wrecked by monsters of the sea; 
I on a plank did safely gain the strand, 
When an anointed queen with gentle hand 
Upbore me tenderly upon her knee, 
As though to her a true son I might be. 
She food and raiment brought, and as I lay 
With love-lorn eyes hung o'er my couch all day. 
Know, Tamba, well; this word is sooth I say. 


The Garuda, while the minstrel thus spake, was filled 
with regrets and said : " Though I dwelt in the abode of 
the Garudas, I failed to guard her safely. What is this 
wicked woman to me?" So he brought her back and 
presented her to the king and departed. And thenceforth 
he came not there any more. 

Variant of Jat. 327. 


Once upon a time in the reign of Brahmadatta, king 
of Benares, the Bodhisatta was re-born as Sakka. At that 
time a certain young brahmin of Benares acquired all the 
liberal arts at Takkasila, and having attained to proficiency 
in archery, he was known as the clever Little Archer. 
Then his master thought, "This youth has acquired skill 
equal to my own," and he gave him his daughter to wife. 
He took her and wishing to return to Benares he set out 
on the road. Half-way on his journey, an elephant laid 
waste a certain place, and no man dared to ascend to that 
spot. The clever Little Archer, though the people tried 
to stop him, took his wife and climbed up to the entrance 
of the forest. Then when he was in the midst of the 
wood, the elephant rose up to attack him. The Archer 
wounded him in the forehead with an arrow, which piercing 
him through and through came out at the back of his 
head, and the elephant fell down dead on the spot. The 
clever Archer after making this place secure, went on 
further to another wood. And there fifty robbers were 


infesting the road. Up to this spot too, though men tried 
to stop him, he climbed till he found the regular place, 
where the robbers killed the deer and roasted and ate 


the venison, close to the road. The robbers, seeing him 
approach with his gaily attired wife, made a great effort 
to capture him. The robber chief, being skilled in reading 
a man's character, just gave one look at him, and recognising 
him as a distinguished hero, did not suffer them to rise up 
against him, though he was single-handed. The clever 
Archer sent his wife to these robbers, saying, "Go and bid 
them give us a spit of meat, and bring it to me." So she 
went and said, "Give me a spit of meat." The robber 
chief said, " He is a noble fellow," and bade them give it 
her. The robbers said, " What ! is he to eat our roast 
meat ? " And they gave her a piece of raw meat. The 
Archer, having a good opinion of himself, was wroth with 
the robbers for offering him raw meat. The robbers said, 
"What! is he the only man, and are we merely women?' 1 
And thus threatening him, they rose up against him. The 
Archer wounded and struck to the ground fifty robbers 
save one with the same number of arrows. He had no 
arrow left to wound the robber chief. There had been 
full fifty arrows in his quiver. With one of them he had 
wounded the elephant, and with the rest the fifty robbers 
save one. So he knocked down the robber chief, and 
sitting on his chest bade his wife bring him his sword in 
her hand to cut off his head. At that very moment she 
conceived a passion for the robber chief and placed the 
hilt of the sw r ord in his hand and the sheath in that of 
her husband. The robber grasping the hilt drew out the 
sword, and cut off the head of the Archer. After slaying 
her husband he took the woman with him, and as they 
journeyed together he enquired of her origin. " I am the 
daughter," she said, "of a world-famed professor at 

" How did he get you for his wife ? " he said. 


"My father," she said, "was so pleased at his having 
acquired from him an art equal to his own, that he gave 
me to him to w r ife. And because I fell in love with you, 
I let you kill my lawful husband." 

Thought the robber chief, " This woman now has killed 
her lawful husband. As soon as she sees some other man, 
she will treat me too after the same sort. I must get rid 
of her." 

And as he went on his way, he saw their path cut off 
by what Avas usually a poor little shallow stream, but 
which was now flooded, and he said, "My dear, there is 
a savage crocodile in this river. What are we to do?" 

"My lord," she said, "take all the ornaments I wear, 
and make them into a bundle in your upper robe, and 
carry them to the further side of the river, and then come 
back and take me across." 

"Very well," he said, and took all her adornments, 
and going down to the stream, like one in great haste, 
he gained the other bank, and left her and fled. 

On seeing this she cried, " My lord, you go as if you 
were leaving me. Why do you do this ? Come back and 
take me with you." And addressing him she uttered the 
first stanza: 

Since thou hast gained the other side, 
With all iny goods in bundle tied, 
Return as quickly as may be 
And carry me across with thee. 

The robber, on hearing her, as he stood on the 
further bank, repeated the second stanza: 

Thy fancy, lady, ever roves 
From well-tried faith to lighter loves, 
Me too thou wouldst ere long betray, 
Should I not hence flee far away. 


But when the robber said, "I will go further hence: 
you stop where you are," she screamed aloud, and he fled 
with all her adornments. Such was the fate that overtook 
the poor fool through excess of passion. And being quite 
helpless she drew nigh to a clump of cassia plants and sat 
there weeping. At that moment Sakka, looking down 
upon the world, saw her smitten with desire and weeping 
for the loss of both husband and lover. And thinking he 
would go and rebuke her and put her to shame, he took 
with him Matali and Pancasikha 1 , and went and stood on 
the bank of the river and said, " Matali, do you become 
a fish, Pancasikha, you change into a bird, and I will 
become a jackal. And taking a piece of meat in my 
mouth, I will go and place myself in front of this woman, 
and when you see me there, you, Matali, are to leap up 
out of the water, and fall before me, and when I shall drop 
the piece of meat I have taken in my mouth, and shall 
spring up to seize the fish, at that moment, you, Pancasikha, 
are to pounce upon the piece of meat, and to fly up into 
the air, and you, Matali, are to fall into the water." 

Thus did Sakka instruct them. And they said, " Good, 
my lord." Matali was changed into a fish, Pancasikha 
into a bird, and Sakka became a jackal. And taking a 
piece of meat in his mouth, he went and placed himself in 
front of the woman. The fish leaping up out of the water 
fell before the jackal. The jackal dropping the piece of 
meat he held in his mouth, sprang up to catch the fish. The 
fish jumped up and fell into the water, and the bird seized 
the piece of meat and flew up into the air. The jackal 
thus lost both fish and meat and sat sulkily looking 
towards the clump of cassia. The woman seeing this 
said, "Through being too covetous, he got neither flesh 

1 His charioteer and a gandharva. 


nor fish," and, as if she saw the point of the trick, she 
laughed heartily. 

The jackal, on hearing this, uttered the third stanza: 

Who makes the cassia thicket ring 
With laughter, though none dance or sing, 
Or clap their hands, good time to keep? 
Fair one, laugh not, when thou shouldst weep. 

On hearing this, she repeated the fourth stanza : 

silly jackal, thou must wish 
Thou hadst not lost both flesh and fish. 
Poor fool! well niayst thou grieve to see 
What comes of thy stupidity. 

Then the jackal repeated the fifth stanza: 

Another's faults are plainly seen, 
'Tis hard to see one's own, I ween. 
Methinks thou too must count the cost, 
When spouse and lover both are lost. 

On hearing his words she spoke this stanza : 

King jackal, 'tis just as you say, 
So I will hie me far away, 
And seek another wedded love 
And strive a faithful wife to prove. 

Then Sakka, king of heaven, hearing the words of this 
vicious and unchaste woman, repeated the final stanza : 

He that would steal a pot of clay 
Would steal a brass one any day; 
And thou who wast thy husband's bane 
Wilt be as bad or worse again. 

Thus did Sakka put her to shame and brought her 
to repent, and then returned to his own abode. 

Variant of Jat. 318. P. (B.) iv. 8. It also forms an episode of Tib. T. xn. 
p. 232. For the jackal and fish cf. Aesop, The Dog and his Shadow, Babr. 79, 
Halm 233, Phaedr. i. 4, K. D. (Arab.) iv. See Hausrath, Jacobs 58. 

F. & T. 17 


Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was king in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta was born as a cock and lived 
in the forest with a retinue of many hundred cocks. Not 


far away lived a she-cat : and she deceived by devices the 
other cocks except the Bodhisatta and ate them : but 
the Bodhisatta did not fall into her power. She thought, 
"This cock is very crafty, but he knows not that I am 
crafty and skilful in device : it is good that I cajole him, 
saying, ' I will be your wife,' and so eat him when he comes 
into my power." She went to the root of the tree where 
he perched, and praying him in a speech preceded by 
praise of his beauty, she spoke the first stanza : 

Bird with wing's that flash so gaily, crest that droops so gracefully, 
I will be your wife for nothing 1 , leave the bough and come to me. 

The Bodhisatta hearing her thought, " She has eaten 
all my relatives ; now she wishes to cajole me and eat me : 
I will get rid of her." So he spoke the second stanza : 

Lady fair and winning, you have four feet, I have only two: 
Beasts and birds should never marry: for some other husband sue. 

Then she thought, " He is exceedingly crafty ; by some 
device or other I will deceive him and eat him " ; so she 
spoke the third stanza: 

I will bring thee youth and beauty, pleasant speech and courtesy : 
Honoured wife or simple slave-girl, at thy pleasure deal with me. 

Then the Bodhisatta thought, "It is best to revile her 
and drive her away," so he spoke the fourth stanza: 

Thou hast drunk my kindred's blood, and robbed and slain them cruelly : 
" Honoured wife ! " there is no honour in thy heart when wooing me. 

I'LATK 17 


(,1,-itiih-n ::!',:!. />. 258) 


She was driven away and did not endure to look at 
him again. 

Jat. 448 is a similar fable with the same title, in which a falcon fails to make 
friends with a cock. Cf. Aesop (Halm 231), in which a fox tries to entice a cock 
down from a tree. The fox is killed by a dog, the cock's companion. Jacobs (75) 
supposes that there was once a third character in the jataka, indicated in the 
Bharhut Stupa, pi. XLVII. 5, by an object at the foot of the tree, possibly the bells 
of a dancing girl. 


Once upon a time when a king named Senaka was 
reigning in Benares, the Bodhisatta was Sakka. The king 
Senaka was friendly with a certain naga-king. This naga- 
king, they say, left the naga-world and ranged the earth 
seeking food. The village boys seeing him said, "This 
is a snake," and struck him with clods and other things. 
The king, going to amuse himself in his garden, saw them, 
and being told they were beating a snake, said, " Don't let 
them beat him, drive them away " ; and this was done. So 
the naga-king got his life, and when he went back to the 
naga-world, he took many jewels, and coming at midnight 
to the king's bed-chamber he gave them to him, saying, 
" I got my life through you " : so he made friendship with 
the king and came again and again to see him. He ap- 
pointed one of his naga girls, insatiate in pleasures, to be 
near the king and protect him : and he gave the king a 
charm, saying, "If ever you do not see her, repeat this 
charm." One day the king went to the garden with the 
naga girl and was amusing himself in the lotus-tank. The 
naga girl seeing a water-snake quitted her human shape 
and made love with him. The king not seeing the girl 
said, " Where is she gone ? " and repeated the spell : then 



he saw her in her misconduct and struck her with a piece 
of bamboo. She went in anger to the naga-world, and 
when she was asked, "Why are you come?" she said, 
" Your friend struck me on the back because I did not do 
his bidding," shewing the mark of the blow. The naga- 
king, not knowing the truth, called four naga youths and 
sent them with orders to enter Senaka's bed-chamber and 
destroy him like chaff by the breath of their nostrils. 
Thev entered the chamber at the roval bed-time. As 

f V 

they came in, the king was saying to the queen: "Lady, 
do you know where the naga girl has gone ? " " King, I do 
not." "To-day when we were bathing in the tank, she 
quitted her shape and misconducted herself with a water- 
snake : I said, ' Don't do that,' and struck her with a piece 
of bamboo to give her a lesson : and now I fear she may 
have gone to the naga-world and told some lie to my friend, 
destroying his good-will to me." The young nagas hearing 
this turned back at once to the naga-world and told their 
king. He being moved went instantly to the king's 
chamber, told him all and was forgiven: then he said, 
" In this way I make amends," and gave the king a charm 
giving knowledge of all sounds : " This, O king, is a price- 
less spell : if you give anyone this spell you will at once 
enter the fire and die." The king said, "It is well," and 
accepted it. From that time he understood the voice 
even of ants. One day he was sitting on the dais eating 
solid food with honey and molasses : and a drop of honey, 
a drop of molasses, and a morsel of cake fell on the ground. 
An ant seeing this comes crying, " The king's honey -jar is 
broken on the dais, his molasses-cart and cake-cart are 
upset ; come and eat honey and molasses and cake." The 
king hearing the cry laughed. The queen being near him 
thought, " What has the king seen that he laughs ? " When 


the king had eaten his solid food and bathed and sat down 
cross-legged, a fly said to his wife, " Come, lady, let us enjoy 
love." She said, "Excuse me for a little, husband: they 
will soon be bringing perfumes to the king ; as he perfumes 
himself some powder will fall at his feet : I will stay there 
and become fragrant, then we will enjoy ourselves lying 
on the king's back/' The king hearing the voice laughed 
again. The queen thought again, " What has he seen that 
he laughs ? " Again when the king was eating his supper, 
a lump of rice fell on the ground. The ants cried, "A 
wagon of rice has broken in the king's palace, and there 
is none to eat it." The king hearing this laughed again. 
The queen took a golden spoon and helping him reflected, 
" Is it at the sight of me that the king laughs ? " She went 
to the bed-chamber with the king and at bed-time she 
asked, "Why did you laugh, O king?" He said, "What 
have you to do with why I laugh ? " but being asked again 
and again he told her. Then she said, "Give me your 
spell of knowledge." He said, " It cannot be given": but 
though repulsed she pressed him again. 

The king said, " If I give you this spell, I shall die." 
"Even though you die, give it me." The king, being in 
the power of womankind, saying, "Very well," consented 
and went to the park in a chariot, saying, " I shall enter 
the fire after giving away this spell." At that moment, 
Sakka, king of gods, looked down on the earth and seeing 
this case said, "This foolish king, knowing that he will 
enter the fire through womankind, is on his way ; I will 
give him his life " : so he took Suja, daughter of the Asuras, 
and went to Benares. He became a he-goat and made 
her a she-goat, and resolving that the people should not 
see them, he stood before the king's chariot. The king 
and the Sindh horses yoked in the chariot saw him, but 


none else saw him. For the sake of starting talk he was 
as if making love with the she-goat. One of the Sindh 
horses yoked in the chariot seeing him said, " Friend goat, 
we have heard before, but not seen, that goats are stupid 
and shameless : but you are doing, with all of us looking 
on, this thing that should be done in secret and in a 
private place, and are not ashamed : what we have heard 
before agrees with this that we see " : and so he spoke the 
first stanza : 

" Goats are stupid," say the sages, aud the words are surely true : 
This one knows not he's parading what in secret he should do. 

The goat hearing him spoke two stanzas : 

Truly you're a stupid fool, you donkey ! let me make it plain, 
"With a bit your mouth is wrenched, your head is twisted with the rein. 

When you're loosed, you don't escape, sir, that's a stupid habit too: 
And that Senaka you carry, he's more stupid still than you. 

The king understood the talk of both animals, and 
hearing it he quickly sent away the chariot. The horse 
hearing the goat's talk spoke the fourth stanza: 

Well, Sir king of goats, you fully know my great stupidity: 
But how Seuaka is stupid, prithee do explain to me. 

The goat explaining this spoke the fifth stanza : 

He who his own special treasure on his wjfe will throw away, 
Cannot keep her faithful ever and his life he must betray. 

The king hearing his Avords said, "King of goats, yon 
will surely act for my advantage: tell me now what is right 
for me to do." Then the goat said, " King, to all animals 
no one is dearer than self; it is not good to destroy oneself 
and abandon the honour one has gained for the sake of 
anything that is dear": so he spoke the sixth stanza: 

A king, like thee, may have conceived desire 
And yet renounced it if his life's the cost: 

Life is the chief thing: what can man seek higher? 
If life's secured, desires need ne'er be crossed. 


So the Bodhisatta exhorted the king. The king, 
delighted, asked, "King of goats, whence come you?" 
" I am Sakka, O king, come to save you from death out 
of pity for you." " King of gods, I promised to give her 
the charm: what am I to do now?" "There is no need 
for the ruin of both of you : you say, ' It is the way of the 
craft,' and have her beaten with some blows : by this means 
she will not get it." The king said, " Very well," and agreed. 
The Bodhisatta after exhortation to the king went to his 
own place. The king went to the garden, had the queen 
summoned and then said, "Lady, will you have the charm ? " 
" Yes, lord." " Then go through the usual custom." " What 
custom ? " "A hundred stripes on the back, but you must 
not make a sound." She consented through greed for the 
charm. The king made his slaves take whips and beat her 
on both sides. She endured two or three stripes and then 
cried, "I don't want the charm." The king said, "You 
would have killed me to get the charm," and so flogging 
the skin off her back he sent her away. After that she 
could not bear to talk of it again. 

For variants see Benfey in Orient, u. Occ. ii. 133 ff., Ein Mdrchen von der 
Thiersprache, Kuhn p. 81, and Frazer in Archaeol. Rev. i. 168ff. 


Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta was born in a brahmin family of 
a village in Kasi: when he grew up he learned the arts 
at Takkasila, and afterwards became an ascetic and lived 
near a lotus-pool. One day he went down into the pool 
and stood smelling a lotus in full flower. A goddess who 


was in a hollow in a trunk of a tree alarming him spoke 
the first stanza: 

You were never given that flower you smell, though its only a single 

bloom ; 
'Tis a species of larceny, reverend sir, you are stealing its perfume. 

Then the Bodhisatta spoke the second stanza : 

I neither take nor break the flower: from afar I smell the bloom. 
I cannot tell on what pretence you say I steal perfume. 

At the same moment a man was digging in the pool 
for lotus-fibres and breaking the lotus-plants. The 
Bodhisatta seeing him said, "You call a man thief if he 
smells the flower from afar : why do you not speak to that 
other man?" So in talk with her he spoke the third 
stanza : 

A man who digs the lotus-roots and breaks the stalks I see: 
Why don't you call the conduct of that man disorderly? 

The goddess, explaining why she did not speak to him, 
spoke the fourth and fifth stanzas : 

Disgusting like a nurse's dress are men disorderly: 

I have no speech with men like him, but I deign to speak to thee. 

When a man is free from evil stains and seeks for purity, 

A sin like a hair-tip shews on him like a dark cloud in the sky. 

So alarmed by her the Bodhisatta in emotion spoke 
the sixth stanza: 

Surely, fairy, you know me well, to pity me you deign : 
If you see me do the like offence, pray speak to me again. 

Then the goddess spoke to him the seventh stanza : 

I am not here to serve you, no hireling folk are we: 
Find, Brother, for yourself the path to reach felicity. 

So exhorting him she entered her own abode. The 
Bodhisatta entered on high meditation and was born in 
the Brahma-world. 


The jataka is an example of the rigid application of the second Commandment 
of the Buddhists, not to take what is not given, but may be a modification of 
a less moral story. The closest parallel is in Rabelais, in. ch. 37, in which a porter 
eats his bread outside a cook-shop to the smell of the roast meat, and the cook 
demands payment. The dispute is decided by Seigny Joan, the fool, who makes the 
porter ring a coin several times on the counter, and then declares that the cook is 
paid with the sound of the money. Liebrecht (Zur Volkskunde, 503) gives a very 
similar Japanese variant. In Som. LXIII. (ii. 87) a rich man promises to pay a 
musician for his singing, but when the time for payment comes, he says, " You gave 
a short-lived pleasure to my ears by playing on the lyre, and I gave a short-lived 
pleasure to your ears by promising you money" ( = Julien 25, La Promesse vaine et 
le vain Son). 


Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta was a lion and living with a 
lioness had two children, a son and a daughter. The 
son's name was Manoja. When he grew up he took a 
young lioness to wife : and so they became five. Manoja 
killed wild buffaloes and other animals, and so got flesh 
to feed his parents, sister and wife. One day in his hunt- 
ing ground he saw a jackal called Giriya, unable to run 
away and lying on his belly. " How now, friend ? " he said. 
" I wish to wait on you, my lord." " Well, do so." So he 
took the jackal to his den. The Bodhisatta seeing him 
said, "Dear Manoja, jackals are wicked and sinners, and 
give wrong advice ; don't bring this one near you " : but 
could not hinder him. Then one day the jackal wished 
to eat horseflesh, and said to Manoja, "Sir, except horse- 
flesh there is nothing we have not eaten; let us take a 
horse." "But where are there horses, friend?" "At 
Benares by the river bank." He took this advice and 
went with him there when the horses bathe in the river; 
he took one horse, and throwing it on his back he came 
with speed to the mouth of his den. His father eating 


the horseflesh said, "Dear, horses are kings' property, 
kings have many stratagems, they have skilful archers to 
shoot; lions who eat horseflesh don't live long, hence- 
forward don't take horses." The lion not following his 
father's advice went on taking them. The king, hearing 
that a lion was taking the horses, had a bathing-tank 
for horses made inside the town: but the lion still came 
and took them. The king had a stable made, and had 
fodder and water given them inside it. The lion came 
over the wall and took the horses even from the stable. 
The king had an archer called who shot like lightning, 
and asked if he could shoot a lion. He said he could, 
and making a tower near the Avail where the lion came 
he waited there. The lion came and, posting the jackal 
in a cemetery outside, sprang into the town to take the 
horses. The archer thinking "His speed is very great 
when he comes," did not shoot him, but when he was going 
away after taking a hdrse, hampered by the heavy weight, 
he hit him with a sharp arrow in the hind quarters. The 
arrow came out at his front quarters and flew in the air. 
The lion yelled "I am shot." The archer after shooting 
him twanged his bow like thunder. The jackal hearing 
the noise of lion and bow said to himself, "My comrade 
is shot and must be killed, there is no friendship with the 
dead, I will now go to my old home in the wood," and so 
he spoke to himself in two stanzas: 

The bow is bent, the bowstring sounds amain ; 
Manoja, king of beasts, my friend, is slain. 

Alas, I seek the woods as best I may: 

Such friends are naught; others must be my stay. 

The lion with a rush came and threw the horse at the 
den's mouth, falling dead himself. His kinsfolk came out 
and saw him blood-stained, blood flowing from his wounds, 


dead from following the wicked; and his father, mother, 
sister and wife seeing him spoke four stanzas in order: 

His fortune is not prosperous whom wicked folk entice; 
Look at Maiioja lying 1 there, through Giriya's advice. 

No joy have mothers in a son whose comrades are not good: 
Look at Manoja lying there all covered with his blood. 

And even so fares still the man, in low estate he lies, 

Who follows not the counsel of the true friend and the wise. 

This, or worse than this, his fate 

Who is high, but trusts the low: 
See, 'tis thus from kingly state 

He has fallen to the bow. 


Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta was a tree-spirit by a river-bank. 
A jackal, named Mayavl, had taken a wife and lived in a 
place by that river-bank. One day his mate said to him, 
"Husband, a longing has come upon me: I desire to eat 
a fresh rohita fish." He said, "Be easy, I will bring it 
you," and going by the river he wrapt his feet in creepers, 
and went along the bank. At the moment, two otters, 
Gambhiracari and Anutlracarl, were standing on the bank 
looking for fish. Gambhiracari saw a great rohita fish, 
and entering the water with a bound he took it by the 
tail. The fish was strong and went away dragging him. 
He called to the other, "This great fish will be enough 
for both of us, come and aid me," speaking the first stanza : 

Friend Anutiracari, rush to my aid, I pray: 

I've caught a great fish: but by force he's carrying me away. 

Hearing him, the other spoke the second stanza : 

Gambhiracari, luck to you! your grip be firm and stout, 
And as a roc would lift a snake, I'll lift the fellow out. 


Then the two together took out the rohita fish, laid 
him on the ground and killed him: but saying each to 
the other, "You divide him," they quarrelled and could 
not divide him: and so sat down, leaving him. At the 
moment the jackal came to the spot. Seeing him, they 
both saluted him and said, " Lord of the grey grass-colour, 
this fish was taken by both of us together: a dispute arose 
because we could not divide him : do you make an equal 
division and part it," speaking the third stanza: 

A strife arose between us, mark! O thou of grassy hue, 
Let our contention, honoured, sir, be settled fair by you. 

The jackal hearing them, said, declaring his own 
strength : 

I've arbitrated many a case and done it peacefully: 

Let your contention, honoured sirs, be settled fair by me. 

Having spoken that stanza, and making the division, he 
spoke this stanza: 

Tail, Anutiracari; Gambhiracari, head: 

The middle to the arbiter will properly be paid. 

So having divided the fish, he said, " You eat head and 
tail without quarrelling," and seizing the middle portion 
in his mouth he ran away before their eyes. They sat 
downcast, as if they had lost a thousand pieces, and spoke 
the sixth stanza : 

But for our strife, it would have long- sufficed us without fail: 
But now the jackal takes the fish, and leaves us head and tail. 

The jackal was pleased and thinking " Now I will give 
my wife rohita fish to eat," he went to her. She saw him 
coming and saluting him spoke a stanza: 

Even as a king is glad to join a kingdom to his rule, 
So I am glad to see my lord to-day with his mouth full. 



(Jfitaku 400, /r> wurx, />. :!<>7) 


Then she asked him about the means of attainment, 
speaking a stanza: 

How, being 1 of the land, have you from water caught a fish? 
How did you do the feat, my lord? pray answer to my wish. 

The jackal, explaining the means to her, spoke the 
next stanza: 

By strife it is their weakness comes, by strife their means decay: 
By strife the otters lost their prize : Mayavi, eat the prey. 

Tib. T. xxxiv. Related are P. (T.) in. 4, (B.) in. 2, where a partridge and hare 
go to a cat to decide their dispute as to the ownership of a dwelling. The cat 
pretends to be deaf, asks them to come near, and kills them both. La Fontaine 
ix. 9, L'Hmtre et les Plaideurs is the closest parallel, but it has not been traced 
further back than Boileau (Ep. n.), who learnt it from his father in his youth. The 
latter is said to have got it from an old Italian comedy. Very close also is Dods. 
n. 49, The litigious Cats (who go to a monkey to divide a piece of cheese). Regnier 
in his edition of La Fontaine quotes Julien 74, where two goblins dispute as to the 
possession of a magic box, staff, and shoes. A man promises to divide them fairly, 
but puts on the magic shoes and flies away with all the possessions. This is a 
variant of King Putraka, Som. in. (i. 13), where see Tawney's note. On magic 
treasures, cf. Jat. 186, p. 149. 


Once upon a time a king called Janaka was reigning 
in Benares. At that time the Bodhisatta was born in a 
brahmin family, and they called his name young Senaka. 
When he grew up he learned all the arts of Takkasila, and 
returning to Benares saw the king. The king set him in 
the place of minister and gave him great glory. He taught 
the king things temporal and spiritual. Being a pleasant 
preacher of the law he established the king in the five 
precepts, in alms-giving, in keeping the fasts, in the ten 
ways of right action, and so established him in the path 


of virtue. Throughout the kingdom it was as it were the 
time of the appearing of the Buddhas. On the fortnightly 
fast the king, the viceroys and others would all assemble 
and decorate the place of meeting. The Bodhisatta taught 
the law in a decorated room in the middle of a deer-skin- 
couch with the power of a Buddha, and his word was like 
the preaching of Buddhas. Then a certain old brahmin 
begging for money-alms got a thousand pieces, left them 
in a brahmin family and went to seek alms again. When 
he had gone, that family spent all his pieces. He came 
back and would have his pieces brought him. The brahmin, 
being unable to give them to him, gave him his daughter 
to wife. The other brahmin took her and made his dwell- 
ing in a brahmin village not far from Benares. Because 
of her youth his wife was unsatisfied in desires and sinned 
with another young brahmin. There are sixteen things 
that cannot be satisfied: and what are these sixteen? 
The sea is not satisfied with all rivers, nor the fire with 
fuel, nor a king with his kingdom, nor a fool with sins, nor 
a woman with three things, intercourse, adornment and 
child-bearing, nor a brahmin with sacred texts, nor a sage 
with ecstatic meditation, nor a novice with honour, nor 
one free from desire with penance, nor the energetic man 
with energy, nor the talker with talk, nor the politic man 
with the council, nor the believer with serving the church, 
nor the liberal man with giving away, nor the learned with 
hearing the law, nor the four congregations 1 with seeing 
the Buddha. So this brahmin woman, being unsatisfied 
with intercourse, wished to put her husband away and do 
her sin with boldness. So one day in her evil purpose she 
lay down. When he said, " How is it, wife ? " she answered, 
" Brahmin, I cannot do the work of your house, get me a 

1 Brethren, Sisters, laymen and laywomen. 


maid." " Wife, I have no money, what shall I give to get 
her ? " " Seek for money by begging for alms and so get 
her.'' "Then, wife, get ready something for my journey." 
She filled a skin-bag with baked meal and unbaked meal, 
and gave them to him. The brahmin, going through 
villages, towns and cities, got seven hundred pieces, and 
thinking, " This money is enough to buy slaves, male and 
female," he was returning to his own village : at a certain 
place convenient for water he opened his sack, and eating 
some meal he went down to drink water without tying the 
mouth. Then a black snake in a hollow tree, smelling the 
meal, entered the bag and lay down in a coil eating the 
meal. The brahmin came, and without looking inside 
fastened the sack and putting it on his shoulder went his 
way. Then a spirit living in a tree, sitting in a hollow of 
the trunk, said to him on the way, " Brahmin, if you stop 
on the way you will die, if you go home to-day your wife 
will die," and vanished. He looked, but not seeing the 
spirit was afraid and troubled with the fear of death, and 
so came to the gate of Benares weeping and lamenting. 
It was the fast on the fifteenth day, the day of the 
Bodhisatta's preaching, seated on the decorated seat of 
the law, and a multitude with perfumes and flowers and 
the like in their hands came in troops to hear the preaching. 
The brahmin said, "Where are ye going?" and was told, 
"O brahmin, to-day wise Senaka preaches the law with 
sweet voice and the charm of a Buddha : do you not know ? ' 
He thought, "They say he is a wise preacher, and I am 
troubled with the fear of death : wise men are able to 
take away even great sorrow : it is right for me too to go 
there and hear the law." So he went with them, and when 
the assembly and the king among them had sat down 
round about the Bodhisatta, he stood at the outside, not 


far from the seat of the law, with his mealsack on his 
shoulder, afraid with the fear of death. The Bodhisatta 
preached as if he were bringing down the heavenly Ganges 
or showering ambrosia. The multitude became well 
pleased, and making applause listened to the preaching. 
Wise men have far sight. At that moment the Bodhisatta, 
opening his eyes gracious with the five graces, surveyed 
the assembly on every side and, seeing that brahmin, 
thought, "This great assembly has become well pleased 
and listens to the law, making applause, but that one 
brahmin is ill pleased and weeps: there must be some 
sorrow within him to cause his tears : as if touching rust 
with acid, or making a drop of water roll from a lotus leaf, 
I will teach him the law, making him free from sorrow 
and well pleased in mind." So he called him, " Brahmin, 
I am wise Senaka, now will I make thee free from sorrow, 
speak boldly," and so talking with him he spoke the first 
stanza : 

Thou art confused in thought, disturbed in sense, 
Tears streaming- from thine eyes are evidence; 
What hast thou lost, or what dost wish to gain 
By coming- hither? Give me answer plain. 

Then the brahmin, declaring his cause of sorrow, spoke 
the second stanza : 

If I go home my wife it is must die, 
If I go not, the yakkha said, 'tis I; 
That is the thought that pierces cruelly: 
Explain the matter, Senaka, to me. 

The Bodhisatta, hearing the brahmin's words, spread 
the net of knowledge as if throwing a net in the sea, 
thinking, "There are many causes of death to beings in 
this world: some die sunk in the sea, or seized therein 
by ravenous fish, some falling in the Ganges, or seized by 


crocodiles, some falling from a tree or pierced by a thorn, 
some struck by weapons of divers kinds, some by eating 
poison or hanging or falling from a precipice or by extreme 
cold or attacked by diseases of divers kinds, so they die : 
now among so many causes of death from which cause 
shall this brahmin die if he stays on the road to-day, or 
his wife if he goes home ? " As he considered, he saw the 
sack on the brahmin's shoulder and thought, " There must 
be a snake who has gone into that sack, and entering he 
must have gone in from the smell of the meal when the 
brahmin at his breakfast had eaten some meal and gone 
to drink water without fastening the sack's mouth: the 
brahmin coming back after drinking water must have gone 
on after fastening and taking up the sack without seeing 
that the snake had entered : if he stays on the road, he 
will say at evening when he rests, ' I will eat some meal,' 
and opening the sack will put in his hand : then the snake 
will bite him in the hand and destroy his life : this will be 
the cause of his death if he stays on the road : but if he 
goes home the sack will come into his wife's hand ; she will 
say, ' I will look at the ware within,' and opening the sack 
put in her hand, then the snake will bite her and destroy 
her life, and this will be the cause of her death if he goes 
home to-day." This he knew by his knowledge of expedients. 
Then this came into his mind, " The snake must be a black 
snake, brave and fearless; when the sack strikes against 
the brahmin's broadside, he shews no motion or quivering; 
he shews no sign of his being there amidst such an assembly: 
therefore he must be a black snake, brave and fearless " : 
from his knowledge of expedients he knew this as if he 
was seeing with a divine eye. So as if he had been a man 
who had stood by and seen the snake enter the sack, 
deciding by his knowledge of expedients, the Bodhisatta 

F. AT. 18 


answering the brahmin's question in the royal assembly 
spoke the third stanza: 

First with many a doubt I deal, 

Now my tongue the truth declares; 
Brahmin, in your bag of meal 

A snake has entered unawares. 

80 saying, he asked, " O brahmin, is there any meal in 
that sack of yours ? " " There is, O sage." " Did you eat 
some meal to-day at your breakfast time ? " " Yes, O sage." 
" Where were you sitting ? " " In a wood, at the root of a 
tree." " When you ate the meal, and went to drink water, 
did you fasten the sack's mouth or not ? " "I did not, O 
sage." "When you drank water and came back, did you 
look in before fastening the sack?" "I fastened it without 
looking in, O sage." " O brahmin, when you went to drink 
water, I think a snake entered the sack owing to the 
smell of the meal without your knowledge: such is the 
case : therefore put down your sack, set it in the midst 
of the assembly and opening the mouth, stand back and 
taking a stick beat the sack with it: then when you see 
a black snake coming out with its hood spread and hissing, 
you will have no doubt " : so he spoke the fourth stanza : 

Take a stick and beat the sack, 

Dumb and double-tongued is he; 
Cease your mind with doubts to rack; 

Ope the sack, the snake you'll see. 

The brahmin, hearing the Great Being's words, did so, 
though alarmed and frightened. The snake came out 
of the sack when his hood was struck with the stick, and 
stood looking at the crowd. 

When the question had been so answered by the 
Bodhisatta, a certain snake-charmer made a mouth-band 
for the snake, caught him and let him loose in the forest. 


The brahmin, coming up to the king, saluted him and 
made obeisance, and praising him spoke half a stanza : 

Well won is Janaka the king's great gain, 
That he wise Seiiaka doth see. 

After praising the king, he took seven hundred pieces 
from the bag and praising the Bodhisatta, he spoke a 
stanza and a half wishing to give a gift in delight: 

Art thou the All-seer, queller of what is vain? 
Doth wisdom dread belong to thee? 

These seven hundred pieces, see, 
Take them all, I give them thee; 
'Tis to thee I owe my life, 
And the welfare of my wife. 

Hearing this, the Bodhisatta spoke the eighth stanza : 

For reciting poetry 

Wise men can't accept a wage: 
Rather let us give to thee, 

Ere thou take the homeward stage. 

So saying, the Bodhisatta made a full thousand pieces 
to be given to the brahmin, and asked him, "By whom 
were you sent to beg for money ? " " By my wife, O sage." 
" Is your wife old or young ? " " Young, O sage." " Then 
she is doing sin with another, and sent you away thinking 
to do so in security : if you take these pieces home, she 
will give to her lover the pieces won by your labour: 
therefore you should not go home straight, but only after 
leaving the pieces outside the town at the root of a tree 
or somewhere": so he sent him away. He, coming near 
the village, left his pieces at the root of a tree, and came 
home in the evening. His wife at that moment was seated 
with her lover. The brahmin stood at the door and said, 
"Wife." She recognised his voice, and putting out the 



light opened the door: when the brahmin came in, she 
took the other and put him at the door : then coming back 
and not seeing anything in the sack she asked, " Brahmin, 
what alms have you got on your journey?" "A thousand 
pieces." "Where is it?" "It is left at such and such a 
place: never mind, we will get it to-morrow." She went 
and told her lover. He went and took it as if it were his 
own treasure. Next day the brahmin went, and not seeing 
the pieces came to the Bodhisatta, who said, "What is the 
matter, brahmin ? " "I don't see the pieces, O sage." " Did 
you tell your wife?" "Yes, O sage." Knowing that the 
wife had told her lover, the Bodhisatta asked, "Brahmin, 
is there a brahmin who is a friend of your wife's ? " " There 
is, O sage." "Is there one who is a friend of yours?" 
" Yes, O sage." Then the Great Being caused seven days' 
expenses to be given him and said, " Go, do you two invite 
and entertain the first day fourteen brahmins, seven for 
yourself and seven for your wife : from next day onwards 
take one less each day, till on the seventh day you invite 
one brahmin and your wife one : then if you notice that 
the brahmin your wife asks on the seventh day has come 
every time, tell me." The brahmin did so, and told the 
Bodhisatta, " O sage, I have observed the brahmin who is 
always our guest." The Bodhisatta sent men with him to 
bring that other brahmin, and asked him, "Did you take 
a thousand pieces belonging to this brahmin from the 
root of such and such a tree ? " "I did not, O sage." " You 
do not know that I am the wise Senaka ; I will make you 
fetch those pieces." He was afraid and confessed, saying, 
"I took them." " What did you do ?" " I put them in such 
and such a place, O sage." The Bodhisatta asked the first 
brahmin, "Brahmin, will you keep your wife or take 
another ? " " Let me keep her, O sage." The Bodhisatta 


sent men to fetch the pieces and the wife, and gave the 
brahmin the pieces from the thief's hand; he punished 
the other, removing him from the city, punished also the 
wife, and gave great honour to the brahmin, making him 
dwell near himself. 

Variant of two episodes in the life of Mahaushadha, Tib. T. vm. 144ff., which 
is a variant of the Mahaummagga-jat. 546. 


Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was king in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta was born as a monkey, and lived 
in the king's garden with a retinue of five hundred monkeys. 
Devadatta 1 was also born as a monkey, and lived there 
also with a retinue of five hundred monkeys. Then one 
day when the king's family priest had gone to the garden, 
bathed and adorned himself, one tricky monkey going 
ahead of him sat above the gateway arch of the garden, 
and let excrement fall on the priest's head as he went out. 
When the priest looked up, he let it fall again in his mouth. 
The priest turned back, saying in threat to the monkeys, 
" Very well, I shall know how to deal with you," and went 
away after washing. They told the Bodhisatta that he 
had been angry and threatened the monkeys. He made 
announcement to the thousand monkeys, "It is not well 
to dwell near the habitation of the angry ; let the whole 
troop of monkeys flee and go elsewhere." A disobedient 
monkey took his own retinue and did not flee, saying, 
" I will see about it afterwards." The Bodhisatta took his 

1 Cousin of the Buddha. He made a schism in the Order, and attempted to kill 
Buddha. This tale was told when Devadatta was swallowed up by the earth, after 
his last attempt on Buddha's life. Cf. also p. 281. 


own retinue and went to the forest. One day a female 
slave pounding rice had put some rice out in the sun and 
a goat was eating it: getting a blow with a torch and 
running away on fire, he was rubbing himself on the wall 
of a grass-hut near an elephant-stable. The fire caught 
the grass-hut and from it the elephant-stable; in it the 
elephants' backs were burnt, and the elephant doctors 
were attending the elephants. The family priest was 
always going about watching for an opportunity of catch- 
ing the monkeys. He was sitting in attendance on the 
king, and the king said, " Sir, many of our elephants have 
been injured, and the elephant doctors do not know how 
to cure them ; do you know any remedy ? " "I do, great 
king." " What is it ? " " Monkey's fat, great king." " How 
shall we get it?" "There are many monkeys in the 
garden." The king said, "Kill monkeys in the garden 
and get their fat." The archers went and killed five 
hundred monkeys with arrows. One old monkey fled 
although wounded by an arrow, and though he did not 
fall on the spot, fell when he came to the Bodhisatta's 
place of abode. The monkeys said, " He has died when 
he reached our place of abode," and told the Bodhisatta 
that he was dead from a wound he had got. He came 
and sat down among the assembly of monkeys, and spoke 
these stanzas by way of exhorting the monkeys with the 
exhortation of the wise, which is " Men dwelling near their 
enemies perish in this way " : 

Let not the wise man dwell where dwells his foe: 
One night, two nights, so near will bring him woe. 

A fool's a foe to all who trust his word : 
One monkey brought distress on all the herd. 

A foolish chief, wise in his own conceit, 
Comes ever, like this monkey, to defeat. 


A strong fool is not good to guard the herd, 
Curse to his kindred, like the decoy-bird. 

One strong and wise is good the herd to guard, 
Like Indra to the Gods, his kin's reward. 

"Who virtue, wisdom, learning, doth possess, 
His deeds himself and other men will bless. 

Therefore virtue, knowledge, learning, and himself let him regard, 
Either be a lonely Saint or o'er the flock keep watch and ward. 

So the Bodhisatta, becoming king of monkeys, explained 
the way of learning the Discipline. 

Tib. T. XLIII., where "monkeys cooked in barley-meal" are prescribed by the 
doctor. In P. (B.) v. 10 monkeys are slaughtered for the same reason, and the 
monkey-leader in carrying out his revenge goes to an ogre-haunted pool, and 
escapes. This episode is a variant of Jat. 20 (see p. 23) and 55. In the variant 
Jat. 140 the victims are crows, and crows' fat is prescribed for the elephants. In 
Tib. T. v. a brahmin prescribes the fat of a superhuman being as part of a charm, 
in order to bring about the death of the prince's wife, who is a fairy. The incident 
of the goat and firing of the stable is the subject of Julien 33. 


Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta was born as a monkey. When he 
grew up and attained stature and stoutness, he was strong 
and vigorous, and lived in the Himalaya with a retinue of 
eighty thousand monkeys. Near the Ganges bank there 
was a mango tree (others say it was a banyan), with 
branches and forks, having a deep shade and thick leaves, 
like a mountain-top. Its sweet fruits, of divine fragrance 
and flavour, were as large as water-pots : from one branch 
the fruits fell on the ground, from one into the Ganges 
water, from two into the main trunk of the tree. The 
Bodhisatta, wiiile eating the fruit with a troop of monkeys, 
thought, " Someday danger will come upon us owing to 
the fruit of this tree falling on the water " ; and so, not to 
leave one fruit on the branch which grew over the water, 


he made them eat or throw down the flowers at their 
season from the time they were of the size of a chick-pea. 
But notwithstanding, one ripe fruit, unseen by the eighty 
thousand monkeys, hidden by an ant's nest, fell into the 
river, and stuck in the net above the king of Benares, who 
was bathing for amusement with a net above him and 
another below. When the king had amused himself all 
day and was going away in the evening, the fishermen, 
who were drawing the net, saw the fruit and not knowing 
what it was, shewed it to the king. The king asked, 
"What is this fruit?" "We do not know, sire." "Who 
will know ? " " The foresters, sire." He had the foresters 
called, and learning from them that it was a mango, he 
cut it with a knife, and first making the foresters eat of 
it, he ate of it himself and had some of it given to his 
seraglio and his ministers. The flavour of the ripe 
mango remained pervading the king's whole body. Pos- 
sessed by desire of the flavour, he asked the foresters 
where that tree stood, and hearing that it was on a river 
bank in the Himalaya quarter, he had many rafts joined 
together and sailed upstream by the route shewn by the 
foresters. The exact account of days is not given. In 
due course they came to the place, and the foresters said 
to the king, "Sire, there is the tree." "The king stopped 
the rafts and went on foot with a great retinue, and 
having a bed prepared at the foot of the tree, he lay 
down after eating the mango fruit and enjoying the 
various excellent flavours. At every side they set a guard 
and made a fire. When the men had fallen asleep, the 
Bodhisatta came at midnight with his retinue. Eighty 
thousand monkeys moving from branch to branch ate 
the mangoes. The king, waking and seeing the herd of 
monkeys, roused his men and calling his archers said, 


"Surround these monkeys that eat the mangoes so that 
they may not escape, and shoot them : to-morrow we will 
eat mangoes with monkey's flesh." The archers obeyed, 
saying, " Very well," and surrounding the tree stood with 
arrows ready. The monkeys seeing them and fearing 
death, as they could not escape, came to the Bodhisatta 
and said, " Sire, the archers stand round the tree, saying, 
* We will shoot those vagrant monkeys ' : what are we to 
do ? " and so stood shivering. The Bodhisatta said, " Do 
not fear, I will give you life " ; and so comforting the herd 
of monkeys, he ascended a branch that rose up straight, 
went along another branch that stretched towards the 
Ganges, and springing from the end of it, he passed 
a hundred bow-lengths and lighted on a bush on the 
bank. Coming down, he marked the distance, saying, 
" That will be the distance I have come " : and cutting 
a bamboo shoot at the root and stripping it, he said, " So 
much will be fastened to the tree, and so much will stay 
in the air," and so reckoned the two lengths, forgetting 
the part fastened on his own waist. Taking the shoot he 
fastened one end of it to the tree on the Ganges bank 
and the other to his own waist, and then cleared the 
space of a hundred bow-lengths with a speed of a cloud 
torn by the wind. From not reckoning the part fastened 
to his waist, he failed to reach the tree: so seizing a 
branch firmly with both hands he gave signal to the 
troop of monkeys, " Go quickly with good luck, treading 
on my back along the bamboo shoot." The eighty 
thousand monkeys escaped thus, after saluting the 
Bodhisatta and getting his leave. Devadatta was then a 
monkey and among that herd : he said, " This is a chance 
for me to see the last of my enemy," so climbing up 
a branch he made a spring and fell on the Bodhisatta's 


back. The Bodhisatta's heart broke and great pain came 
on him. Devadatta having caused that maddening- pain 
went away: and the Bodhisatta was alone. The king 
being awake sa*w all that was done by the monkeys and 
the Bodhisatta : and he lay down thinking, " This animal, 
not reckoning his own life, has caused the safety of his 
troop." When day broke, being pleased with the Bodhi- 
satta, he thought, " It is not right to destroy this king of 
the monkeys : I will bring him down by some means and 
take care of him " : so turning the raft down the Ganges 
and building a platform there, he made the Bodhisatta 
come down gently, and had him clothed with a yellow 
robe on his back and washed in Ganges water, made him 
drink sugared water, and had his body cleansed and 
anointed with oil refined a thousand times ; then he put 
an oiled skin on a bed and making him lie there, he set 
himself on a low seat, and spoke the first stanza : 

You made yourself a bridge for them to pass in safety through: 
What are you then to them, monkey, and what are they to you? 

Hearing him, the Bodhisatta instructing the king 
spoke the other stanzas: 

Victorious king, I guard the herd, I am their lord and chief, 
When they were filled with fear of thee and stricken sore with grief. 

I leapt a hundred times the length of bow outstretched that lies, 
When I had bound a bamboo-shoot firmly around my thighs: 

I reached the tree like thunder-cloud sped by the tempest's blast; 
I lost my strength, but reached a bough : with hands I held it fast. 

And as I hung extended there held fast by shoot and bough, 
My monkeys passed across my back and are in safety now. 

Therefore I fear no pain of death, bonds do not give me pain, 
The happiness of those was won o'er whom I used to reign. 

A parable for thee, king, if thou the truth would'st read : 

The happiness of kingdom and of army and of steed 

And city must be dear to thee, if thou would'st rule indeed. 



(Jritnkii 4(17. tln-i-i> .v,r///-.v. /,//. i'!!l. i'!ii') 


The Bodhisatta, thus instructing and teaching the 
king, died. The king, calling his ministers, gave orders 
that the monkey-king should have obsequies like a 
king, and he sent to the seraglio, saying, "Come to the 
cemetery, as retinue for the monkey-king, with red gar- 
ments, and dishevelled hair, and torches in your hands." 
The ministers made a funeral pile with a hundred waggon 
loads of timber. Having prepared the Bodhisatta's ob- 
sequies in a royal manner, they took his skull, and came 
to the king. The king caused a shrine to be built at the 
Bodhisatta's burial-place, torches to be burnt there and 
offerings of incense and flowers to be made ; he had the 
skull inlaid with gold, and put in front raised on a spear- 
point : honouring it with incense and flowers, he put it at 
the king's gate when he came to Benares, and having the 
whole city decked out he paid honour to it for seven 
days. Then taking it as a relic and raising a shrine, he 
honoured it with incense and garlands all his life ; and 
established in the Bodhisatta's teaching he did alms and 
other good deeds, and ruling his kingdom righteously 
became destined for heaven. 

In the Jatakamald xxvii. the incident of Devadatta's malice does not occur. The 
monkey's leap across the Ganges is illustrated in the Bharhut Stupa, pi. xxxin. 4. 
Of. the note on Devadatta, p. 277. 



Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in 
Benares, the Bodhisatta was born as the son of his chief 
queen. When he grew up, he learned all the arts at 
Takkasila, and acquired a spell for the understanding of 


afl ^"iia 1 - crie- After listeninir dulv to his teacher, he 

returned to Benares Hi- father appointed him viceroy : 
but though he did so. he became anxious to kill him and 

ild not even see him. 

A ackal with two cubs entered the city at ni^ht 

by a sewer, when men were retired to re-: In the 
Bodhiaana's palace, near hi- bedroom, there wa- a 
chamber, where a single traveller, who had taken hi- 
gh'. - if and put them by his feet on the floor. was lying 
down, not yet asleep, on a plank. The jackal-cubs were 
hungry and ^rave a cry. Their mother said in the speech 
of jackal*. " Do not make a noise dear- : there is a man in 
that chamber who ha- taken hi-? shoes off and laid them 
on the floor : he is lyin^ on a plank, but is not asleep yet : 
when he falls asleep. I will take hi- -hoe- and trive you 
food." By the power of the .-pell the Bodhisatta under- 
i her call, and leaving his bedroom he opened a 
window and said. "Who is there I. your maje-ty. 

a traveller." -Where are vour -ho>.~ " un the floor." 

"Lift them and hang them up." Hearing thi- the jackal 
wa _-ry with the BodhLsatta. One day -he entered the 
citv a^rain bv the same wav. '] :jat dav a drunken man 


went do'-vn to drink in a lotus-tank: falling in. he .-ank 

and was drowned. H - ; the two rarrnent.s he 

*'*.- ring a thousand pi - in hi- under-gaiinent. and 

a ri:i_ r on hi- fi:j^.-r. The jackal-cubs cried out for hunger, 

and the mother said, " Be quiet, dears : there is a dead 

man in thl- lotu--tank, he had such and .-uch property : 

he is lying dead on the tank-stair. I will _qve you hi- flesh 

to i'j ihisatta, hearing her. opened the window 

H : ' : - . i- in the charnb'. One rose and said, 

I j and take the clothes, the thou-and pieces 

d the ring from the man who is lyin^r dead in yonder 


lotus-tank, and make the bodv sink so that it cannot 

out of the water. " The man did so. The jackal was angry 
again : " The other day you prevented my children eating 
the shoes : to-day you prevent them eating the dead man, 
Verv well : on the third dav from this a hostile kin^ will 

come and encompass the city, your father will send you 
to battle, thev will cut off vour head : I will drink vour 


throat s blood and satisfv mv enniitv: vou make vourself 

an enemy of mine and I will see to it ~ : so she cried 
abusing the Bodhisatta. Then she took her cubs and went 
awav. On the third dav the hostile kin came and en- 

compassed the city. The king: said to the Bodhisatta. 
"Go. dear son. and fight him." "O king. I have seen 
a vision : I cannot co. for I fear I shall lose my life." 
"What is your life or death to me; Go The Great 
Being obeyed : taking his men he avoided the gate where 
the hostile king was posted, and went out by another 
which he had opened. As he went the whole city 
became as it were deserted, for all men went out with 
him. He encamped in a certain open space and waited. 
The king thought, " My viceroy has emptied the city and 
fled with all mv forces : the enemv is Iviiisr all round the 

* * 

city : 1 am but a dead man. To save his life he took his 
chief queen, his family priest, and a single attendant 
named Parantapa : with them he tied in disguise by night 
and entered a wood. Hearing of his night, the Bodhisatta 
entered the citv. defeated the hostile kinir in battle and 

took the kingdom. His father made a hut of leaves on 
a river bank and lived there on wild fruits. He and the 
family priest used to go looking for wild fruits : the 
<ervant Parantapa stayed with the queen in the hut. 
She was with child by the king: but owing to being 
constantly with Parantapa, she sinned with him. One 


day she said to him, " If the king knows, neither you nor 
I would live: kill him." "In what way?" "He makes 
you carry his sword and bathing-dress when he goes to 
bathe : take him off his guard at the bathing-place, cut 
off his head and chop his body to pieces with the sword 
and then bury him in the ground." He agreed. One day 
the priest had gone out for wild fruits: he had climbed 
a tree near the king's bathing-place and was gathering 
the fruit. The king wished to bathe, and came to the 
water-side with Parantapa carrying his sword and bathing- 
dress. As he was going to bathe, Parantapa, meaning to 
kill him when off his guard, seized him by the neck and 
raised the sword. The king cried out in fear of death. 
The priest heard the cry and saw from above that Paran- 
tapa was murdering him : but he was in great terror and 
slipping down from his branch in the tree, he hid in a 
thicket. Parantapa heard the noise he made as he 
slipped down, and after killing and burying the king he 
thought, "There was a noise of slipping from a branch 
thereabouts ; who is there ? " But seeing no man he 
bathed and went away. Then the priest came out of his 
hiding-place ; knowing that the king had been cut in 
pieces and buried in a pit, he bathed and in fear of his 
life he pretended to be blind when he came back to the 
hut. Parantapa saw him and asked what had happened 
to him. He feigned not to know him and said, "O king, 
I am come back with my eyes lost : I was standing by an 
ant-hill in a wood full of serpents, and the breath of some 
venomous serpent must have fallen on me.'' Parantapa 
thought the priest was addressing him as king in ignor- 
ance, and to put his mind at rest he said, " Brahmin, never 
mind, I will take care of you," and so comforted him and 
gave him plenty of wild fruits. From that time it was 


Parantapa who gathered the fruits. The queen bore a 
son. As he was growing up, she said to Parantapa one 
day at early morning when seated comfortably, "Some 
one saw you when you were killing the king ? " " No one 
saw me : but I heard the noise of something slipping from 
a bough : whether it was man or beast I cannot tell : but 
whenever fear comes on me it must be from the cause of 
the boughs creaking," and so in conversation with her he 
spoke the first stanza : 

Terror and fear fall cm me even now, 

For then a man or beast did shake a bough. 

They thought the priest was asleep, but he was awake 
and heard their talk. One day, when Parantapa had gone 
for wild fruits, the priest remembered his brahmin-wife 
and spoke the second stanza in lamentation: 

My true wife's home is near at hand: my love will make me be 
Pale like Parantapa and thin, at quivering 1 of a tree. 

The queen asked what he was saying. He said, " I was 
only thinking " : but one day again he spoke the third 
stanza : 

My dear wife's in Benares : her absence wears me now 
To pallor like Parantapa's at shaking- of a bough. 

Again one day he spoke a fourth stanza : 

Her black eye's glow, her speech and smiles in thought do bring 

me now 
To pallor like Parantapa's at shaking of a bough. 

In time the young prince grew up and reached the 
age of sixteen. Then the brahmin made him take a stick, 
and going with him to the bathing-place opened his eyes 
and looked. "Are you not blind, brahmin?" said the 
prince. " I am not, but by this means I have saved my 
life: do you know who is your father?" "Yes." "That 


man is not your father : your father was king of Benares : 
that man is a servant of your house, he sinned with your 
mother and in this spot killed and buried your father 1 '; and 
so saying he pulled up the bones and shewed them to him. 
The prince grew very angry, and asked, "What am I to 
do ? " " Do to that man what he did to your father here," 
and shewing him the whole matter he taught him in a few 
days how to handle a sword. Then one day the prince 
took sword and bathing-dress and said, " Father, let us go 
and bathe." Parantapa consented and went with him. 
When he went down into the water, the prince took his 
top-knot in the left hand and the sword in the right, and 
said, "At this spot you took my father by the top-knot 
and killed him as he cried out: even so will I do to 
you." Parantapa wailed in fear of death and spoke two 
stanzas : 

Surely that sound has come to you and told you what befell: 
Surely the man who bent the bough has come the tale to tell. 

The foolish thought that once I had has reached your knowledge now : 
That day a witness, man or beast, was there and shook the bough. 

Then the prince spoke the last stanza : 

'Twas thus you slew my father with trait'rous word, untrue; 
You hid his body in the boughs-, now fear has come to you. 

So saying, he slew him on the spot, buried him and 
covered the place with branches : then washing the sword 
and bathing, he went back to the hut of leaves. He told 
the priest how he had killed Parantapa : he censured his 
mother, and saying, " What shall we do now ? " the three 
went back to Benares. The Bodhisatta made the young 
prince viceroy and doing charity and other good works 
passed fully through the path to heaven. 

See Frazer, The Language of Animals in Archaeol. Rcc. i. 80 ff. 


The Master told this tale while dwelling in Jetavana, 
concerning a certain she-goat. At one time the Elder 
Moggallana lived in a dwelling with one door, in a moun- 
tain enclosure, surrounded by hills. His covered walk 
was close by the door. Some goatherds thought the 
enclosure would be a good place for their goats, so they 
drove them in and lived there at their pleasure. One day 
they came in the evening, took all the goats, and went 
away : but one she-goat had wandered far, and not seeing 
the goats departing, she was left behind. As she was 
going after them, a panther saw her, and thinking to 
eat her stood by the door of the enclosure. She looked 
all round, and saw the panther. " He is there because he 
wishes to kill and eat me," she thought; "if I turn and 
run, my life is lost ; I must play the man," and so she 
tossed her horns, and sprang straight at him with all her 
might. She escaped his grip, though he was quivering 
with the thought of catching her: then running at full 
speed she came up with the other goats. The Elder 
observed how all the animals had behaved: next day 
he went and told the Buddha, "So, lord, this she-goat 
performed a feat by her readiness in device, and escaped 
from the panther." The Master answered, "Moggallana, 
the panther failed to catch her this time, but once before 
he killed her though she cried out, and ate her." Then at 
Moggallana's request, he told an old tale. 

Once upon a time the Bodhisatta was born in a certain 
village of the Magadha kingdom, in a wealthy family. 
When he grew up, he renounced desires and adopted 
the religious life, reaching the perfection of meditation. 

P. & T. 19 


After dwelling long in the Himalaya, he came to Rajagaha 
for salt and vinegar, and dwelt in a hut of leaves which he 
made in a mountain enclosure. Just as in the intro- 
ductory story, the goatherds drove their goats thither: 
and in the same way, one day as a single she-goat was 
going out later than the rest, a panther waited by the 
door, thinking to eat her. When she saw him, she thought, 
"My life is forfeit: by some means I must get him into 
pleasant and kindly talk, and so soften his heart and save 
my life." Beginning a friendly talk with him from some 
distance, she approached and spoke the first stanza : 

How fares it with you, uncle ? and is it well with you ? 

My mother sends her kind regards : and I'm your friend so true. 

Hearing her, the panther thought, "This baggage 
would beguile me by calling me ' uncle ' : she does not 
know how hard I am"; and so he spoke the second 
stanza : 

You've trod upon my tail, miss goat, and done me injury: 
And think you by saying ' Uncle ' that you can go scot-free ? 

When she heard him, she said, " O uncle, don't talk in 
that way," and spoke the third stanza : 

I faced you as I came, good Sir, you face me as you sit: 
Your tail is all behind you: how could I tread on it? 

He answered, "AYhat do you say, she-goat? is there 
any place where my tail might not be ? " and so he spoke 
the fourth stanza : 

As far as four great continents with seas and mountains spread, 
My tail extends : how could you fail on such a tail to tread ? 

The she-goat, when she heard this, thought, "This 
wicked one is not attracted by soft words : I will answer 
him as an enemy," and so she spoke the fifth stanza : 

Your villain's tail is long, I know, for I had warning fair: 
Parents and brothers told me so: but I flew through the air. 


Then he said, " I know you came through the air : but 
as you came, you spoilt my food by your way of coming," 
and so he spoke the sixth stanza : 

The sight of you, miss goat, on high, the air a-flying through, 
Frightened a herd of deer: and so my food was spoilt by you. 

Hearing this, the goat in fear of death could bring no 
other excuse, but cried out, " Uncle, do not commit such 
cruelty; spare my life." But though she cried out, the 
other seized her by the shoulder, killed her and ate her. 

The ascetic saw the whole matter of the two animals. 

Tib. T. xxix. and p. Ixv, where Ralston compares the fable of' The Wolf and the 
Lamb (Phaedr. i. 1), Jacobs 62. The introductory tale has more resemblance to that 
of the third goat in The Three Billygoats Gruff, Dasent's Popular Tales front the 
Norse, xxxvu. 


Once upon a time many myriads of parrots lived in 
the Himalaya country on the banks of the Ganges in a 
grove of fig-trees. A king of the parrots there, when the 
fruit of the tree in which he dwelt had come to an end, 
ate whatever was left, whether shoot or leaf or bark or 
rind, and drank of water from the Ganges, and being very 
happy and contented he kept where he was. Owing to 
his happy and contented state the abode of Sakka was 
shaken. Sakka reflecting on the cause saw the parrot, 
and to test his virtue, by his supernatural power he 
withered up the tree, which became a mere stump per- 
forated with holes, and stood to be buffeted by every 
blast of wind, and from the holes dust came out. The 
parrot king ate this dust and drank the water of the 
Ganges, and going nowhere else sat perched on the top 
of the fig-stump, recking nought of wind and sun. 



Sakka noticed how very contented the parrot was, and 
said, " After hearing- him speak of the virtue of friendship, 
I will come and give him his choice of a boon, and cause 
the fig-tree to bear ambrosial fruit." So he took the form 
of a royal goose, and preceded by Suja 1 in the shape of 
an A sura nymph, he went to the grove of fig-trees, and 
perching on the bough of a tree close by, he entered into 
conversation with the parrot and spoke the first stanza : 

Wherever fruitful trees abound, 
A flock of hungry birds is found: 
But should the trees all withered be, 
Away at once the birds will flee. 

And after these words, to drive the parrot thence, he 
spoke the second stanza : 

Haste thee, Sir Redbeak, to be gone; 
Why dost thou sit and dream alone? 
Come tell me, prithee, bird of spring, 
To this dead stump why dost thou cling? 

Then the parrot said, "O goose, from a feeling of 
gratitude, I forsake not this tree," and he repeated two 
stanzas : 

They who have been close friends from youth, 
Mindful of goodness and of truth, 
In life and death, in weal and w r oe 
The claims of friendship ne'er forego. 

I too would fain be kind and good 
To one that long my friend has stood; 
I wish to live, but have no heart 
From this old tree, though dead, to part. 

Sakka on hearing what he said was delighted, and 
praising him wished to offer him a choice, and uttered 
two stanzas: 

1 Sakka's wife. 


I know thy friendship and thy grateful love, 
Virtues that wise men surely must approve. 
I offer thee whate'er thou wilt for choice; 
Parrot, what boon would most thy heart rejoice? 

On hearing this, the king parrot making his choice 
spoke the seventh stanza: 

If thou, goose, what most I crave wouldst give, 
Grant that the tree I love, again may live. 
Let it once more with its old vigour shoot, 
Gather fresh sweetness and bear goodly fruit. 

Then Sakka, granting the boon, spoke the eighth 
stanza : 

Lo! friend, a fruitful and right noble tree, 
Well fitted for thy dwelling-place to be. 
Let it once more with its old vigour shoot, 
Gather fresh sweetness and bear goodly fruit. 

With these words Sakka quitted his present form, and 
manifesting the supernatural power of himself and Suja, 
he took up water from the Ganges in his hand and 
dashed it against the fig-tree stump. Straightway the 
tree rose up rich in branch and stem, and with honey- 
sweet fruit, and stood a charming sight, like unto the 
bare Jewel-Mount. The parrot king on seeing it was 
highly pleased, and singing the praises of Sakka he spoke 
the ninth stanza : 

May Sakka and all loved by Sakka blessed be, 
As I to-day am blest this goodly sight to see ! 

Sakka, after granting the parrot his choice, and causing 
the fig-tree to bear ambrosial fruit, returned with Sujata 
to his own abode. 

Mbh. xin. ch. 5. There is no direct relationship between this and the jataka, 
and no connexion between the verses (Franke). 


Once upon a time in the reign of Brahmadatta, king 
of Benares, his queen-consort after falling into sin was 
questioned by the king, and taking an oath she said, " If 
I have sinned against you, I shall become a female 
Yakkha with a face like a horse." After her death she 
became a horse-faced Yakkha and dwelt in a rock-cave 
in a vast forest at the foot of a mountain, and used to 
catch and devour the men that frequented the road 
leading from the East to the Western border. After 
serving Vessavana 1 three years, it is said, she got leave 
to eat people in a certain space, thirty leagues long by 
five leagues broad. Now one day a rich, wealthy, hand- 
some brahmin, accompanied by a large suite, ascended 
that road. The Yakkha, on seeing him, with a loud neigh 
rushed upon him, and his attendants all fled. With the 
speed of the wind she seized the brahmin and threw him 
on her back, and in entering the cave, through coming 
into contact with the man, under the influence of passion 
she conceived an affection for him, and instead of devour- 
ing him she made him her husband, and they lived 
harmoniously together. And thenceforth the Yakkha 
whenever she captured men, also took their clothes and 
rice and oil and the like, and serving him with various 
dainty food she herself would eat man's flesh. And when- 
ever she went away, for fear of his escaping, she closed the 
mouth of the cave with a huge stone before leaving. And 
while they were thus living amicably together, the Bodhi- 
satta passing from his former existence was conceived in 

1 The lord of Yakkhas. 


the womb of the Yakkha by the brahmin. After ten 
months she gave birth to a son, and filled with love for 
the brahmin and her child, she fed them both. By and 
by when the boy was grown up, she put him also inside the 
cave with his father, and closed the door. Now one day 
the Bodhisatta knowing she had gone away removed the 
stone and let his father out. And when she asked on her 
return who had removed the stone, he said, " I did, mother: 
we cannot sit in darkness." And through love for her 
child she did not say another word. Now one day the 
Bodhisatta asked his father, saying, "Dear father, your 
mouth is different from my mother's ; what is the reason ? " 
"My son, your mother is a Yakkha and lives on man's 
flesh, but you and I are men." "If so, why do we live 
here? Come, we will go to the haunts of men." "My 
dear boy, if we shall try to escape, your mother will kill 
us both." The Bodhisatta reassured his father and said, 
" Do not be afraid, dear father ; that you shall return to 
the haunts of men shall be my charge." And next day 
when his mother had gone away, he took his father and 
fled. When the Yakkha returned and missed them, she 
rushed forward with the swiftness of the wind and caught 
them and said, "O brahmin, why do you run away? Is 
there anything that you want here ? " " My dear," he said, 
" do not be angry with me. Your son carried me off with 
him." And without another word, owing to her love for 
her child, she comforted them and making for her place 
of abode she brought them back after a flight of some 
days. The Bodhisatta thought, "My mother must have 
a limited sphere of action. Suppose I were to ask her the 
limits of space over which her authority extends. Then 
I will escape by going beyond this." So one day sitting 
respectfully near his mother he said, " My dear, that which 


belongs to a mother comes to the children ; tell me now 
what is the boundary of our ground." She told him all 
the landmarks, mountains and such like in all directions, 
and pointed out to her son the space, thirty leagues long 
and five leagues broad, and said, "Consider it to be so 
much, my son." After the lapse of two or three days, 
when his mother had gone to the forest, he put his father 
on his shoulder and rushing on with the swiftness of the 
wind, by the hint given him by his mother, he reached the 
bank of the river that was the limit. The mother too, 
when on her return she missed them, pursued after them. 
The Bodhisatta carried his father into the middle of the 
river, and she came and stood on the river bank, and 
when she saw that they had passed beyond the limits of 
her sphere, she stopped where she was, and cried, "My 
dear child, come here with your father. What is my 
offence ? In what respect do not things go well with you ? 
Come back, my lord." Thus did she beseech her child 
and husband. So the brahmin crossed the river. She 
prayed to her child also, and said, " Dear son, do not act 
after this sort : come back again." "Mother, we are men: 
you are a Yakkha. We cannot always abide with you." 
"And will you not return?" "No, mother." "Then if 
you refuse to return as it is painful to live in the world 
of men, and they who know not any craft cannot live I 
am skilled in the lore of a wishing-jewel : by its power, 
one can follow after the lapse of twelve years in the steps 
of those that have gone away. This will prove a livelihood 
to you. Take, my child, this invaluable charm." And 
though overcome by such great sorrow, through love of 
her child, she gave him the charm. The Bodhisatta, still 
standing in the river, folded his hands tortoise-wise and 
took the charm, and saluting his mother cried, "Good-bye, 


mother." The Yakkha said, "If you do not return, my 
son, I cannot live," and she smote upon her breast, and 
straightway in sorrow for her son her heart was broken 
and she fell down dead on the spot. The Bodhisatta, 
when he knew his mother was dead, called to his father 
and went and made a funeral pile and burned her body. 
After extinguishing the flames, he made offerings of 
various coloured flowers, and with weeping and lamenta- 
tion returned with his father to Benares. 

It was told the king, "A youth skilled in tracking 
footsteps is standing at the door." And when the king 
bade him enter, he came in and saluted the king. "My 
friend," he said, "do you know any craft?" "My lord, 
following on the track of one who has stolen any pro- 
perty twelve years ago, I can catch him." "Then enter 
my service," said the king. "I will serve you for a 
thousand pieces of money daily." " Very well, friend, you 
shall serve me." And the king had him paid a thousand 
pieces of money daily. Now one day the family priest 
said to the king, "My lord, because this youth does 
nothing by the power of his art, we do not know whether 
he has any skill or not : we will now test him." The king 
readily agreed, and the pair gave notice to the keepers of 
the various treasures, and taking the most valuable jewels 
descended from the terrace, and after groping their way 
three times round the palace, they placed a ladder on the 
top of the wall and by means of it descended to the out- 
side. Then they entered the Hall of Justice, and after 
sitting there they returned and again placing the ladder 
on the wall descended into the harem. Coming to the 
edge of a tank they thrice marched rightwise round it, and 
then dropped their treasure in the tank, and climbed 
back to the terrace. Next day there was a great outcry 


and men said, " Treasure has been stolen from the palace." 
The king pretending ignorance summoned the Bodhisatta 
and said, " Friend, much valuable treasure has been stolen 
from the palace : we must trace it." " My lord, for one 
who is able to follow the traces of robbers and recover 
treasure stolen twelve years ago, there is nothing mar- 
vellous in his recovering stolen property after a single day 
and night. I will recover it ; do not be troubled." " Then 
recover it, friend." "Very well, my lord," he said, and 
went and saluting his mother's memory he repeated the 
spell, still standing on the terrace, and said, " My lord, the 
steps of two thieves are to be seen." And following in 
the steps of the king and the priest he entered the royal 
closet, and issuing thence he descended from the terrace, 
and after thrice making a circuit of the palace he drew 
near the wall. Standing on it he said, " My lord, starting 
in this place from the wall I see footsteps in the air : bring 
me a ladder." And having had a ladder placed for him 
against the Avail, he descended by it, and still following in 
their track he came to the Hall of Justice. Then return- 
ing to the palace he had the ladder planted against the 
wall, and descending by it he came to the tank. Going 
thrice rightwise round it he said, "My lord, the thieves 
went down into this tank," and taking out the treasure, as 
if he had deposited it there himself, he gave it to the king 
and said, "My lord, these two thieves are men of dis- 
tinction: by this way they climbed up into the palace." 
The people snapped their fingers in a high state of 
delight, and there was a great waving of cloths. The 
king thought, " This youth, methinks, by following in their 
steps knows the place where the thieves put the treasure, 
but the thieves he cannot catch." Then he said, " You at 
once brought us the property carried off by the thieves, 


but will you be able to catch the thieves and bring them 
to us ? " " My lord, the thieves are here : they are not far 
off." "Who are they?" "Great king, let any one that 
likes be the thief. From the time you recovered your 
treasure, why should you want the thieves ? Do not ask 
about that." " Friend, I pay you daily a thousand pieces of 
money : bring the thieves to me." " Sire, when the treasure 
is recovered, what need of the thieves?" "It is better, 
friend, for us to catch the thieves than to recover the 
treasure." " Then, sire, I will not tell you, ' So and so are 
the thieves,' but I will tell you a thing that happened long 
ago. If you are wise, you will know what it means." And 
herewith he told an old tale. 

Once upon a time, sire, a certain dancer named Patala 
lived not far from Benares, in a village on the river's 
bank. One day he went into Benares with his wife and 
after gaining money by his singing and dancing, at the 
end of the fete he procured some rice and strong drink. 
On his way to his own village he came to the bank of the 
river, and sat down watching the freshly flowing stream, 
to drink his strong drink. When he was drunk and 
unconscious of his weakness, he said, "I will fasten my 
big lute about my neck and go down into the river." 
And he took his wife by the hand and went down into 
the river. The water entered into the holes of the lute, 
and then the weight of his lute made him begin to sink. 
But when his wife saw he was sinking, she let go of him 
and went up out of the river and stood upon the bank. 
The dancer Patala now rises and now sinks, and his belly 
became swollen from swallowing the water. So his wife 
thought, "My husband will now die: I will beg of him 
one song, and by singing this in the midst of the people, 
I shall earn my living." And saying, "My lord, you are 


sinking in the water: give me just one song, and I will 
earn my living by it," she spoke this stanza: 

Patala, by Ganges swept away, 
Famous iu dance and skilled in roundelay, 
Patala, all hail! as thou art borne along, 
Sing me, I pray, some little snatch of song. 

Then the dancer Patala said, "My dear, how shall 
I give you a little song? The water that has been the 
salvation of the people is killing me," and he spoke a 
stanza : 

Wherewith are sprinkled fainting souls in pain, 

1 straight am killed. My refuge proved my bane. 

The Bodhisatta in explanation of this stanza said: 
" Sire, even as water is the refuge of the people, so also 
is it with kings. If danger arises from them, who shall 
avert that danger ? This, sire, is a secret matter. I have 
told a story intelligible to the wise: understand it, sire." 
" Friend, I understand not a hidden story like this. Catch 
the thieves and bring them to me." Then the Bodhisatta 
said, " Hear then this, sire, and understand." And he told 
yet another tale. 

" My lord, formerly in a village outside the city gates 
of Benares, a potter used to fetch clay for his pottery, 
and constantly getting it in the same place he dug a deep 
pit inside a mountain-cave. Now one day while he was 
getting the clay, an unseasonable storm-cloud sprang up, 
and let fall a heavy rain, and the flood overwhelmed and 
threw down the side of the pit, and the man's head was 
broken by it. Loudly lamenting he spoke this stanza : 

That by which seeds do grow, man to sustain, 
Has crushed my head. My refuge proved my bane. 

" For even as the mighty earth, sire, which is the refuge 
of the people, broke the potter's head, even so when a 


king, who like the mighty earth is the refuge of the whole 
world, rises up and plays the thief, who shall avert the 
danger ? Can you, sire, recognise the thief hidden under 
the guise of this story ? " " Friend, we do not want any 
hidden meaning. Say, ' Here is the thief,' and catch him 
and hand him over to me." 

Still shielding the king and without saying in words, 
"Thou art the thief," he told yet another story. 

In this very city, sire, a certain man's house was on fire. 
He ordered another man to go into the house and bring 
out his property. When this man had entered the house 
and was bringing out his goods, the door was shut. Blinded 
with smoke and unable to find his way out and tormented 


by the rising flame, he remained inside lamenting, and 
spoke this stanza: 

That which destroys the cold, and parches grain, 
Consumes my limbs. My refuge proves my bane. 

"A man, O king, who like fire was the refuge of the 
people, stole the bundle of jewels. Do not ask me about 
the thief." "Friend, just bring me the thief." Without 
telling the king that he was a thief, he told yet another 

Once, sire, in this very city a man ate to excess and 
was unable to digest his food. Maddened with pain and 
lamenting he spoke this stanza : 

Food on which countless brahmins life sustain 
Killed me outright. My refuge proved my bane. 

"One, who like rice, sire, was the refuge of the people, 
stole the property. When that is recovered, why ask 
about the thief?" "Friend, if you can, bring me the thief." 
To make the king comprehend, he told yet another story. 

Formerly, sire, in this very city a wind arose and broke 
a certain man's limbs. Lamenting he spoke this stanza : 


Wind that in June wise men by prayer would gain, 
My limbs doth break. My refuge proved my baue. 

" Thus, sire, did danger arise from his refuge. Under- 
stand this story." "Friend, bring me the thief." To make 
the king understand, he told him yet another story. 

"Once upon a time, sire, on the side of the Himalayas 
grew a tree with forked branches, the dwelling-place of 
countless birds. Two of its boughs rubbed against one 
another. Hence arose smoke, and sparks of fire were let 
fall. On seeing this the chief bird uttered this stanza: 

Flame issues from the tree where we have laiu-. 
Scatter ye birds. Our refuge proves our bane. 

"For just as, sire, the tree is the refuge of birds, so is 
the king the refuge of his people. Should he play the 
thief, Avho shall avert the danger? Take note of this, sire." 
"Friend, only bring me the thief." Then he told the king 
yet another story. 

In a village of Benares, sire, on the western side of a 
gentleman's house was a river full of savage crocodiles, 
and in this family was an only son, who on the death of 
his father watched over his mother. His mother against 
his will brought home a gentleman's daughter as his wife. 
At first she shewed affection for her mother-in-law, but 
afterwards when blest with numerous sons and daughters 
of her own, she wished to get rid of her. Her own mother 
also lived in the same house. In her husband's presence 
she found all manner of fault with her mother-in-law, to 
prejudice him against her, saying, "I cannot possibly 
support your mother : you must kill her." And when he 
answered, "Murder is a serious matter : how am I to kill 
her?'' she said, "When she has fallen asleep, we will take 
her, bed and all, and throw her into the crocodile river. 
Then the crocodiles will make an end of her." "And 


where is your mother?" he said. "She sleeps in the same 
room as your mother." "Then go and set a mark on the 
bed on which she lies, by fastening a rope on it." She did 
so, and said, "I have put a mark on it." The husband 
said, "Excuse me a moment ; let the people go to bed 
first." And he lay down pretending to go to sleep, and 
then went and fastened the rope on his mother-in-law's 
bed. Then he woke his wife, and they went together 
and lifting her up, bed and all, threw her into the river. 
And the crocodiles there killed and ate her. Next day she 
found out what had happened to her own mother, and 
said, "My lord, my mother is dead, now let us kill yours." 
"Very well then," he said, "we will make a funeral pile in 
the cemetery, and cast her into the fire and kill her." So 
the man and his wife took her while she was asleep to the 
cemetery, and deposited her there. Then the husband 
said to his wife, "Have you brought any fire?" "I have 
forgotten it, my lord." "Then go and fetch it." "I dare 
not go, my lord, and if you go, I dare not stay here : we 
will go together." When they were gone, the old woman 
was awakened by the cold wind, and finding it was a 
cemetery, she thought, "They wish to kill me: they are 
gone to fetch fire. They do not know how strong I am." 
And she stretched a corpse on the bed and covered it 
over with a cloth, and ran away and hid herself in a 
mountain-cave in that same place. The husband and wife 
brought the fire and taking the corpse to be the old 
woman they burned it and went away. A certain robber 
had left his bundle in this mountain-cave and coming 
back to fetch it he saw the old woman and thought, "This 
must be a Yakkha : my bundle is possessed by goblins," 
and he fetched a devil-doctor. The doctor uttered a spell 
and entered the cave. Then she said to him, "I am 


no Yakkha ; come, we will enjoy this treasure together." 
"How is this to be believed?" "Place your tongue on my 
tongue." He did so, and she bit a piece off his tongue 
and let it drop to the ground. The devil-doctor thought, 
" This is certainly a Yakkha," and he cried aloud and fled 
away, with the blood dripping from his tongue. Next 
day the old woman put on a clean undergarment and took 
the bundle of all sorts of jewels and went home. The 
daughter-in-law on seeing her asked, "Where, mother, did 
you get this?" "My dear, all that are burned on a 
wooden pile in this cemetery receive the same." "My 
dear mother, can I too get this?" "If you become like 
me, you will." So without saying a word to her husband, 
in her desire for a lot of ornaments to wear, she went 
there and burned herself. Her husband next day missed 
her and said, "My dear mother, at this time of day is 
not your daughter-in-law coming?" Then she reproached 
him saying, " Fie ! you bad man, how do the dead come 
back?" And she uttered this stanza: 

A maiden fair, with wreath upon her head, 

Fragrant with sandal oil, by ine was led 

A happy bride within my home to reign : 

She drove me forth. My refuge proved my bane. 

"As the daughter-in-law, sire, is to the mother-in-law, 
so is the king a refuge to his people. If danger arises 
thence, what can one do ? take note of this, sire." " Friend, 
I do not understand the things you tell me ; only bring 
me the thief." He thought, " I will shield the king," and 
he told yet another story. 

Of old, sire, in this very city a man in answer to his 
prayer had a son. At his birth the father was full of joy 
and gladness at the thought of having got a son, and 
cherished him. When the boy was grown up, he wedded 


him to a wife, and by and by he himself grew old and 
could not undertake any work. So his son said, "You 
cannot do any work : you must go from hence," and he 
drove him out of the house. With great difficulty he 
kept himself alive on alms, and lamenting he uttered this 
stanza : 

He for whose birth I longed, nor longed in vain, 
Drives me from home. My refuge proved my bane. 

" Just as an aged father, sire, ought to be cared for by 
an able-bodied son, so too ought all the people to be 
protected by the king, and this danger now present has 
arisen from the king, who is the guardian of all men. Know, 
sire, from this fact that the thief is so and so." " I do not 
understand this, be it fact or no fact : either bring me the 
thief, or you yourself must be the thief." Thus did the 
king again and again question the youth. So he said to 
him, "Would you, sire, really like the thief to be caught?" 
"Yes, friend." "Then I will proclaim it in the midst of 
the assembly, So and So is the thief," "Do so, friend." 
On hearing his words he thought, "This king does not 
allow me to shield him: I will now catch the thief." And 
when the people had gathered together, he addressed 
them and spoke these stanzas: 

Let town and country folk assembled all give ear, 

Lo! water is ablaze. From safety cometh fear. 

The plundered realm may well of king and priest complain; 

Henceforth protect yourselves. Tour refuge proves your bane. 

When they heard what he said, the people thought, 
"The king, though he ought to have protected others, 
threw the blame on another. After he had with his own 
hands placed his treasure in the tank, he went about 
looking for the thief. That he may not in future go on 
playing the part of a thief, we will kill this wicked king." 

F. & T. 20 


So they rose up with sticks and clubs in their hands, and 
then and there beat the king and the priest till they died. 
But they sprinkled the Bodhisatta with the ceremonial 
sprinkling and set him on the throne. 

The story of the female yakkha forms an episode in Tib. T. xn. and the beginning 
of Example xix. in Sind. Of. Clouston, i. 215 ff., Fairy hinds. For the two tales of 
filial ingratitude, pp. 302 305, cf. the references on p. 314. 


Once upon a time in the reign of Brahmadatta, king 
of Benares, many hundreds of wild goats dwelt in a 
mountain-cave in a wooded district on the slopes of the 
Himalayas. Not far from their place of abode a jackal 
named Putimamsa with his wife Yen! lived in a cave. 

One day as he was ranging about with his wife, he spied 
those goats and thought, "I must find some means to 
eat the flesh of these goats,'' and by some device he killed 
a single goat. Both he and his wife by feeding on goat's 
flesh waxed strong and gross of body. Gradually the 
goats were destroyed. Amongst them was a wise she-goat 
named Melamata. The jackal though skilful in devices 
could not kill her, and taking counsel with his wife he 
said, "My dear, all the goats have died out. We must 
devise how to eat this she-goat. Now here is my plan. 
You are to go by yourself, and become friendly with her, 
and when confidence has sprung up between you, I will 
lie down and pretend to be dead. Then you are to draw 
nigh to the goat and say, ' My dear, my husband is dead 
and I am desolate ; except you I have no relative : come, 
let us weep and lament, and bury his body.' And with 
these words come and bring her with you. Then I will 


spring up and kill her by a bite in the neck." She readily 
agreed and after making friends with the goat, when con- 
fidence was established, she addressed her in the words 
suggested by her husband. The goat replied, " My dear, 
all my kinsfolk have been eaten by your husband. 
I am afraid; I cannot come." "Do not be afraid; what 
harm can the dead do you?" "Your husband is cruelly- 
minded; I am afraid." But afterwards being repeatedly 
importuned the goat thought, "He certainly must be 
dead," and consented to go with her. But on her way 
there she thought, "Who knows what will happen?" 
and being suspicious she made the she-jackal go in front, 
keeping a sharp look-out for the jackal. He heard the 
sound of their steps and thought, " Here comes the goat," 
and put up his head and rolling his eyes looked about 
him. The goat on seeing him do this said, " This wicked 
wretch wants to take me in and kill me: he lies there 
making a pretence of being dead," and she turned about 
and fled. When the she-jackal asked why she ran away, 
the goat gave the reason and spoke the first stanza : 

Why thus does Putiniamsa stare? 

His look misliketh me: 
Of such a friend one should beware, 

And far away should flee. 

With these words she turned about and made straight 


for her own abode. And the she-jackal failing to stop her 
was enraged with her, and went to her husband and sat 
down lamenting. Then the jackal rebuking her spoke 
the second stanza : 

Yen!, my wife, has lost her wit, 
She boasts of friends that she has made; 

Left in the lurch she can but sit 
And grieve, by Mela's art betrayed. 



On hearing this the she-jackal spoke the third stanza : 

You too, my lord, were hardly wise, 
And, witless creature, raised your head, 

Staring 1 about with open eyes, 
Though feigning to be dead. 

But the she-jackal comforted Putimamsa and said, 
" My lord, do not vex yourself, I will find a way to bring 
her here again, and when she comes, be on your guard 
and catch her." Then .she sought the goat and said, 
" My friend, your coming proved of service to us ; for as 
soon as you appeared, my lord recovered consciousness, 
and he is now alive. Come and have friendly speech with 
him," and so saying she spoke the fifth 1 stanza: 

Our former friendship, goat, once more revive, 
And come with well-lilled bowl to us, I pray, 

My lord I took for dead is still alive, 
With kindly greeting visit him to-day. 

The goat thought, "This wicked wretch wants to take 
me in. I must not act like an open foe ; I will find means 
to deceive her," and she spoke the sixth stanza : 

Our former friendship to revive, 
A well-filled bowl I gladly give: 
With a big escort I shall come; 
To feast us well, go hasten home. 

Then the she-jackal enquired about her followers, and 
spoke the seventh stanza : 

What kind of escort will you bring, 
That I am bid to feast you well? 

The names of all remembering 
To us, I pray you, truly tell. 

The goat spoke the eighth stanza and said: 

1 A stanza not belonging to the Story of the Past is omitted. 


Hounds 1 Grey and Tan, and Four-eyed too, 
With Janibuk form my escort true: 
GrO hurry home, and quick prepare: 
For all abundance of good fare. 

" Each of these," she added, " is accompanied by five 
hundred dogs: so I shall appear with a guard of two 
thousand dogs. If they should not find food, they will 
kill and eat you and your mate." On hearing this the 
she-jackal was so frightened that she thought, " I have had 
quite enough of her coining to us ; I will find means to 
stop her from coming," and she spoke the ninth stanza: 

Don't leave your house, or else I fear 
Your goods will all soon disappear: 
I'll take your greeting to my lord; 
Don't stir: nay, not another word! 

With these words she ran in great haste, as for her life, 
and taking her lord with her, fled away. And they never 
durst come back to that spot. 

This jataka is of the same type as P. iv. 2, The Ass without Heart and Ears, in 
which a jackal twice tempts an ass into the presence of a sick lion, who finally kills 
it. Some such fable as this appears to have been the basis of the jataka. The moral 
given in both cases is, " keep guard over the avenues of the senses." 


Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta was king of 
Benares, there was in a family of a certain village of Kasi 
an only son named Vasitthaka. This man supported his 
parents, and after his mother's death, he supported his 
father as has been described in the introduction 2 . But 

1 Maliya and Pingiya probably refer to the colour of the dogs; Caturaksha, 'four- 
eyed,' is one of Yama's dogs in the Rigveda x. 14, 10 ; Jambuka is a spirit in the train 
of Skanda. 

2 In the introductory story the father provides his son with a wife, who pretends 
to be fond of her father-in-law, but sets him at variance with her husband. 


there is this difference. When the woman said, "Look 
there ! that is your father's doing ! I am constantly 
begging him not to do this and that, and he only gets 
angry ! " she went on, " My lord, your father is fierce and 
harsh, for ever picking quarrels. A decrepit old man 
like that, tormented with disease, is bound to die soon ; 
and I can't live in the same house with him. He will die 
of himself before many days are out ; well, take him to a 
cemetery, and dig a pit, throw him in and break his head 
with the spade; and when he is dead, shovel the earth 
upon him, and leave him there." At last, by dint of this 
dinning in his ears, said he, "Wife, to kill a man is a 
serious matter: how can I do it?" "I will tell you of 
a way, 1 ' quoth she. " Say on, then." -" Well, my lord, at 
break of day, go to the place where your father sleeps; 
tell him very loud, that all may hear, that a debtor of his 
is in a certain village, that you went and he would not pay 
you, and that if he dies the man will never pay at all ; and 
say that you will both drive there together in the morning. 
Then at the appointed time get up, and put the animals to 
the cart, and take him in it to the cemetery. When you get 
there, bury him in a pit, make a noise as if you had been 
robbed, wound and wash your head, and return." "Yes, 
that plan will do," said Vasitthaka. He agreed to her 
proposal, and got the cart ready for the journey. 

Now the man had a son, a lad of seven years, but wise 
and clever. The lad overheard what his mother said. " My 
mother/' thought he, " is a wicked woman, and is trying to 
persuade father to murder his father. I will prevent my 
father from doing this murder." He ran quickly, and lay 
down beside his grandsire. Vasitthaka, at the time sug- 
gested by the wife, prepared the cart. " Come, father, let 
us get that debt ! " said he, and placed his father in the 


cart. But the boy got in first of all. Vasitthaka could 
not prevent him, so he took him to the cemetery with them. 
Then, placing his father and his son together in a place 
apart, with the cart, he got down, took spade and basket, 
and in a spot where he was hidden from them began to dig 
a square hole. The boy got down, and followed him, and 
as though ignorant what was afoot, opened a conversation 
by repeating the first stanza : 

No bulbs are here, no herbs for cooking 1 meet, 
No catmint, nor no other plant to eat. 
Then father, why this pit, if need be none, 
Delve in Death's acre mid the woods alone? 

Then his father answered by repeating the second 

stanza : 

Thy grandsire, son, is very weak and old, 
Opprest by pain from ailments manifold: 
Him will I bury in a pit to-day ; 
In such a life I could not wish him stay. 

Hearing this, the boy answered by repeating a half- 
stanza : 

Thou hast done sinfully in wishing 1 this, 
And for the deed, a cruel deed it is. 

With these words, he caught the spade from his father's 
hands, and at no great distance began to dig another pit. 

His father approaching asked why he dug that pit ; to 
whom he made reply by finishing the third stanza : 

I too, when thou art aged, father mine, 
Will treat my father as thou treatest thine; 
Following- the custom of the family 
Deep in a pit I too will bury thee. 

To this the father replied by repeating the fourth 

stanza : 

What a harsh saying 1 for a boy to say, 
And to upbraid a father in this way! 
To think that my own son should rail at me, 
And to his truest friend unkind should be! 


When the father had thus spoken, the wise lad recited 
three stanzas, one by way of answer, aiid two as a solemn 
utterance : 

I am uot harsh, my father, nor unkind, 
Nay, I regard thee with a friendly mind: 
But this thou dost, this act of sin, thy son 
Will have no strength to undo again, once done. 

Whoso, Vasittha, hurts with ill intent 
His mother or his father, innocent, 
He, when the body is dissolved, shall be 
In hell for his next life undoubtedly. 

Whoso with meat and drink, Yasittha, shall 
His mother or his father feed withal, 
He, when the body is dissolved, shall be 
In heaven for his next life undoubtedly. 

The father, after hearing his son thus discourse, 
repeated the eighth stanza : 

Thou art no heartless iugrate, son, I see, 
But kindly-hearted, my son, to me; 
'Twas in obedience to thy mother's word 
I thought to do this horrid deed abhorred. 

Said the lad, when he heard this, "Father, women, 
when a wrong is done and they are not rebuked, again 
and again commit sin. You must bend my mother, that 
she may never again do such a deed as this." And he 
repeated the ninth stanza: 

That wife of yours, that ill-conditioned dame, 
My mother, she that brought me forth that same, 
Let us from out our dwelling far expel, 
Lest she work other woe on thee as well. 

Hearing the words of his wise son, well pleased was 
Yasitthaka, and saying, " Let us go, my son ! " he seated 
himself in the cart with son and father and set off. 

Now the woman too, this sinner, was happy at heart ; 


for, thought she, this ill-luck is out of the house now. She 
plastered the place with w r et cowdung, and cooked a mess 
of rice porridge. But as she sat watching the road by 
which they would return, she espied them coming. " There 
he is, back with old ill-luck again ! " thought she, much in 
anger. "Fie, good-for-nothing!" cried she, "what, bring 
back the ill-luck you took away with you ! " Yasitthaka 
said not a word, but unyoked the cart. Then said he, 
"Wretch, what is that you say?" He gave her a sound 
drubbing, and bundled her head over heels out of doors, 
bidding her never darken his door again. Then he bathed 
his father and his son, and took a bath himself, and the 
three of them ate the rice porridge. The sinful woman 
dwelt for a few days in another house. 

Then the son said to his father : " Father, for all this 
my mother does not understand. Now let us try to vex 
her. You give out that in such and such a village lives a 
niece of yours, who will attend upon your father and your 
son and you; so you will go and fetch her. Then take 
flowers and perfumes, set off with your cart, and ride 
about the country all day, returning in the evening." And 
so he did. The w r omen in the neighbour's family told 
his wife this ; " Have you heard," said they, " that your 
husband has gone to get another wife in such a place ? " 
" Ah, then I am undone ! " quoth she, " and there is no 
place for me left ! " But she would enquire of her son ; so 
quickly she came to him, and fell at his feet, crying " Save 
thee I have no other refuge ! Henceforward I will tend 
your father and grandsire as I would tend a beauteous 
shrine ! Give me entrance into this house once more ! " 
" Yes, mother," replied the lad, " if you do no more as you 
did, I will ; be in earnest ! " and at his father's coming 
he repeated the tenth stanza: 


That wife of yours, that ill-conditioned dame, 

My mother, she that Drought me forth, that same, 

Like a tamed elephant, in full control, 

Let her return again, that sinful soul. 

So said he to his father, and then went and summoned 
his mother. She, being reconciled to her husband and the 
husband's father, was thenceforward tamed, and endued 
with righteousness, and watched over her husband and his 
father and her son ; and these two, steadfastly following 
their son's advice, gave alms and did good deeds, and 
became destined to join the hosts of heaven. 

This is a variant of a famous story, known as the Hoitsse Partie. See Clouston, 
II. 372 ff., The ungrateful Son ; Jacques de Vitry's Exempla (Folk Lore Soc., 1890), 
no. 288, with bibliographical note on p. 260. (I)r Rouse.) 

In Jat, 417 a wife sets her husband and mother-in-law at variance. The mother- 
in-law is driven from home, but her children are converted by JSakka, and take her 
back. Cf. the two tales of filial ingratitude in The goblin's Gift, pp. 302, 304. 


Once upon a time, a king named Mahakamsa reigned 
in Uttarapatha, in the Kamsa district, in the city of 
Asitanjana. He had two sous, Kamsa and Upakamsa, 
and one daughter named Devagabbha. On her birthday 
the brahmins skilled in omens foretold of her: "A son 
born of this girl will one day destroy the country and the 
lineage of Kamsa." The king was too fond of the girl to 
put her to death ; but leaving her brothers to settle it, 
lived his days out, and then died. When he died Kamsa 


became king, and Upakamsa was viceroy. They thought 
that there would be an outcry were they to put their sister 
to death, so resolved to give her in marriage to none, but 
to keep her husbandless, and watch ; and they built a 
single round-tower, for her to live in. 


Now she had a serving-woman named Nandagopa, and 
the woman's husband, Andhakavenhu, was the servant who 
watched her. At that time a king named Mahasagara 
reigned in Upper Madhura, and he had two sons, Sagara 
and Upasagara. At their father's death, Sagara became 
king, and Upasagara was viceroy. This lad was Upakamsa's 
friend, brought up together with him and trained by the 
same teacher. But he intrigued in his brother's zenana, 
and being detected, ran away to Upakamsa in the Kamsa 
estate. Upakamsa introduced him to king Kamsa, and 
the king had him in great honour. 

Upasagara while waiting upon the king observed the 
tower where dwelt Devagabbha ; and on asking who lived 
there, heard the story, and fell in love with the girl. And 
Devagabbha one day saw him as he went with Upakamsa 
to wait upon the king. She asked who that was; and 
being told by Nandagopa that it was Upasagara, son of the 
great king Sagara, she too fell in love with him. Upasagara 
gave a present to Nandagopa, saying, "Sister, you can 
arrange a meeting for me with Devagabbha." "Easy 
enough," quoth Nandagopa, and told the girl about it. 
She being already in love with him, agreed at once. One 
night Nandagopa arranged a tryst, and brought Upasagara 
up into the tower ; and there he stayed with Devagabbha. 
And by their constant intercourse, Devagabbha con- 
ceived. By and by when the affair became known, the 
two brothers questioned Nandagopa. She made them 
promise her pardon, and then told the ins and outs of 
the matter. When they heard the story, they thought, 
" We cannot put our sister to death. If she bears a 
daughter, we will spare the babe also ; if a son, we will 
kill him." And they gave Devagabbha to Upasagara to 


When her full time was come, she gave birth to a 
daughter. The brothers on hearing this were delighted, 
and gave her the name of the Lady Anjana. And 
they allotted to them a village for their estate, named 
Govaddhamana. Upasagara took Devagabbha and lived 
with her at the village of Govaddhamana. 

Devagabbha was again with child, and that very day 
Nandagopa conceived also. When their time was come, 
they brought forth on the same day, Devagabbha a son 
and Nandagopa a daughter. But Devagabbha, in fear 
that her son might be put to death, sent him secretly to 
Nandagopa, and received Nandagopa's daughter in return. 
They told the brothers of the birth. " Son or daughter ? " 
they asked. " Daughter," was the reply. " Then see that 
it is reared," said the brothers. In the same way Deva- 
gabbha bore ten sons, and Nandagopa ten daughters. 
The sons lived with Nandagopa and the daughters with 
Devagabbha, and not a soul knew the secret. 

The eldest son of Devagabbha was named Vasudeva, 
the second Baladeva, the third Candadeva, the fourth 
Suriyadeva, the fifth Aggideva, the sixth Varunadeva, 
the seventh Ajjuna, the eighth Pajjuna, the ninth Ghata- 
pandita, the tenth Amkura. They were well known as 
the sons of Andhakavenhu the servitor, the Ten Slave- 

In course of time they grew big, and being very strong, 
and withal fierce and ferocious, they went about plunder- 
ing, they even went so far as to plunder a present being 
conveyed to the king. The people came crowding in the 
king's court yard, complaining, " Andhakavenhu's sons, the 
Ten Brethren, are plundering the land!" So the king- 
summoned Andhakavenhu, and rebuked him for per- 
mitting his sons to plunder. In the same way complaint 


was made three or four times, and the king threatened 
him. He being in fear of his life craved the boon of safety 
from the king, and told the secret, that how these were no 
sons of his, but of Upasagara. The king was alarmed. 
" How can we get hold of them ? " he asked his courtiers. 
They replied, "Sire, they are wrestlers. Let us hold a 
wrestling match in the city, and when they enter the ring 
we will catch them and put them to death." So they 
sent for two wrestlers, Canura and Mutthika, and caused 
proclamation to be made throughout the city by beat of 
drum, that on the seventh day there would be a wrestling 

The wrestling ring was prepared in front of the king's 
gate ; there was an enclosure for the games, the ring was 
decked out gaily, the flags of victory were ready tied. 
The whole city was in a whirl ; line over line rose the 
seats, tier above tier. Canura and Mutthika went down 
into the ring, and strutted about, jumping, shouting, 
clapping their hands. The Ten Brethren came too. On 
their way they plundered the washermen's street, and clad 
themselves in robes of bright colours, and stealing perfume 
from the perfumers' shops, and wreaths of flowers from 
the florists, with their bodies all anointed, garlands upon 
their heads, earrings in their ears, they strutted into the 
ring, jumping, shouting, clapping their hands. 

At the moment, Canura was walking about clapping 
his hands. Baladeva, seeing him, thought, " I won't touch 
yon fellow with my hand ! " so catching up a thick strap 
from the elephant stable, jumping and shouting he threw 
it round Canura's belly, and joining the two ends together, 
brought them tight, then lifting him up, swung him round 
over his head, and dashing him on the ground rolled him 
outside the arena. When Canura was dead, the king 


sent for Mutthika. Up got Mutthika, jumping, shouting, 
clapping his hands. Baladeva smote him, and crushed 
in his eyes ; and as he cried out " I'm no wrestler ! I'm 
no wrestler ! " Baladeva tied his hands together, saying, 
" Wrestler or no wrestler, it is all one to me," and dashing 
him down on the ground, killed him and threw him outside 
the arena. 

Mutthika in his death-throes, uttered a prayer " May 
I become a goblin, and devour him ! " And he became 
a goblin, in a forest called by the name of Kalamattiya. 
The king said, " Take away the Ten Slave-Brethren." At 
that moment, Yasudeva threw a wheel 1 , which lopped off 
the heads of the two brothers 2 . The crowd, terrified, fell 
at his feet, and besought him to be their protector. 

Thus the Ten Brethren, having slain their two uncles, 
assumed the sovereignty of the city of Asitaiijana, and 
brought their parents thither. 

They now set out, intending to conquer all India. 
In a while they arrived at the city of Ayojjha, the seat 
of king Kajasena. This they encompassed about, and 
destroyed the jungle around it, breached the wall and 
took the king prisoner, and took the sovereignty of the 
place into their hands. Thence they proceeded to Dvara- 
vati. Now this city had on one side the sea and on one 
the mountains. They say that the place was goblin- 
haunted. A goblin would be stationed on the watch, who 
seeing his enemies, in the shape of an ass would bray as 
the ass brays. At once, by goblin magic the whole city 
used to rise in the air, and deposit itself on an island 
in the midst of the sea ; when the foe was gone, it would 
come back and settle in its own place again. This time, 

1 A kind of weapon, especially the weapon of Vishnu in Brahmin mythology. 

2 I.e. the king and his brother. 


as usual, no sooner the ass saw those Ten Brethren 
coming, than he brayed with the bray of an ass. Up rose 
the city in the air, and settled upon the island. No city 
could they see, and turned back ; then back came the 
city to its own place again. They returned again the 
ass did as before. The sovereignty of the city of Dvaravati 
they could not take. 

So they visited Kanhadipayana 1 , and said : " Sir, we 
have failed to capture the kingdom of Dvaravati ; tell us 
how to do it." He said: "In a ditch, in such a place, 
is an ass walking about. He brays when he sees an 
enemy, and immediately the city rises in the air. You 
must clasp hold of his feet 2 , and that is the way to 
accomplish your end." Then they took leave of the 
ascetic ; and went all ten of them to the ass, and falling 
at his feet, said, " Sir, we have no help but thee ! When 
we come to take the city, do not bray ! " The ass replied, 
" I cannot help braying. But if you come first, and four 
of you bring great iron ploughs, and at the four gates 
of the city dig great iron posts into the ground, and when 
the city begins to rise, if you will fix on the post a chain 
of iron fastened to the plough, the city will not be able to 
rise." They thanked him ; and he did not utter a sound 
while they got ploughs, and fixed the posts in the ground 
at the four gates of the city, and stood w r aiting. Then the 
ass brayed, the city began to rise, but those who stood at 
the four gates with the four ploughs, having fixed to the 
posts iron chains which were fastened to the ploughs, the 
city could not rise. Thereupon the Ten Brethren entered 
the city, killed the king, and took his kingdom. 

Thus they conquered all India, and in three and sixty 
thousand cities they slew by the wheel all the kings of 

1 A sage mentioned also in Jat. 530. 2 I.e. beseech him. 


them, and lived at Dvaravati, dividing the kingdom into 
ten shares. But they had forgotten their sister, the Lady 
Anjana. So " Let us make eleven shares of it," said they. 
But Ariikura answered, "Give her my share, and I will 
take to some business for a living ; only you must remit 
my taxes each in your own country." They consented, 
and gave his share to his sister; and with her they 
dwelt in Dvaravati, nine kings, while Ariikura embarked 
in trade. 

In course of time, they were all increased with sons 
and with daughters ; and after a long time had gone by, 
their parents died. At that period, they say that a man's 
life was twenty thousand years. 

Then died one dearly beloved son of the great King 
Vasudeva. The king, half dead with grief, neglected 
everything, and lay lamenting, and clutching the frame 
of his bed. Then Ghatapandita thought to himself, 
"Except me, no one else is able to soothe my brother's 
grief; I will find some means of soothing his grief for 
him." So assuming the appearance of madness, he paced 
through the whole city, gazing up at the sky, and crying 
out, " Give me a hare ! Give me a hare ! " All the city was 
excited : " Ghatapandita has gone mad ! " they said. Just 
then a courtier named Rohineyya, went into the presence 
of King Vasudeva, and opened a conversation with him by 
reciting the first stanza : 

Black Kanha 1 , rise! why close the eyes to sleep? why lying- there? 
Thine own born brother see, the winds away his wit do bear, 
Away his wisdom! Ghata raves, thou of the long black hair! 

Up rose the king, and quickly came down from his 
chamber; and proceeding to Ghatapandita, he got fast 

1 The commentator says this is the family name of the king ( = Skt. Krishna). 
Vasudeva is a secondary name, meaning, 'descendant of Vasudeva,' 


hold of him with both hands ; and speaking to him, uttered 
the third 1 stanza : 

In maniac fashion, why do you pace Dvaraka all through, 

And cry, "Hare, hare!" Say, who is there has taken a hare from 

you ? 

To these words of the king, he only answered by 
repeating the same cry over and over again. But the 
king recited two more stanzas: 

Be it of gold, or made of jewels fine, 
Or brass, or silver, as you may incline, 
Shell, stone, or coral, I declare 
I'll make a hare. 

And many other hares there be, that range the woodland wide, 
They shall be brought, I'll have them caught: say, which do you 

On hearing the king's words, the wise man replied by 
repeating the sixth stanza : 

I crave no hare of earthly kind, but that within the moon 2 -. 
bring him down, Kesava ! I ask no other boon ! 

" Undoubtedly my brother has gone mad," thought the 
king, when he heard this. In great grief, he repeated the 
seventh stanza: 

In sooth, my brother, you will die, if you make such a prayer, 
And ask for what no man may pray, the moon's celestial hare. 

Ghatapandita, on hearing the king's answer, stood 
stock still, and said: "My brother, you know that if 
a man prays for the hare in the moon, and cannot get 
it, he will die ; then why do you mourn for your dead son ? 

If, Kanha, this you know, and can console another's woe, 
Why are you mourning still the son who died so long ago?" 

Then he went on, standing there in the street " And 
I, brother, pray only for what exists, but you are mourning 

1 A stanza versifying the previous sentence and not part of the tale is omitted. 

2 See note, p. 229. 

F. &T. 21 


for what does not exist." Then he instructed him by 
repeating- two more stanzas: 

My son is born, let him not die! Nor man nor deity 

Can have that boon ; then wherefore pray for what can never be ? 

Nor mystic charm, nor magic roots, nor herbs, nor money spent, 
Can bring 1 to life again that ghost whom, Kaiiha, you lament. 

The king, on hearing- this, answered, "Your reminder 
was good, dear one. You did it to take away my 
trouble." Then in praise of Ghatapandita he repeated 
four stanzas : 

Men had I, wise and excellent to give me good advice: 
But how hath Ghatapandita opened this day mine eyes! 

Blazing was I, as when a man pours oil upon a fire ; 

Thou didst bring water, and didst quench the pain of my desire. 

Grief for my son, a cruel shaft was lodged within my heart ; 
Thou hast consoled me for my grief, and taken out the dart. 

That dart extracted, free from pain, tranquil, and calm I keep; 
Hearing, youth, thy words of truth, no more I grieve nor weep. 

In this manner was Vasudeva consoled by Prince 

After the lapse of a long time, during which he ruled 
his kingdom, the sons of the ten brethren thought : " They 
say that Kanhadipayana is possessed of the divine eye. Let 
us put him to the test." So they procured a young lad, 
and drest him up, and by binding a pillow about his belly, 
made it appear as though he were with child. Then they 
brought him into his presence, and asked him, " To what, 
sir, Avill this girl give birth?" The ascetic perceived 1 that 
the time was come for the destruction of the ten royal 
brothers ; then, looking 1 to see what the term of his own 
life should be, he perceived that he must die that very 
day. Then he said, "Young sirs, what is this man to you ? " 

1 I.e. by his miraculous vision. 


"Answer us," they replied persistently. He answered, 
" This man on the seventh day from now will bring forth 
a knot of acacia wood. With that he will destroy the line 
of Vasudeva, even though ye should take the piece of 
wood and burn it, and cast the ashes into the river." 
" Ah, false ascetic ! " said they, " a man can never bring- 
forth a child ! " and they did the rope and string business, 
and killed him at once. The kings sent for the vouno- 

f O 

men, and asked them why they had killed the ascetic. 
When they heard all, they were frightened. They set a 
guard upon the man; and when on the seventh day he 
voided from his belly a knot of acacia wood, they burnt 
it, and cast the ashes into the river. The ashes floated 
down the river, and stuck on one side by a postern gate ; 
from thence sprung an eraka plant. 

One day, the kings proposed that they should go and 
disport themselves in the water. So to this postern gate 
they came ; and they caused a great pavilion to be made, 
and in that gorgeous pavilion they ate and drank. Then 
in sport they began to catch hold of hand and foot, and 
dividing into two parts, they became very quarrelsome. 
At last one of them, finding nothing better for a club, 
picked a leaf from the eraka plant, which even as he 
plucked it became a club of acacia wood in his hand. 
With this he beat many people. Then the others plucked 
also, and the things as they took them became clubs, and 
with them they cudgelled one another until they were 
killed. As these were destroying each other, four only- 
Vasudeva, Baladeva, the lady Aiijana their sister, and the 
family priest mounted a chariot and fled away ; the rest 
perished, every one. 

Now these four, fleeing away in the chariot, came to 
the forest of Kalamattika. There Mutthika the Wrestler 



had been born, having become according to his prayer 
a goblin. When he perceived the coming of Baladeva, 
he created a village in that spot ; and taking the semblance 
of a wrestler, he went jumping about, and shouting, "Who's 
for a fight ? " snapping his fingers the while. Baladeva, 
as soon as he saw him, said, " Brother, 111 try a fall with 
this fellow." Vasudeva tried and tried his best to prevent 
him ; but down he got from the chariot, and went up to 
him, snapping his fingers. The other just seized him in 
the hollow of his hand, and gobbled him up like a radish- 
bulb. Vasudeva, perceiving that he was dead, went on all 
night long with his sister and the priest, and at sunrise 
arrived at a frontier village. He lay down in the shelter 
of a bush, and sent his sister and the priest into the 
village, with orders to cook some food and bring it to him. 
A huntsman (his name was Jara, or Old Age) noticed the 
bush shaking. " A pig, sure enough, 1 ' thought he ; he 
threw a spear, and pierced his feet. " Who has wounded 
me ? " cried out Vfisudeva. The huntsman, finding that 
he had wounded a man, set off running in terror. The 
king, recovering his wits, got up, and called the huntsman- 
" Uncle, come here, don't be afraid!" When he came- 
"Who are you?" asked Vasudeva. "My name is Jara, 
my lord." "Ah," thought the king, "whom Old Age 
wounds will die, so the ancients used to say. Without 
doubt I must die to-day." Then he said, " Fear not, 
Uncle ; come, bind up my wound." The mouth of the 
wound bound up, the king let him go. Great pains came 
upon him ; he could not eat the food that the others 
brought. Then addressing himself to the others, Vasudeva 
said : This day I am to die. You are delicate creatures, 
and will never be able to learn anything else for a 
living; so learn this science from me." So saying, he 


taught them a science, and let them go ; and then died 

Thus excepting the lady Anjana, they perished every 
one, it is said. 

A version of the tale which became the legend of Vishnu's eighth avatar as 
Krishna, given most fully in the Bhdgarata Purdna ix. 24. See also Vishnu 
Purdna iv. lo, and a summary in Dowson's Class. Diet, of Hindu Mythol., London, 
1879. In the brahmin version the husband of Devaki ( = Devagabbha) is Vasudeva> 
and his son Krishna ( = Kanha) has the epithet Vasudeva as in the jataka. Kamsa 
is the cousin of Devaki, and learning that he will lose his life through a son he kills 
all her children, until the seventh Bala-rama ( = Bala-deva) and Krishna the eighth 
are miraculously preserved. The embryo of Krishna is transferred to Yasoda, wife 
of Nauda the cowherd (Nandagopa), but Kamsa orders every vigorous infant to be 
put to death. Nauda flees and rears Krishna. This has been compared with 
Herod's slaughter of the innocents. The wrestling-match of Krishna and his brother 
with Caniira and Mustika is given at length in Vishnu Pur. v. 20. One of Krishna's 
sons was Pradyumna ( = Pajjuna, a brother in the jataka). The mutual destruction 
of the chiefs, caused by the eraka plant in the jataka, is due in the Hindu legend to 
Krishna's prohibition of wine. He permits it to be drunk for one day, and a drunken 
brawl ensues in which most of them perish. This version is referred to in Jat. 512, 
p. 393. The death of Krishna is the same in both tales. In Buddhaghosha xxvi. 
the legend is worked into the history of Buddha's family. There is confusion in the 
name Andhakavenhu. It corresponds to Andhavrishni of the Puranas, where it is a 
title of Krishna, " descendant of Andha (or Andhaka) and Vrishni," two ancestors of 
Krishna according to his real birth. For the beginning of the story Dr Rouse 
compares the story of Danae. 


Once upon a time, at Benares, a great king named 
Dasaratha renounced the ways of evil, and reigned in 
righteousness. Of his sixteen thousand wives, the eldest 
and queen-consort bore him two sons and a daughter ; 
the elder son was named Rama-pandita, or Rama the 
Wise, the second was named Prince Lakkhana, or Lucky, 
and the daughter's name was the Lady Sita 1 . 

1 The name means " a furrow " : she was so called, according to brahmin legend, 
because she sprang from a furrow which king Janaka made in ploughing for a 
sacrifice to obtain progeny. The tale is no doubt an elaboration of a more primitive 


In course of time, the queen-consort died. At her 
death the king was for a long time crushed by sorrow, but 
urged by his courtiers he performed her obsequies, and 
set another in her place as queen-consort. She was dear 
to the king and beloved. In time she also conceived, and 
all due attention having been given her, she brought forth 
a son, and they named him Prince Bharata. 

The king loved his son much, and said to the queen, 
" Lady, I offer you a boon : choose." She accepted the 
offer, but put it off for the time. When the lad was seven 
years old, she went to the king, and said to him, " My lord, 
you promised a boon for my son. Will you give it me 
now?" "Choose, lady," said he. "My lord," quoth she, 
" give my son the kingdom." The king snapt his fingers 
at her; "Out, vile jade!" said he angrily, "my other two 
sons shine like blazing fires ; would you kill them, and ask 
the kingdom for a son of yours ? " She fled in terror to 
her magnificent chamber, and on other days again and 
again asked the king the same. The king would not give 
her this gift. He thought within himself: "Women are 
ungrateful and treacherous. This woman might use a 
forged letter or a treacherous bribe to get my sons 
murdered." So he sent for his sons, and told them all 
about it, saying : " My sons, if you live here some mischief 
may befall you. Go to some neighbouring kingdom, or 
to the woodland, and when my body is burnt, then return 
and inherit the kingdom which belongs to your family." 
Then he summoned soothsayers, and asked them the 
limits of his own life. They told him he would live yet 
twelve years longer. Then he said, " Now, my sons, after 
twelve years you must return, and uplift the umbrella of 
royalty." They promised, and after taking leave of their 
father, went forth from the palace weeping. The Lady 


Sita said, " I too will go with my brothers " : she bade her 
father farewell, and went forth weeping. 

These three departed amidst a great company of 
people. They sent the people back, and proceeded until 
at last they came to Himalaya. There in a spot well- 
watered, and convenient for the getting of wild fruits, they 
built a hermitage, and there lived, feeding upon the wild 

Lakkhana-pandita and Sita said to Rama-pandita, 
" You are in place of a father to us ; remain then in the 
hermitage, and we will bring fruits, and feed you." He 
agreed : thenceforward Rama-pandita stayed where he 
was, the others brought the fruits and fed him. 

Thus they lived there, feeding upon the wild fruit; 
but King Dasaratha pined after his sons, and died in 
the ninth year. When his obsequies were performed, the 
queen gave orders that the umbrella should be raised 
over her son, Prince Bharata. But the courtiers said, 
"The lords of the umbrella are dwelling in the forest, 
and they would not allow it." Said Prince Bharata, " I 
will fetch back my brother Rama-pandita from the forest, 
and raise the royal umbrella over him." Taking the five 
emblems of royalty 1 , he proceeded with a complete host 
of the four arms 2 to their dwelling-place. Not far away 
he caused camp to be pitched, and then with a few 
courtiers he visited the hermitage, at the time when 
Lakkhana-pandita and Sita were away in the woods. At 
the door of the hermitage sat Rama-pandita, undismayed 
and at ease, like a figure of fine gold firmly set. The 
prince approached him with a greeting, and standing on 
one side, told him of all that had happened in the 

1 Sword, umbrella, diadem, slippers, and fan. 
' 2 Elephants, cavalry, chariots, infantry. 


kingdom, and falling at his feet along with the courtiers, 
burst into weeping. Rama-pandita neither sorrowed nor 
wept ; he shewed no change of feeling. When Bharata had 
finished weeping, and sat down, towards evening the other 
two returned with wild fruits. Rama-pandita thought- 
" These two are young : all-comprehensive wisdom like 
mine is not theirs. If they are told on a sudden that our 
father is dead, the pain will be greater than they can 
bear, and who knows but their hearts may break. I will 
find a device to persuade them to go down into the water, 
and then tell them the news." Then pointing out to 
them a place in front where there was water, he said, 
" You have been out too long : let this be your penance- 
go into that water, and stand there." Then he repeated 
a half-stanza: 

Let Lakkhana and Sita both into that pond descend. 

One word sufficed, into the water they went, and 
stood there. Then he told them the news by repeating 
the other half-stanza : 

Bharata says, king- Dasaratha's life is at an end. 

When they heard the news of their father's death, they 
fainted. Again he repeated it, again they fainted, and 
when even a third time they fainted away, the courtiers 
raised them and brought them out of the water, and set 
them upon dry ground. When they had been comforted, 
they all sat weeping and wailing together. Then Prince 
Bharata thought: "Mv brother Prince Lakkhana, and mv 

*' . 

sister the Lady Sita, cannot restrain their grief to hear 
of our father's death ; but Rama-pandita neither wails 
nor weeps. I wonder what can the reason be that he 
grieves not ? I will ask." Then he repeated the second 
stanza, asking the question : 


Say by what power thou grievest not, Kama, when grief should be? 
Though it is said thy sire is dead grief overwhelms not thee! 

Then Rama-pandita explained the reason of his not 
grieving by saying, 

When man can never keep a thing, though loudly he may cry, 
Why should a wise intelligence torment itself thereby? 

The young in years, the older grown, the fool, and eke the wise, 
For rich, for poor one end is sure: each man among them dies. 

As sure as for the ripened fruit there conies the fear of fall, 
So surely comes the fear of death to mortals one and all. 
Who in the morning light are seen by evening oft are gone, 
And seen at evening time, is gone by morning many a one. 

If to a fool infatuate a blessing could accrue 

When he torments himself with tears, the wise this same would do. 

By this tormenting of himself he waxes thin and pale; 
This cannot bring the dead to life, and nothing tears avail. 

Even as a blazing house may be put out with water, so 

The strong, the wise, the intelligent, who well the scriptures know, 

Scatter their grief like cotton when the stormy winds do blow. 

One mortal dies to kindred ties born is another straight : 
Each creature's bliss dependent is on ties associate. 

The strong man therefore, skilled in sacred text, 
Keen-contemplating this world and the next, 

Knowing their nature, not by any grief, 
However great, in mind and heart is vext. 

So to my kindred I will give, them will I keep and feed, 
All that remain I will maintain : such is the wise man's deed. 

In these stanzas he explained the Impermanence of 

When the company heard this discourse of Rama- 
pandita, illustrating the doctrine of Impermanence, they 
lost all their grief. Then Prince Bharata saluted Rama- 
pandita, begging him to receive the kingdom of Benares. 
"Brother," said Rama, "take Lakkhana and Sita with you, 
and administer the kingdom yourselves." "No, my lord, 
you take it." "Brother, my father commanded me to 


receive the kingdom at the end of twelve years. If I go 
now, I shall not carry out his bidding-. After three more 
years I will come." " Who will carry on the government 
all that time ? " " You do it." " I will not." " Then until 
I come, these slippers shall do it," said Rama, and doffing 
his slippers of straw he gave them to his brother. So 
these three persons took the slippers, and bidding the 
Avise man farewell, went to Benares with their great crowd 
of followers. 

For three years the slippers ruled the kingdom. The 
courtiers placed these straw slippers upon the royal 
throne, when they judged a cause. If the cause were 
decided wrongly, the slippers beat upon each other, and 
at that sign it was examined again ; when the decision 
was right, the slippers lay quiet. 

When the three years were over, the wise man came 
out of the forest, and came to Benares, and entered the 
park. The princes hearing of his arrival proceeded with 
a great company to the park, and making Slta the queen- 
consort, gave to them both the ceremonial sprinkling. 
The sprinkling thus performed, the Great Being, standing 
in a magnificent chariot, and surrounded by a vast 
company, entered the city, making a solemn circuit right- 
wise ; then mounting to the great terrace of his splendid 
palace Sucandaka, he reigned there in righteousness for 
sixteen thousand years, and then went to swell the hosts 
of heaven. 

The story of the Ramayana, in which a primitive feature appears to be preserved 
in the relations of Raina and Slta as brother and sister, with the usual buddhist 
modification of making one character a Bodhisatta. In the epic the three stay with 
the sage Valmlki, and during the exile Slta is carried off to Ceylon by Kfivana, 
and recovered by Rfuna. Cf. H. Jacobi, Das fid///<'i//>ntn, p. 84 (Bonn, 1893). 
Sylvain Levi gives a Chinese buddhist version (Album Kern 279), and assumes, what 
is surely very improbable, that the Buddhists transformed Slta from wife to sister. 
In the Chinese version she is suppressed. On the incident of the slippers cf. 


Campbell, Popular Tales of the West Highlands, n. 159. "The kings had :i 
heritage at that time. When they did not know how to split justice properly, the 
judgment-seat would begin to kick, and the king's neck Avould take a twist when he 
did not do justice as he ought." 


Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta was king- of 
Benares, the Bodhisatta was born as the son of his chief 
queen ; and because his all-blessed countenance was like 
a lotus full-blown, Paduma-Kumara they named him, 
which is to say, the Lotus Prince. When he grew up he 
was educated in all arts and accomplishments. Then his 
mother departed this life ; the king took another consort, 
and appointed his son viceroy. 

After this the king, being about to set forth to quell a 
rising on the frontier, said to his consort, "Do you, lady, 
stay here, while I go forth to quell the frontier insur- 
rection." But she replied, "No, my lord, here I will not 
remain, but I will go with you." Then he shewed her 
the danger which lay on the field of battle, adding to it 
this : " Stay then here without vexation until my return, 
and I will give charge to Prince Paduma, that he be 
careful in all that should be done for you, and then I 
will go/' So thus he did, and departed. 

When he had scattered his enemies, and pacified the 
country, he returned, and pitched his camp without the 
city. The Bodhisatta learning of his father's return, 
adorned the city, and setting a watch over the royal 
palace, went forth alone to meet his father. The queen 
observing the beauty of his appearance, became enamoured 
of him. In taking leave of her, the Bodhisatta said, "Can 
I do anything for you, mother?" "Mother, do you call 


me?" quoth she. She rose up and seized his hands, 
saying. "Lie on my couch!' 1 "Why?" he asked. "Just 
until the king comes," she said, "let us both enjoy the 
bliss of love!" "Mother, my mother you are, and you 
have a husband living. Such a thing I have never before 
seen, that a woman, a matron, should break the moral 
law in the way of fleshly lust. How can I do such a deed 
with you?" Twice and thrice she besought him, and 
when he would not, said she, " Then you refuse to do as 
I ask?" -"Indeed I do refuse." -"Then I will speak to the 
king, and cause you to be beheaded." " Do as you will," 
answered the Great Being; and having shamed her he 
left her. Then in fear she thought : " If he tell the king 
first, there is no life for me ! I must get speech of him 
first myself." Accordingly leaving her food untouched 
she donned a soiled robe, and made nail-scratches upon 
her body; giving orders to her attendants, that when the 
king should ask of the queen's whereabouts, he should be 
told she was ill, she lay down making a pretence of illness. 
Xow the king made solemn procession about the city 
right wise, and went up into his dwelling. When he saw 
her not, he asked, "Where is the queen?" "She is ill," 
they said. He entered the state chamber, and asked her, 
"What is amiss with you, lady?" She made as though 
she heard nothing. Twice and yet thrice he asked, and 
then she answered, " O great king, why do you ask? Be 
silent : women that have a husband must be even as I am." 
"Who has annoyed you?" said he. "Tell me quickly, and 
I will have him beheaded." -"Whom did you leave behind 
you in this city, when you went away?" -"Prince Paduma.' 
"And he," she went on, "came into my room, and I said. 
My son, do not so, I am your mother: but say what I 
would, he cried, None is king here but me, and I will take 


you to my dwelling, and enjoy your love ; then he seized 
me by the hair of my head, and plucked it out again and 
again, and as I would not yield to his will, he wounded 
and beat me, and departed." The king made no investi- 
gation, but furious as a serpent, commanded his men, "Go 
and bind Prince Paduma, and bring him to me !" They 
went to his house, swarming as it were through the city, 
and bound him and beat him, bound his hands fast behind 
his back, put about his neck the garland of red flowers, 
making him a condemned criminal, and led him thither, 
beating him the while. It was clear to him that this was 
the queen's doing, and as he went along he cried out, 
" Ho fellows, I am not one that has offended against the 
king! I am innocent." All the city was a-bubble with 
the news: "They say the king is going to execute Prince 
Paduma at the bidding of a woman ! " They flocked 
together, they fell at the prince's feet, lamenting with a 
great noise, "You have not deserved this, my lord!" 

At last they brought him before the king. At sight of 
him, the king could not restrain what was in his heart, and 
cried out, "This fellow is no king, but he plays the king- 
finely ! My son he is, yet he has insulted the queen. 
Away with him, down with him over the thieves' cliff, 
make an end of him !" But the prince said to his father, 
"No such crime lies at my door, father. Do not kill me 
on a woman's word." The king would not listen to him. 
Then all those of the royal seraglio, in number six- 
teen thousand, raised a great lamentation, saying, "Dear 
Paduma, mighty Prince, this dealing you have never 
deserved !" And all the warrior chiefs and great mag- 
nates of the land, and all the attendant courtiers cried, 
"My lord! the prince is a man of goodness and virtuous 
life, observes the traditions of his race, heir to the kingdom ! 


Do not slay him at a woman's word, without a hearing ! 
A king's duty it is to act with all circumspection." So 
saying, they repeated seven stanzas : 

No king should puiiish an offence, and hear no pleas at all, 
Not throughly sifting it himself in all points, great and small. 

The warrior chief who punishes a fault before he tries, 

Is like a man born blind, who eats his food all bones and flies. 

Who punishes the guiltless, and lets go the guilty, knows 
No more than one who blind upon a rugged highway goes. 

He who all this examines well, in things both great and small, 
And so administers, deserves to be the head of all. 

He that would set himself on high must not all-gentle be 
Nor all-severe: but both these things practise in company. 

Contempt the all-gentle wins, and he that's all-severe has wrath: 
So of the pair be well aware, and keep a middle path. 

Much can the angry man, king, and much the knave can say: 
And therefore for a woman's sake thy sou thou must not slay. 

But for all they could say in many ways the courtiers 
could not win him to do their bidding. The Bodhisatta 
also, for all his beseeching, could not persuade him to listen: 
nay, the king, blind fool, said "Away! down with him over 
the thieves' cliff!" repeating the eighth stanza: 

One side the whole world stands, my queen on the other all alone; 
Yet her I cleave to : cast him down the cliff , and get you gone ! 

At these words, not one among the sixteen thousand 
women could remain unmoved, while all the populace 
stretched out their hands, and tore their hair, with lamenta- 
tions. The king said, "Let these but try to prevent the 
throwing of this fellow over the cliff!" and amidst his 
followers, though the crowd wailed around, he caused the 
prince to be seized, and cast down the precipice over 
heels head-first. 

Then owing to the magic power due to his practice of 
friendliness the deity of the hill comforted the prince, 


saying, "Fear not, Paduma!" and in both hands he caught 
him, pressed him to his heart, sent a divine thrill through 
him, set him in the abode of the nagas of the eight ranges, 
within the hood of the naga-king. The king received the 
Bodhisatta into the abode of the nagas, and gave him 
the half of his own glory and state. There for one year 
he dwelt. Then he said, " I would go back to the ways of 
men." "Whither?" they asked. "To Himalaya, where I 
will become an ascetic." The naga-king gave his consent ; 
taking him, he conveyed him to the place where men go 
to and fro, and gave him the requisites of an ascetic, and 
went back to his own place. 

So he proceeded to Himalaya, became a hermit-sage, 
and cultivated the faculty of ecstatic bliss ; there he abode, 
feeding upon fruits and roots of the woodland. 

Now a certain wood-ranger, who dwelt in Benares, 
came to that place, and recognised the Great Being. 
"Are you not," he asked, "the great Prince Paduma, 
my lord?" "Yes, sir," he replied. The other saluted 
him, and there for some days he remained. Then he 
returned to Benares; and said to the king, "Your son, 
my lord, has embraced the religious life in the region of 
Himalaya, and lives in a hut of leaves. I have been 
staying with him, and thence I come." " Have you seen 
him with your own eyes ? " asked the king. " Yes, my 
lord." The king with a great host went thither, and on 
the outskirts of the forest he pitched his camp; then with 
his courtiers around him, went to salute the Great Being-, 


who sat at the door of his hut of leaves, in all the glory of 
his golden form, and sat on one side ; the courtiers also 
greeted him, and spoke pleasantly to him, and sat on 
one side. The Bodhisatta on his part invited the king to 
share his wild fruits, and talked pleasantly with him. 


Then said the king, " My son, by me you were cast down 
a deep precipice, and how is it you are yet alive ?" Asking 
which, he repeated the ninth stanza : 

As into hell-mouth, you were cast over a beetling hill, 

No succour many palm-trees deep : how are you living- still ? 

These are the remaining stanzas, and of the five, taken 
alternately, three were spoken by the Bodhisatta, and two 
by the king. 

A naga mighty, full of force, born on that mountain land, 
Caught me within his coils ; and so here safe from death I stand. 
Lo ! I will take you back, prince, to my own home again : 
And there what is the wood to you ? with blessing you shall reign. 
As who a hook has swallowed, and draws it forth all blood, 
Drawn forth, is happy: so I see in me this bliss and good. 
Why speak you thus about a hook, why speak you thus of gore, 
Why speak about the drawing out? Come tell me, I implore. 
Lust is the hook: fine elephants and horse by blood I shew; 
These by renouncing I have drawn ; this, chieftain, you must know. 

" Thus, O great king, to be king is nothing to me ; but 
do you see to it, that you break not the Ten Royal Virtues, 
but forsake evil-doing, and rule in righteousness." In 
those words the Great Being admonished the king. He 
with weeping and wailing departed, and on the way to his 
city he asked his courtiers: "On whose account was it 
that I made a breach with a son so virtuous?" they 
replied, "The queen's." Her the king caused to be seized, 
and cast headlong over the thieves' cliff! and entering his 
city ruled in righteousness. 

The theme of Phaedra and Hippolytus. In Schmidt xxxvi. the actors are the 
wife and pupil of a brahmin teacher. Dr Rouse gives as Indian variants the Legeil 
of Puran Mai (MS. written l>y Kam Gliarib Sharma, Chaturvaidya, collected by 
W. Crooke), and Lc<j> /"/ ;/ R"i> ">/</ ]}<i*nt. or Sit and Basant. In both of these 
the queen falls in love with her step-son. Jat. 120 is closer to the story of Joseph. 
A queen commits adultery with sixty-four footmen, and fails with the family priest. 
Like Potiphar's wife she accuses him, but he proves his innocence. 


Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta was king of 
Benares, the family of his household priest was destroyed 
by malarial fever. One son only broke through the wall 1 
and escaped. He came to Takkasila, and under a world- 
renowned teacher learnt the Vedas and the other arts. 
Then he bade his teacher farewell, and departed, with the 
intent to travel in different regions ; and on his travels he 
arrived at a frontier village. Near to this was a great 
village of low-caste Candalas. Then the Bodhisatta abode 
in this village, a learned sage. A charm he knew which 
could make fruit to be gathered out of due season. Early 
of a morning he would take his carrying pole, forth from 
that village he would go, until he reached a mango tree 
which grew in the forest ; and standing seven foot off, he 
would recite that charm, and throw a handful of water so 
as to strike on that tree. In a twinkling down fall the 
sere leaves, sprout forth the new, flowers blow and flowers 
fall, the mango fruits swell out: but one moment they 
are ripe, they are sweet and luscious, they grow like fruit 
divine, they drop from the tree ! The Great Being chooses 
and eats such as he will, then fills the baskets hung from 
his pole, goes home and sells the fruit, and so finds a 
living for wife and child. 

Now the young brahmin saAv the Great Being offer ripe 
mangoes for sale out of season. "Without doubt," thought 
he, " it must be by virtue of some charm that these are 

1 So in Jat. 178. It is noteworthy that here the same means is used to outwit 
the spirit of disease as is often taken to outwit the ghosts of the dead ; who might 
be supposed to guard the door, but not the parts of the house where there was no 
outlet. (Dr Rouse.) 

F. & T. 22 


grown. This man can teach me a charm which has no 
price." He watched to see the manner in which the Great 
Being procured his fruit, and found it out exactly. Then 
he went to the Great Being's house at the time when he 
was not yet returned from the forest, and making as 
though he knew nothing, asked the wise man's wife, 
"Where is the Teacher?" Quoth she, "Gone to the 
woods." He stood waiting until he saw him come, then 
went to him, and taking the pole and baskets from him, 
carried them into the house and there set them. The 
Great Being looked at him, and said to his wife, " Lady, 
this youth has come to get the charm ; but no charm will 
stay with him, for no good man is he." But the youth 
was thinking, " I will get the charm by being my teacher's 
servant " ; and so from that time he did all that was to be 
done in the house : brought wood, pounded the rice, did 
the cooking, brought all that was needed for washing the 
face, washed the feet. 

One day when the Great Being said to him, " My son, 
bring me a stool to support my feet," the youth, seeing no 
other way, kept the Great Teacher's feet on his own thigh 
all night. When at a later season the Great Being's wife 
brought forth a son, he did all the service that has to be 
done at a childbirth. The wife said one day to the Great 
Being: "Husband, this lad, well-born though he is, for 
the charm's sake performs menial service for us. Let him 
have the charm, whether it stays with him or no." To this 
he agreed. He taught him the charm, and spoke after 
this fashion: "My son, 'tis a priceless charm; and you 
will get great gain and honour thereby. But when the 
king, or his great minister, shall ask you who was your 
teacher, do not conceal my name ; for if you are ashamed 
that a low-caste man taught you the charm, and say your 


teacher was a great magnate of the brahmins, you will 
have no fruit of the charm." "Why should I hide your 
name?" quoth the lad. "Whenever I am asked, I shall 
say it is you." Then he saluted his teacher, and from the 
low-caste village he departed, pondering on the charm, 
and in due time came to Benares. There he sold mangoes, 
and gained much wealth. 

Now on a day the keeper of the park presented to the 
king a mango which he had bought from him. The king, 
having eaten it, asked whence he procured so fine a fruit. 
"My lord," was the answer, "there is a young man who brings 
mangoes out of season, and sells them : from him I pro- 
cured it." " Tell him," says the king, " from henceforth to 
bring the mangoes hither to me." This the man did ; and 
from that time the young man took his mangoes to the 
king's household. The king, inviting him to enter his 
service, he became a servant of the king; and gaining 
great wealth, by degrees he grew into the king's con- 

One day the king asked him, and said : " Young man, 
where do you get these mangoes out of season, so sweet 
and fragrant and of fine colour? Does some naga or 
garula give them to you, or a god, or is this the power of 
magic?" "No one gives them to me, O mighty king!" 
replied the young man, "but I have a priceless charm, 
and this is the power of the charm." "Well then we 
should like to see the power of the charm one of these 
days." " By all means, my lord, I will shew it," quoth he. 
Next day the king went with him into the park, and asked 
to be shewn this charm. The young man was willing, and 
approaching a mango tree, stood at a distance of seven 
foot from it, and repeated the charm, throwing water 
against the tree. On the instant the mango tree had 



fruit in the manner above described : a shower of mangoes 
fell, a very storm ; the company shewed great delight, 
waving their kerchiefs ; the king ate of the fruit, and gave 
him a great reward, and said, "Young man, who taught 
you this charm so marvellous ? " Now thought the young 
man, "If I say a low-caste candala taught me, I shall be put 
to shame, and they will flout at me ; I know the charm by 
heart, and now I can never lose it ; well, I will say it was a 
world-renowned teacher." So he lied, and said, " I learnt 
it at Takkasila, from a teacher renowned the wide world 
over." As he said the words, denying his teacher, that 
very instant the charm was gone. But the king, greatly 
pleased, returned with him into the city. 

On another day the king desired mangoes to eat ; and 
going into the park, and taking his seat upon a stone 
bench, which was used on state occasions, he bade the 
youth get him mangoes. The youth, willing enough, went 
up to a mango tree, and standing at a distance of seven 
foot from the tree, set about repeating the charm ; but 
the charm would not come. Then he knew that he had 
lost it, and stood there ashamed. But the king thought, 
" Formerly this fellow gave me mangoes even in the midst 
of a crowd, and like a heavy shower rained the fruit down. 
Now there he stands like a stock : what can the reason 
be ? " Which he enquired by repeating the first stanza : 

Young: student, when I asked it you of late, 

You brought me mango fruit both small and great: 

Now no fruit, brahmin, on the tree appears, 
Thoug-h the same charm you still reiterate. 

When he heard this, the young man thought to himself, 
if he should say this day no fruit was to be had, the king 
would be wroth ; wherefore he thought to deceive him 
with a lie, and repeated the second stanza: 


The hour and moment suit not: so wait I 
Fit junction of the planets in the sky. 

The due conjunction and the moment come, 
Then will I bring- you mangoes plenteously. 

"What is this," the king wondered. "The fellow said 
nothing of planetary conjunctions before ! " To resolve 
which questions, he repeated two stanzas: 

You said no word of times and seasons, nor 
Of planetary junctions heretofore: 

But mangoes, fragrant, delicate in taste, 
Of colour fine, you brought in plenteous store. 

Aforetime, brahmin, you produced so well 
Fruit on the tree by muttering' of your spell : 
To-day you cannot, mutter as you may. 
What means this conduct, I would have you tell? 

Hearing this, the youth thought, " There is no deceiving 
the king with lies. If, when the truth is told, he punishes 
me, let him punish me : but the truth I will tell." Then he 
recited two stanzas : 

A low-caste man my teacher was, who taught 
Duly and w T ell the charm, and how it wrought: 

Saying, " If you are asked my name and birth, 
Hide nothing, or the charm will come to nought." 

Asked by the Lord of Men, though well I knew, 
Yet in deceit I said what was not true: 

"A brahmin's spells," I lying said; and now, 
Charm lost, my folly bitterly I rue. 

This heard, the king thought within himself, "This 
sinful man took no care of such a treasure ! When one 
has a treasure so priceless, what has birth to do with it ? 
And in anger he repeated the following stanzas : 

Nimb, castor oil, or judas tree, whatever be the tree 
"Where he who seeks finds honeycombs, 'tis best of trees, thinks he. 
Be it Khattiya, Brahmin, Vessa, he from whom a man learns right 
Sudda, Candala, Pukkusa seems chief est in his sight 1 . 

1 These are the names of six castes : Kshatriya, Brahman, Vais"ya, Sudra, the four 
castes familiar in Sanskrit books, together with two Candala and Pukkasa, both mixed 


Punish the worthless churl, or even slay, 
Hence hale him by the throat without delay, 

Who having gained a treasure with great toil, 
Throws it with overweening pride away! 

The king's men so did, saying, "Go back to your 
teacher, and win his forgiveness; then, if you can learn 
the charm once more, you may come hither again, but if not, 
never more may you set eyes on this country." Thus they 
banished him. 

The man was all forlorn. " There is no refuge for me," 
he thought, "except my teacher. To him I will go, and 
win his pardon, and learn the charm again." So lamenting 
he went on his way to that village. The Great Being per- 
ceived him coming, and pointed him out to his wife, saying, 
"See, lady, there comes that scoundrel again, with his 
charm lost and gone ! " The man approached the Great 
Being, and greeted him, and sat on one side. " Why are 
you here ? " asked the other. " O my teacher ! " the man 
said, "I uttered a lie, and denied my teacher, and I am 
utterly ruined and undone ! " Then he recited his trans- 
gression in a stanza, asking again for the charms : 

Oft he who thinks the level ground is lying at his foot, 
Falls in a pool, pit, precipice, trips on a rotten root ; 
Another treads what seems a cord, a jet-black snake to find; 
Another steps into the fire because his eyes are blind: 
So I have sinned, and lost my spell; but you, teacher wise, 
Forgive ! and let me once again find favour in your eyes ! 

Then his teacher replied, "What say you, my son ? Give 
but a sign to the blind, he goes clear of pools and what 

castes and much despised. More about these castes, and the Buddhist system as con- 
trasted with the Brahuiinical, may be seen in R. Pick's Sociale Gtin/, '/////</ i/ti N.-O. 
Indien zu Biuldha's Zcit, Kiel, 1897. Pick denies that the Suddas were ever a real 
caste (p. 202). For Candala, see p. 203 ; for Pukkiisa, p. 206 : both, in his opinion, 
non-Aryan subject races, serfs almost. The order of the list in our verse should 
be noticed. The Jataka gives the Khattiyas, or Warriors, precedence over the 
Brahmins. (Dr Rouse.) 


not ; but I told it to you once, and what do you want here 
now ? " Then he repeated the following stanzas : 

To you in right due manner I did tell, 
You in due manner rightly learnt the spell, 

Full willingly its nature I explained: 
Ne'er had it left you, had you acted well. 
Who with much toil, O fool! hath learnt a spell 
Full hard for those who now in this world dwell, 

Then, foolish one! a living- gained at last, 
Throws all away, because he lies will tell, 

To such a fool, unwise, of lying fain, 
Ungrateful, who cannot himself restrain, 

SpeUs, quotha! mighty spells we give not him: 
Go hence away, and ask me not again! 

Thus dismissed by his teacher, the man thought, "What 
is life to me ? " and plunging into the woods, died forlorn. 

Variant of Tib. T. xx. The Magician's Pupil. 



Once upon a time, in the kingdom of Kalinga, and in 
the city of Dantapura, reigned a king named Kalinga. 
He had two sous, named Maha-Kalinga and Culla-Kalinga, 
Kalinga the Greater and the Less. Now fortune-tellers 
had foretold that the eldest son would reign after his 
father's death; but that the youngest would live as an 
ascetic, and live by alms, yet his son would be an universal 

Time passed by, and on his father's death the eldest 
son became king, the youngest viceroy. The youngest, 
ever thinking that a son born of him was to be an 
universal monarch, grew arrogant on that account. This 
the king could not brook, so sent a messenger to arrest 
Kalinga the Less. The man came and said, " Prince, the 


king wishes to have you arrested, so save your life." The 
prince shewed the courtier charged with this mission his 
own signet ring, a fine rug, and his sword: these three. 
Then he said, "By these tokens 1 you shall know my son, 
and make him king. With these words, he sped away 
into the forest. There he built him a hut in a pleasant 
place, and lived as an ascetic upon the bank of a river. 

Now in the kingdom of Madda, and in the city of 
Sagala, a daughter was born to the King of Madda. Of 
the girl, as of the prince, fortune-tellers foretold that she 
should live as an ascetic, but her son was to be an 
universal monarch. The Kings of India, hearing this 
rumour, came together with one accord, and surrounded 
the city. The king thought to himself, "Now, if I give 
my daughter to one, all the other kings will be enraged. 
I will try to save her." So with wife and daughter he fled 
disguised away into the forest ; and after building him 
a hut some distance up the river, above the hut of Prince 
Kalinga, he lived there as an ascetic, eating what he could 
pick up. 

The parents, wishing to save their daughter, left her 
behind in the hut, and went out to gather wild fruits. 
While they were gone she gathered flowers of all kinds, 
and made them into a flower-wreath. Now on the bank 
of the Ganges there is a mango tree with beautiful flowers, 
which forms a kind of natural ladder. Upon this she 
climbed, and playing managed to drop the wreath of 
flowers into the water 2 . 

1 The tokens are a familiar feature of folk-tales. We may compare the story of 
Theseus, with his father's sword and sandals : Pausanias, i. 27. 8. (Dr Roxise.) 

2 Another familiar episode in folk-tales, but of Protean form. It is commonly a 
hair of the lady's head that falls. See Clouston, Popular Tales and Fictions, I. 241 
(India), 251 (Egypt) ; North Indian Notes and Queries, n. 704 ; Lai Behari Day, 
Folk Tales of Bengal, No. 4. (Dr Rouse.) 


One day, as Prince Kalinga was coming out of the 
river after a bath, this flower-wreath caught in his hair. 

He looked at it, and said, "Some woman made this, 
and no full-grown woman but a tender young girl. 
I must make search for her." So deeply in love he 
journeyed up the Ganges, until he heard her singing in 
a sweet voice, as she sat in the mango tree. He ap- 
proached the foot of the tree, and seeing her, said, "What 
are you, fair lady ? ' "I am human, sir," she replied. 
" Come down, then," quoth he. " Sir, I cannot ; I am of 
the warrior caste." "So am I also, lady: come down!" 
"No, no, sir, that I cannot do. Saying will not make 
a warrior; if you are so, tell me the secrets of that 
caste." Then they repeated to each other these caste 
secrets. And the princess came down, and they were 
united one with the other. 

When her parents returned she told them about this 
son of the King of Kalinga, and how he came into the 
forest, in all detail. They consented to give her to him. 
While they lived together in happy union, the princess 
conceived, and after ten months brought forth a son with 
the signs of good luck and virtue ; and they named him 
Kalinga. He grew up, and learnt all arts and accomplish- 
ments from his father and grandfather. 

At length his father knew from conjunctions of the 
stars that his brother was dead. So he called his son, 
and said, "My son, you must not spend your life in the 
forest. Your father's brother, Kalinga the Greater, is 
dead; you must go to Dantapura, and receive your 
hereditary kingdom." Then he gave him the things he 
had brought away with him, signet, rug, and sword, saying, 
"My son, in the city of Dantapura, in such a street, lives 
a courtier who is my very good servant. Descend into his 


house and enter his bedchamber, and shew him these 
three things and tell him you are my son. He will place 
you upon the throne." 

The lad bade farewell to his parents and grandparents; 
by the magic power of his virtue he passed through the 
air, and descending into the house of that courtier entered 
his bedchamber. "Who are vou?" asked the other. "The 


son of Kalinga the Less," said he, disclosing the three 
tokens. The courtier told it to the palace, and all those 
of the court decorated the city and spread the umbrella 
of royalty over his head. Then the family priest, who 
was named Kalinga-bharadvaja, taught him the ten cere- 
monies which an universal monarch has to perform, and 
he fulfilled those duties. Then on the fifteenth day, the 
fast-day, came to him from Cakkadaha the precious 
Wheel of Empire, from the Uposatha stock the pre- 
cious Elephant, from the royal Valaha breed the precious 
Horse, from Yepulla the precious Jewel ; and the 
precious wife, retinue, and prince made their appearance 1 . 
Then he achieved sovereignty in the whole terrestrial 

One day, surrounded by a company which covered 
six-and-thirty leagues, and mounted upon an elephant 
all white, tall as a peak of Mount Kelasa, in great pomp 
and splendour he went to visit his parents. But beyond 
the circuit around the great bo-tree, the throne of victory 
of all the Buddhas, which has become the very navel of 
the earth, beyond this the elephant was unable to pass : 
again and again the king urged him on, but pass he 
could not. 

1 For an account of the Cakkavatti (universal monarch), and the miracles at his 
appearing, consult Hardy's Manual, 126 ff. See also Rhys Davids on the Questions 
Of Milinda, vol. i. p. 59 (he renders the last two treasurer and adviser], and 
Sudd/list Suttas, p. 257. (Dr Rouse.) 



Hereupon the king's chaplain, who was travelling with 
the king, thought to himself, " In the air is no hindrance ; 
why cannot the king make his elephant go on? I will 
go, and see." Then, descending from the air, he beheld 
the throne of victory of all Buddhas, the navel of the 
earth, that circuit around the great bo-tree. At that 
time, it is said, for the space of a royal karlsa was never 
a blade of grass, not so big as a hare's whisker ; it seemed 
as it were a smooth-spread sand bright like a silver plate ; 
but on all sides were grass, creepers, mighty trees like the 
lords of the forest, as though standing in reverent wise 
all about with their faces turned towards the throne of 
the bo-tree. When the brahmin beheld this spot of 
earth, "This," thought he, "is the place where all the 
Buddhas have crushed all the desires of the flesh ; and 
beyond this none can pass, no not if he were Sakka 
himself." Then approaching the king, he told him the 
quality of the bo-tree circuit, and bade him descend. 

Pierced and pierced again by the king, this elephant 
could not endure the pain, and so died ; but the king 
knew not he was dead, and sat there still on his back. 
Then Kalinga-bharadvaja said, " O great king ! your 
elephant is dead ; pass on to another." 

By the magical power of the king's virtue, another 
beast of the Uposatha breed appeared and offered his 
back. The king sat on his back. At that moment the 
dead elephant fell upon the earth. 

Thereupon the king came down from the air, and 
beholding the precinct of the bo-tree, and the miracle 
that was done, he praised Bharadvaja, saying, 

To Kalinga-bharadvaja king- Kaliriga thus did say: 

"All thou know'st and understandest, and thou seest all alway." 

Now the brahmin would not accept this praise; but 


standing in his own humble place, he extolled the 
Buddhas, and praised them. 

The king, hearing the virtues of the Buddhas, was 
delighted in heart ; and he caused all the dwellers in the 
world to bring fragrant wreaths in plenty, and for seven 
days he made them do worship at the circuit of the Great 

Having in this manner done worship to the Great 
Bo-tree, he visited his parents, and took them back with 
him again to Dantapura; where he gave alms and did 
good deeds, until he was born again in the Heaven of 
the Thirty-Three. 

This tale is said to have been told by the Buddha when Ananda caused a fruit of 
the great bo-tree to be plapted at the Jetavana monastery, so that the people who 
wished to reverence the Buddha might place their offerings there when he was 


Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta was king of 
Benares, his family priest was tawny-brown and had lost 
all his teeth. His wife committed sin with another brah- 
min. This man was just like the other. The priest tried 
times and again to restrain his wife, but could not. Then 
he thought, "This my enemy I cannot kill with my own 
hands, but I must devise some plan to kill him." 

So he came before the king, and said, "O king, your 
city is the chiefest city of all India, and you are the chiefest 
king : but chief king though you are, your southern gate 
is unlucky, and ill put together." "Well now, my teacher, 
what is to be done?" "You must bring good luck into it 
and set it right." "What is to be done?" "We must pull 
down the old door, get new and lucky timbers, do sacrifice 


to the spirits that guard the city, and set up the new on 
a lucky conjunction of the stars." "So do, then," said 
the king. 

At that time, the Bodhisatta was a young man named 
Takkariya, who was studying under this man. 

Now the priest caused the old gate to be pulled down, 
and the new was made ready; which done, he went and 
said to the king, "The gate is ready, my lord: to-morrow 
is an auspicious conjunction ; before the morrow is over, 
we must do sacrifice and set up the new gate." "Well, my 
teacher, and what is necessary for the rite?" "My lord, a 
great gate is possessed and guarded by great divinities. 
A brahmin, tawny-brown and toothless, of pure blood on 
both sides, must be killed ; his flesh and blood must be 
offered in sacrifice, and his body laid beneath, and the 
gate raised upon it. This will bring luck to you and 
your city 1 ." "Very well, my teacher, have such a brahmin 
slain, and set up the gate upon him." 

The priest was delighted. "To-morrow," said he, "I 
shall see the back of my enemy!" Full of energy he 
returned to his home, but could not keep a still tongue 
in his head, and said quickly to his wife, " Ah, you foul 
hag, whom will you have now to take your pleasure with ? 
To-morrow I shall kill your leman and make sacrifice of 
him." "Why will you kill an innocent man?" "The king 
has commanded me to slay and sacrifice a tawny-brown 

1 Human sacrifice at the founding of a building, or the like, must have been common 
in ancient times, so persistent are the traditions about it. For India, see Crooke, 
Intr. to Pop. Rel. and F.-L. of N. India, p. 237 and Index. When the Hooghly Bridge 
was built in Calcutta, I remember how it was commonly said by the natives that the 
builders had immured many young children in the foundations. For Greece it is 
attested by modern folk-songs such as the Bridge of Arta (Passow, Carm. Pop. Gr. 
no. 512), and one which I lately wrote down in Cos from oral tradition (published in 
Folk-Lore for 1899). The sacrifice is meant to propitiate the spirits disturbed by the 
digging. See Robertson Smith, Religion of the Semites, p. 158. (Dr Rouse.) 


brahmin, and to set up the city gate upon him. Your 
leman is tawny-brown, and I mean to slay him and sacri- 
fice him." She sent her paramour a message, saying, 
" They say the king wishes to slay a tawny-brown brahmin 
in sacrifice ; if you would save your life, flee away in time, 
and with you all they who are like you." So the man did: 
the news spread abroad in the city, and all those in the 
whole city who were tawny-brown fled away. 

The priest, nothing aware of his enemy's flight, went 
early next morning to the king, and said, "My lord, in 
such a place is a tawny-brown brahmin to be found ; have 
him taken." The king sent some men for him, but they 
saw none, and returning informed the king that he was 
fled away. " Search elsewhere," said the king. All over 
the city they searched, but found none. " Search quickly!" 
said the king. "My lord," they replied, "except your 
family priest there is no such other." "A priest," quoth 
he, "cannot be killed." "What do you say, my lord? 
According to the priest, if the gate is not set up to-day, 
the city will be in danger. When the priest explained 
the matter, he said that if we let this day go by, the 
auspicious moment will not come again until the end of 
a year. The city without a gate for a year, what a chance 
for our enemies ! Let us kill some one, and sacrifice by 
the aid of some other wise brahmin, and set up the gate." 
"But is there another wise brahmin like my teacher?" 
"There is, my lord, his pupil, a young man named 
Takkariya; make him your family priest and do the 
lucky ceremony." The king sent for him, and did honour 
to him, and made him priest, and commanded to do as 
had been said. The young man went to the gate with 
a great crowd following. In the king's name they bound 
and brought the priest. The Great Being caused a pit to 


be dug in the place where the gate was to be set up, and 
a tent to be placed over it, and with his teacher entered 
into the tent. The teacher beholding the pit, and seeing 
no escape, said to the Great Being, "My aim had suc- 
ceeded. Fool that I was, I could not keep a still tongue, 
but hastily told that wicked woman. I have slain myself 
with my own weapon. Then he recited the first stanza : 

I spoke in folly, as a frog: might call 
Upon a snake i' the forest: so I fall 
Into this pit, Takkariya 1 . How true, 
Words spoken out of season one must rue! 

Then the other addressing him, recited this stanza : 

The man who out of season speaks, will go 

Like this to ruin, lamentation, woe: 

Here you should blame yourself, now you must have 

This delved pit, my teacher, for your grave. 

To these words he added yet this: "O teacher, not 
thou only, but many another likewise, has come to misery 
because he set not a watch upon his words." So saying, 
he told him a story of the past to prove it. 

Once upon a time, they say, there lived a courtesan 
in Benares named Kali, and she had a brother named 
Tundila. In one day Kali would earn a thousand pieces 
of money. Now Tundila was a debauchee, a drunkard, a 
gambler ; she gave him money, and whatever he got he 
wasted. Do what she would to restrain him, restrain him 
she could not. One day he was beaten at hazard, and 
lost the very clothes he was clad in. Wrapping about 
him a rag of loin-cloth, he repaired to his sister's house. 
But command had been given by her to her serving- 
maids, that if Tundila should come, they were to give 
him nothing, but to take him by the throat and cast him 

1 The name here is feminine, as the scholiast notes without explanation. 


out. And so they did: he stood by the threshold, and 
made his moan. Now a certain gild-merchant's son, who 
used constantly to give Kali a thousand pieces of money, 
on that day happened to see him, and says he, " Why are 
you weeping, Tundila?" "Master," said he, "I have been 
beaten at the dice, and came to my sister ; and the serv- 
ing-maids took me by the throat and cast me out." 
" Well, stay here," quoth the other, " and I will speak to 
your sister." He entered the house, and said, "Your 
brother stands waiting, clad in a rag of loin-cloth. Why 
do you not give him something to wear?" "Indeed," she 
replied, " I will give nothing. If you are fond of him, give 
it vourself." Now in that house of ill fame the fashion 


was this : out of every thousand pieces of money received, 
five hundred were for the woman, five hundred were the 
price of clothes, perfumes and garlands; the men who 
visited that house received garments to clothe themselves 
in, and stayed the night there, then on the next day they 
put off" the garments they had received, and put on those 
they had brought, and went their ways. On this occasion 
the merchant's son put on the garments provided for him, 
and gave his own clothes to Tundila. He put them on, 
and with loud shouts hastened to the tavern. But Kali 
ordered her women that when the young man should 
depart next day, they should take away his clothes. 
Accordingly, when he came forth, they ran up from this 
side and that, like so many robbers, and took the clothes 
from him, and stript him naked, saying, " Now, young sir, 
be off!" Thus they got rid of him. Away he went naked: 
the people made sport of him, and he was ashamed, and 
lamented, saying, " It is my own doing, because I could 
not keep watch over my lips!" To make this clear, the 
Great Being recited the third stanza: 


Why ask of Tundila how he should fare 

At Kalika his sister's hands? now see! 
My clothes are gone, naked am I and bare ; 

'Tis very like what happened late to thee. 

Another person relates this story. By carelessness of 
the goat-herds, two rams fell a-fighting on a pasture at 
Benares. As they Avere hard at it, a certain bird, a 
fork-tail, thought to himself, " These two will crack their 
polls and perish ; I must restrain them." So he tried to 
restrain them by calling out "Uncle, don't fight!" Not 
a word he got from them : in the midst of the battle, 
mounting first on the back, then on the head, he besought 
them to stop, but could do nothing. At last he cried, 
"Fight, then, but kill me first!" and placed himself 
between the two heads. They went on butting away at 
each other. The bird was crushed as by a pounder, and 
came to destruction by his own act. To explain this 
other tale the Great Being repeated the fourth stanza: 

Between two fighting- rams a fork-tail flew, 
Though in the fray he had no part nor share. 
The two rams' heads did crush him then and there. 
He in his fate was very like to you ! 

Another. There was a tal-tree which the cow-herds 
set great store by. The people of Benares seeing it sent 
a certain man up the tree to gather fruit. As he was 
throwing down the fruit, a black snake issuing forth from 
an ant-hill began to ascend the tree; they who stood 
below tried to drive him off striking at him with sticks 
and other things, but could not. Then they called out to 
the other, "A snake is climbing the tree !" and he in terror 
uttered a loud cry. Those who stood below seized a 
stout cloth by the four corners, and bade him fall into 
the cloth. He let himself drop, and fell in the midst of 
the cloth between the four of them ; swift as the wind he 

F. & T. 23 


came, and the men could not hold him, but j oiled their 
four heads together and broke them, and so died. To 
explain this story the Great Being recited the fifth 
stanza : 

Four men, to save a fellow from his fate, 

Held the four corners of a cloth below. 
They all fell dead, each with a broken pate. 

These men were very like to you, I trow. 

Others again tell this. Some goat-thieves who lived at 
Benares having stolen a she-goat one night, determined to 
make a meal in the forest : to prevent her bleating they 
muffled her snout and tied her up in a bamboo clump. 
Next day, on their way to kill her, they forgot the chopper. 
"Now we'll kill the goat and cook her," said they; "bring 
the chopper here ! " But nobody had one. " Without a 
chopper," said they, "we cannot eat the beast, even if 
we kill her : let her go ! this is due to some merit of hers." 
So they let her go. Now it happened that a worker in 
bamboos, who had been there for a bundle of them, left 
a basket-maker's knife there hidden among the leaves, 
intending to use it when he came again. But the goat, 
thinking herself to be free, began playing about under 
the bamboo clump, and kicking with her hind legs made 
the knife drop. The thieves heard the sound of the 
falling knife, and on coming to find out what it was, saw 
it, to their great delight ; then they killed the goat, and 
ate her flesh. Thus to explain how this she-goat was 
killed by her own act, the Great Being recited the sixth 
stanza : 

A she-goat, in a bamboo thicket bound, 
Frisking- about, herself a knife had found. 
With that same knife they cut the creature's throat. 
It strikes me you are very like that goat. 


After recounting this, he explained, " But they who are 
moderate of speech, by watching their words have often 
been freed from the fate of death," and then told a story 
of fairies. 

A hunter, we are told, who lived in Benares, being 
once in the region of Himalaya, by some means or other 
captured a brace of supernatural beings, a fairy and 
her husband; and them he took and presented to the 
king. The king had never seen such beings before. 
"Hunter," quoth he, "what kind of creatures are these?" 
Said the man, " My lord, these can sing with a honey-voice, 
they dance delightfully: no men are able to dance or sing 
as they can." The king bestowed a great reward on the 
hunter, and commanded the fairies to sing and dance. But 
they thought, "If we are not able to convey the full sense of 
our song, the song will be a failure, they will abuse and hurt 
us; and then again, those who speak much speak falsely": 
so for fear of some falsehood or other they neither sang 
nor danced, for all the king begged them again and again. 
At last the king grew angry, and said, "Kill these creatures, 
and cook them, and serve them up to me." This com- 
mand he delivered in the words of the seventh stanza: 

No gods are these nor heaven's musicianers, 
Beasts brought by one who fain would fill his purse. 
So for my supper let them cook me one, 
And one for breakfast by the morrow's sun. 

Then the fairy-dame thought to herself, "Now the 
king is angry; without doubt he will kill us. Now it is 
time to speak." And immediately she recited a stanza: 

A hundred thousand ditties all sung wrong 
All are not worth a tithe of one good song. 
To sing ill is a crime; and this is why 
(Not out of folly) fairy would not try. 



The king, pleased with the fairy, at once recited a 
stanza : 

She that hath spoken, let her go, that she 
The Himalaya hill again may see, 
But let them take and kill the other one, 
And for to-morrow's breakfast have him done. 

But the other fairy thought, "If I hold my tongue, 
surely the king will kill me; now is the time to speak"; 
and then he recited another stanza : 

The kine depend upon the clouds l , and men upon the kine, 
And I, king! depend on thee, on me this wife of J mine. 
Let one, before he seek the hills, the other's fate divine. 

When he had said this, he repeated a couple of 
stanzas, to make it clear, that they had been silent not 
from unwillingness to obey the king's word, but because 
they saw that speaking would be a mistake. 

monarch! other peoples, other ways: 

'Tis very hard to keep you clear of blame. 
The very thing which for the one wins praise, 

Another finds reproof for just the same. 
Some one there is who each man foolish finds; 

Each by imagination different still; 
All different, many men and many minds, 

No universal law is one man's will. 

Quoth the king, " He speaks the truth ; 'tis a sapient 
fairy"; and much pleased he recited the last stanza: 

Silent they were, the fairy and his mate: 
And he who now did utter speech for fear, 

Unhurt, free, happy, let him go his gait. 
This is the speech brings good, as oft we hear. 

Then the king placed the two fairies in a golden cage, 
and sending for the huntsman, made him set them free in 
the same place where he had caught them. 

1 Because their food (grass etc.) depends on rain. 


The Great Being added, "See, my teacher! In this 
manner the fairies kept watch on their words, and by 
speaking at the right time were set free for their well 
speaking; but you by your ill speaking have come to 
great misery." Then after shewing him this parallel, he 
comforted him, saying, " Fear not, my teacher ; I will save 
your life." "Is there indeed a way," asked the other, 
"how you can save me?" He replied, "It is not yet the 
proper conjunction of the planets." He let the day go 
by, and in the middle watch of the night brought thither 
a dead goat. "Go when you will, brahmin, and live," said 
he, then let him go and never a soul the wiser. And he 
did sacrifice with the flesh of the goat, and set up the gate 
upon it. 

The second story is a variant of P. (T.) i. 3 b, where a jackal hoping for flesh 
comes between two fighting rams and is killed. K. D. (Syr.) i. 3 6, (Arab.) v. Of. the 
gathas of the tale in Julien 33 (variant of Jat. 404), "Lorsque deux beliers luttent 
ensemble, les mouches et les fourmis perissent au milieu d'eux," and J. Grimm on 
Reinhart Fuchs, p. cclxxvi. The story of the she-goat occurs in Zenobius, Prov. 
Cent. i. 27, as an explanation of the proverb at| TT/V /xa^aipai/. A goat being 
sacrificed by the Corinthians to Acraean Hera kicks and reveals the knife, which had 
been mislaid. See Pischel in ZDMG. XLVII. 86. 


Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta was king of 
Benares, certain men of the marches used to make a 
settlement, wheresoever they could best find much meat, 
dwelling in the forest, and killing for meat for themselves 
and their families the game which abounded there. Not 
far from their village was a large natural lake, and upon 
its southward shore lived a Hawk, on the west a she-hawk ; 
on the north a Lion, king of the beasts ; on the east an 


Osprey, king of the birds ; in the middle dwelt a Tortoise 
on a small island. The Hawk asked the she-hawk to 
become his wife. She asked him, " Have you any friend ? " 
" No, madam," he replied. " We must have some one who 
can defend us against any danger or trouble that may 
arise, and you must find some friends." "Whom shall 
I make friends with ? " " Why, with king Osprey who lives 
on the eastern shore, and with the Lion on the north, and 
with the Tortoise who dwells in the middle of this lake." 
He took her advice and did so. Then the two lived 
together (it should be said that on a little islet in the 
same lake grew a kadamba tree, surrounded by the water 
on all sides) in a nest which they made. 

Afterwards there were given to them two sons. One 
day, while the wings of the younglings were yet callow, 
some of the country folk went foraging through the woods 
all day and found nothing. Not wishing to return home 
empty-handed, they went down to the lake to catch a fish 
or a tortoise. They got on the island, and lay down 
beneath the kadamba tree; and there being tormented 
by the bites of gnats and mosquitoes, to drive these away, 
they kindled a fire by rubbing sticks together, and made 
a smoke. The smoke rising annoyed the birds, and the 
young ones uttered a cry. " 'Tis the cry of birds ! " said 
the country folk. " Up, make up the fire : we cannot lie 
here hungry, but before we lie down we will have a meal 
of fowls' flesh." They made the fire blaze, and built it up. 
But the mother bird hearing the sound, thought, " These 
men wish to eat our young ones. We made friends to 
save us from that danger. I will send my mate to the 
great Osprey." Then she said, " Go, my husband, tell 
the Osprey of the danger which threatens our young" 
repeating this stanza: 


The country churls build fires upon the isle, 
To eat my young ones in a little while : 
Hawk! to friend and comrade give the word, 
My children's danger tell to every bird! 

The cock-bird flew at all speed to the place, and gave 
a cry to announce his arrival. Leave given, he came near 
to the Osprey, and made his greeting. " Why have you 
come?" asked the Osprey. Then the cock repeated the 
second stanza: 

winged fowl! chiefest of birds art thou: 
So, Osprey king, I seek thy shelter now. 
Some country-folk a-hunting now are fain 
To eat my young: be thou my joy again! 

"Fear not," said the Osprey to the Hawk, and consoling 
him he repeated the third stanza : 

In season, out of season, wise men make 
Both friends and comrades for protection's sake : 
For thee, Hawk! I will perform this deed; 
The good must help each other at their need. 

Then he went on to ask, " Have the churls climbed up 
the tree, my friend ? " " They are not climbing yet ; they 
are just piling wood on the fire." "Then you had better 
go quickly and comfort my friend your mate, and say 
I am coming." He did so. The Osprey went also, and 
from a place near to the kadamba tree he watched for 
the men to climb, sitting upon a tree-top. Just as one 
of the boors who was climbing the tree had come near 
to the nest, the Osprey dived into the lake, and from 
wings and beak sprinkled water over the burning brands, 
so that they were put out. Down came the men, and 
made another fire to cook the bird and its young ; when 
they climbed again, once more the Osprey demolished the 
fire. So whenever a fire was made, the bird put it out, 
and midnight came. The bird was much distressed : the 


skin under his stomach had become quite thin, his eyes 
were blood-shot. Seeing him, the hen-bird said to her 
mate, " My lord, the Osprey is tired out ; go and tell the 
Tortoise, that he may have a rest." When he heard 
this, the bird approaching the Osprey, addressed him in 
a stanza: 

Good help the good: the necessary deed 
Thou hast in pity done for us at need. 
Our young are safe, thou living: have a care 
Of thy own self, nor all thy strength outwear. 

On hearing these words, loud as a lion's roar he 
repeated the fifth stanza : 

While I am keeping guard about this tree, 
I care not if I lose my life for thee: 
So use the good: thus friend will do for friend: 
Yea, even if he perish at the end. 

Then the Hawk said, "Rest awhile, friend Osprey," 
and then away to the Tortoise, whom he aroused. " What 
is your errand, friend ? " asked the Tortoise. " Such and 
such a danger has come upon us, and the royal Osprey 
has been labouring hard ever since the first watch, and is 
very weary ; that is why I have come to you." With these 
words he repeated the seventh stanza : 

Even they who fall through sin or evil deed 
May rise if friends will help them in their need. 
My young in danger, straight I fly to thee: 
dweller in the lake, come, succour me! 

On hearing this the Tortoise repeated another stanza : 

The wise man to a man who is his friend, 
Both food and goods, even life itself, will lend. 
For thee, Hawk! I will perform this deed: 
The good must help each other at their need. 

His son, who lay not far off, hearing the words of his 
father, thought, "I would not have my father troubled, 


but I will do my father's part," and therefore he repeated 
the ninth stanza : 

Here at thy ease remain, father mine, 
And I thy son will do this task of thine. 
A son should serve a father, so 'tis best; 
I'll save the Hawk his young- ones in the nest. 

The father Tortoise addressed his son in a stanza : 

So do the good, niy son, and it is true 

That son for father service ought to do. 

Yet they may leave the Hawk's young' brood alone, 

Perchance, if they see me so fully grown. 

With these words the Tortoise sent the Hawk away, 
adding, "Fear not, my friend, but go you before and 
I will come presently after." He dived into the water, 
collected some mud, and went to the island, quenched the 
flame, and lay still. Then the countrymen cried, " Why 
should we trouble about the young hawks? Let us roll 
over this one-eyed Tortoise, and kill him! He will be 
enough for all." So they plucked some creepers and 
got some strings, but when they had made them fast in 
this place or that, and torn their clothes to strips for the 
purpose, they could not roll the Tortoise over. The 
Tortoise lugged them along with him and plunged in 
deep water. The men were so eager to get him that in 
they fell after: splashed about, and scrambled out with 
a bellyful of water. " Just look," said they : " half the 
night one Osprey kept putting out our fire, and now this 
Tortoise has made us fall into the water, and swallow it, 
to our great discomfort. Well, we will light another fire, 
and at sunrise we will eat those young hawks." Then 
they began to make a fire. The hen-bird heard the 
noise they were making, and said, "My husband, sooner 
or later these men will devour our young and depart : 
you go and tell our friend the Lion." At once he went 


to the Lion, who asked him why he came at such an 
unseasonable hour. The bird told him all from the be- 
ginning, and repeated the eleventh stanza: 

Mightiest of all the beasts, both beasts and men 
Fly to the strongest when beset with fear. 

My young ones are in danger; help ine then: 
Thou art our king, and therefore I am here. 

This said, the Lion repeated a stanza : 

Yes, I will do this service, Hawk, for thee: 
Come, let us go and slay this gang of foes! 
Surely the prudent, he who wisdom knows, 

Protector of a friend must try to be. 

Having thus spoken, he dismissed him, saying, "Now 
go, and comfort your young ones." Then he went 
forward, churning up the crystal water. When the 
churls perceived him approaching, they were frightened 
to death: "The Osprey," they cried, "put out our fire- 
brands; the Tortoise made us lose the clothes we had 
on: but now we are done for. This Lion will destroy 
us at once." They ran this way and that : when the Lion 
came to the foot of the tree, nothing could he see. Then 
the Osprey, the Hawk, and the Tortoise came up, and 
accosted him. He told them the profitableness of friend- 
ship, and said, "From this time forth be careful never 
to break the bonds of friendship." With this advice he 
departed : and they also went each to his own place. 
The hen-hawk looking upon her young, thought" Ah, 
through friends have my young been given back to me !" 
and as she rejoiced, she spoke to her mate, and recited 
six stanzas declaring the effect of friendship : 

Get friends, a houseful of them without fail, 
Get a great friend: a blessing he'll be found: 

Vain strike the arrows on a coat of mail. 
And we rejoice, our younglings safe and sound. 


Through the kind help of their own friend, who stayed to take 

their part, 
The old birds chirp, the young- reply, with notes that charm the 


The wise asks help at friend's or comrade's hand, 
Lives happy with his goods and brood of kind: 

So I, my mate, and young, together stand, 
Because our friend to pity was inclined. 

A man needs king and warriors for protection: 
And these are his whose friendship is perfection: 
Thou cravest happiness : he is famed and strong ; 
He surely prospers to whom friends belong. 

Even by the poor and weak, Hawk, good friends must needs 

be found: 
By a friend's kindness we and ours, behold, are safe and sound. 

The bird who wins a hero strong to play a friendly part, 
As thou and I are happy, Hawk, is happy in his heart. 

So she declared the quality of friendship in six stanzas. 
And all this company of friends lived all their lives long 
without breaking the bond of friendship, and then passed 
away according to their deeds. 

Cf. friendship among animals in Jat. 206, 357. 


Once upon a time, there reigned a king Suruci in 
Mithila. This king, having a son born to him, gave him 
the name of Suruci-Kumara, or Prince Splendid. When 
he grew up, he determined to study at Takkasila ; so 
thither he went, and sat down in a hall at the city gate. 
Now the son of the king of Benares also, whose name was 
Prince Brahmadatta, went to the same place, and took 
his seat on the same bench where Prince Suruci sat. 
They entered into converse together, and became friends, 


and went both together to the teacher. They paid the 
fee, and studied, and ere long their education was com- 
plete. Then they took leave of their teacher, and went 
on their road together. After travelling thus a short 
distance, they came to a stop at a place where the road 
parted. Then they embraced, and in order to keep their 
friendship alive they made a compact together: "If 
I have a son and you a daughter, or if you have a son 
and I a daughter, we will make a match of it between 

When they were on the throne, a son was born to king 
Suruci, and to him also the name of Prince Suruci was 
given. Brahmadatta had a daughter, and her name was 
Sumedha, the Wise Lady. Prince Suruci in due time 
grew up, went to Takkasila for his education, and that 
finished returned. Then his father, wishing to mark out 
his son for king by ceremonial sprinkling, thought to 
himself, " My friend the king of Benares has a daughter 
so they say : I will make her my son's consort." For this 
purpose he sent an ambassade with rich gifts. 

But before they had yet come, the king of Benares 
asked his queen this question : " Lady, what is the worse 
misery for a woman ? " " To quarrel with her fellow- 
wives." "Then, my lady, to save our only daughter the 
Princess Sumedha from this misery, we will give her to 
none but him that will have her and no other." So when 
the ambassadors came, and named the name of his 
daughter, he told them, " Good friends, indeed it is true 
I promised my daughter to my old friend long ago. But 
we have no wish to cast her into the midst of a crowd 
of women, and we will give her only to one who will wed 
her and no other." This message they brought back to 
the king. But the king was displeased. "Ours is a 


great kingdom," said he, " the city of Mithila covers seven 
leagues, the measure of the whole kingdom is three 
hundred leagues. Such a king should have sixteen 
thousand women at the least." But Prince Suruci, 
hearing the great beauty of Sumedha, fell in love from 
hearing of it only. So he sent word to his parents, saying, 
" I will take her and no other : what do I want with 
a multitude of women ? Let her be brought." They did 
not thwart his desire, but sent a rich present and a great 
ambassade to bring her home. Then she was made his 
queen-consort, and they were both together consecrated 
by sprinkling. 

He became king Suruci, and ruling in justice lived 
a life of high happiness with his queen. But although 
she dwelt in his palace for ten thousand years, never son 
nor daughter she had of him. 

Then all the townsfolk gathered together in the palace 
courtyard, with upbraidings. " What is it ? " the king 
asked. " Fault we have no other to find," said they, " but 
this, that you have no son to keep up your line. You 
have but one queen, yet a royal prince should have 
sixteen thousand at the least. Choose a company of women, 
my lord : some worthy wife will bring you a son." " Dear 
friends, what is this you say ? I passed my word I would 
take no other but one, and on those terms I got her. 
I cannot lie, no host of women for me." So he refused 
their request, and they departed. But Sumedha heard 
what was said. "The king refuses to choose him other 
wives for his truth's sake," thought she ; " well, I will find 
him some one." Playing the part of mother and wife 
to the king, she chose at her own will a thousand maidens 
of the warrior caste, a thousand of the courtiers, a 
thousand daughters of householders, a thousand of all 


kinds of dancing girls, four thousand in all, and delivered 
them to him. And all these dwelt in the palace for ten 
thousand years, and never a son or daughter they brought 
between them. In this way she three times brought four 
thousand maidens, but they had neither son nor daughter. 
Thus she brought him sixteen thousand wives in all. 
Forty thousand years went by, that is to say, fifty 
thousand in all, counting the ten thousand he had lived with 
her alone. Then the townsfolk a^ain Gathered together 

o o o 

with reproaches. " What is it now ? " the king asked. 
"My lord, command your women to pray for a son." 
The king was not unwilling, and commanded so to pray. 
Thenceforward praying for a son, they worship all 
manner of deities and offer all kinds of vows; yet no 
son appeared. Then the king commanded Sumedha to 
pray for a son. She consented. On the fast of the 
fifteenth day of the month, she took upon her the eight- 
fold sabbath vows 1 , and sat meditating upon the virtues 
in a magnificent room upon a pleasant couch. The 
others were in the park, vowing to do sacrifice with 
goats or kine. By the glory of Sumedha's virtue Sakka's 
dwelling place began to tremble. Sakka pondered, and 
understood that Sumedha prayed for a son; well, she 
should have one. " But I cannot give her this or that 
son indifferently; I will search for one which shall be 
suitable." Then he saw a young god called Nalakara, 
the Basket-weaver. He was a being endowed with merit, 
who in a former life lived in Benares, when this befell him. 
At seed-time as he was on his way to the fields he per- 
ceived a Pacceka Buddha 2 . He sent on his hinds, bidding 

1 The eight sUani : against taking life, theft, impurity, lying, intoxicating liquors, 
eating at forbidden hours, worldly amusements, unguents and ornaments. The first 
five are always binding on lay-disciples. The others are assumed on the fast-days. 

2 One who has attained the enlightenment of a Buddha, but does not preach. 


them sow the seed, but himself turned back, and led the 
Pacceka Buddha home, and gave him to eat, and then 
conducted him again to the Ganges bank. He and his son 
together made a hut, trunks of fig-trees for the foundation 
and reeds interwoven for the walls; a door he put to it, 
and made a path for walking. There for three months 
he made the Pacceka Buddha dwell ; and after the rains 
were over, the two of them, father and son, put on him 
the three robes and let him go. In the same manner 
they entertained seven Pacceka Buddhas in that hut, and 
gave them the three robes, and let them go their ways. 
So men still tell how these two, father and son, turned 
basket-weavers, and hunted for osiers on the banks of the 
Ganges, and whenever they spied a Pacceka Buddha did 
as we have said. When they died, they were born in the 
heaven of the Thirty-Three, and dwelt in the six heavens 
of sense one after the other in direct and in reverse 
succession, enjoying great majesty among the gods. 
These two after dying in that region were desirous of 
winning to the upper god-world. Sakka perceiving that 
one of them would be the Tathagata, went to the door 
of their mansion, and saluting him as he arose and came 
to meet him, said, "Sir, you must go into the world of 
men." But he said, " O king, the world of men is hateful 
and loathsome ; they who dwell there do good and give 
alms longing for the world of the gods. What shall I 
do w T hen I get there?" "Sir, you shall enjoy there all 
that can be enjoyed in the world of gods; you shall dwell 
in a palace made with stones of price, five and twenty 
leagues in height. Do consent." He consented. When 
Sakka had received his promise, in the guise of a sage 
he descended into the king's park, and shewed himself 
soaring above those women to and fro in the air, while he 


chanted, " To whom shall I give the blessing of a son, who 
craves the blessing of a son ? " " To me, Sir, to me ! " 
thousands of hands were uplifted. Then he said, " I give 
sons to the virtuous : what is your virtue, what your life 
and conversation?" They drew down their uplifted 
hands, saying, "If you would reward virtue, go seek 
Sumedha." He went his ways through the air, and stayed 
at the window of her bedchamber. Then thev went and 


told her, saying, "See, my lady, a king of the gods has 
come down through the air, and stands at your bed- 
chamber window, offering you the boon of a son !" With 
great pomp she proceeded thither, and opening the Avindow, 
said, " Is this true, Sir, that I hear, how you offer the 
blessing of a son to a virtuous woman ? " " It is, and so 
I do." "Then grant it to me." "What is your virtue, 
tell me ; and if you please me, I grant you the boon." 
Then declaring her virtue she recited these fifteen 

I am king- Ruci's consort-queen, the first he ever wed; 
With Suruci ten thousand years my wedded life I led. 

Suruci king of Mithila, Videha's chief est place, 

I never lightly held his wish, nor deemed him mean or base, 

In deed or thought or word, behind his back, nor to his face. 

If this be true, holy one, so may that son be given: 

But if my lips are speaking lies, then burst my head in seven. 

The parents of my husband dear, so long as they held sway, 
And while they lived, would ever give me training in the Way. 

My passion was to hurt no life, and willingly do right: 

I served them with extreniest care unwearied day and night. 

If this be true, etc. 

No less than sixteen thousand dames my fellow-wives have been: 
Yet, brahmin, never jealousy nor anger came between. 
At their good fortune I rejoice; each one of them is dear; 
My heart is soft to all these wives as though myself it were. 

If this be true, etc. 


Slaves, messengers, and servants all, and all about the place, 
I give them food, I treat them well, with cheerful pleasant face. 

If this be true, etc. 

Ascetics, brahmins, any man who begging 1 here is seen, 

I comfort all with food and drink, my hands all washen clean. 

If this be true, etc. 

The eighth of either fortnight, the fourteenth, fifteenth days, 
And the especial fast I keep, I walk in holy ways. 

If this be true, holy one, so may that son be given: 

But if niy lips are speaking lies, then burst my head in seven. 

Indeed not a hundred verses, nor a thousand, could 
suffice to sing the praise of her virtues: yet Sakka 
allowed her to sing her own praises in these fifteen 
stanzas, nor did he cut the tale short though he had much 
to do elsewhere; then he said, "Abundant and marvellous 
are your virtues"; then in her praise he recited a couple 
of stanzas: 

All these great virtues, glorious dame, daughter of a king, 
Are found in thee, which of thyself, lady, thou dost sing. 

A warrior, born of noble blood, all glorious and wise, 
Videha's righteous emperor, thy son, shall soon arise. 

When these words she heard, in great joy she recited 
two stanzas, putting a question to him : 

Unkempt, with dust and dirt begrimed, high-poised in the sky, 
Thou speakest in a lovely voice that pricks me to the heart. 

Art thou a mighty god, sage and dwellst in heaven on high? 
O tell me whence thou comest here, tell me who thou art! 

He told her in six stanzas : 

Sakka the Hundred-eyed thou seest, for so the gods me call 
When they are wont to assemble in the heavenly judgment hall. 

When women virtuous, wise, and good here in the world are 

True wives, to husband's mother kind even as in duty bound, 

When such a woman wise of heart and good in deed they know, 
To her, though woman, they divine, the gods themselves will go. 

F. & T. 24 


So lady, thou, through worthy life, through store of good deeds 

A princess born, all happiness the heart can wish, hast won. 

So thou dost reap thy deeds, princess, by glory on the earth, 
And after in the world of gods a new and heavenly birth. 

wise, blessed! so live on, preserve thy conduct right: 
Now I to heaven must return, delighted with thy sight. 

"I have business to do in the world of gods," quoth 
he, " therefore I go ; but do thou be vigilant." With this 
advice he departed. 

In the morning time, the god Nalakara came down 
and was conceived. When she discovered it, she told the 
king, and he did what was necessary for a woman in her 
state 1 . At the end of ten months she brought forth 
a son, and they gave him Maha-panada to his name. 
All the people of the two countries came crying out, 
"My lord, we bring this for the boy's milk-money," and 
each dropt a coin in the king's courtyard: a great heap 
there was of them. The king did not wish to accept this, 
but they would not take the money back, but said as they 
departed, "When the boy grows up, my lord, it will pay 
for his keep." 

The lad was brought up amid great magnificence ; and 
when he came of years, aye, no more than sixteen, he was 
perfect in all accomplishments. The king thinking of his 
son's age, said to the queen, "My lady, when the time 
comes for the ceremonial sprinkling of our son, let us 
make him a fine palace for that occasion." She was quite 
willing. The king sent for those who had skill in divining 
the lucky place for a building 2 , and said to them: "My 

1 See Jat. 151, p. 131. There was a ceremony called garbharaksana which pro- 
tected against abortion (Bvihler, Ritual-Litter atur, in Grundriss der indo-arisch. 
Philologie, p. 43). (Dr Rouse.) 

2 Cf. Jat. 257, p. 198. 


friends, get a master-mason, and build me a palace not 
far from my own. This is for my son, whom we are about 
to consecrate as my successor." They said it was well, 
and proceeded to examine the surface of the ground. 
At that moment Sakka's throne became hot. Perceiving 
this, he at once summoned Yissakamma 1 , and said, "Go, 
my good Vissakamma, make for Prince Maha-panada 
a palace half a league in length and breadth and five 
and twenty leagues in height, all with stones of price." 
Vissakamma took on the shape of a mason, and ap- 
proaching the workmen said, " Go and eat your breakfast, 
then return." Having thus got rid of the men, he struck 
on the earth with his staff; in that instant up rose a 
palace, seven storeys high, of the aforesaid size. Now 
for Maha-panada these three ceremonies were done 
together: the ceremony for consecrating the palace, the 
ceremony for spreading above him the royal umbrella, 
the ceremony of his marriage. At the time of the 
ceremony all the people of both countries gathered 
together, and spent seven years a-feasting, nor did the 
king dismiss them: their clothes, their ornaments, their 
food and their drink and all the rest of it, these things 
were all provided by the royal family. At the seven 
years' end they began to grumble, and king Suruci asked 
why. " O king," they said, " while we have been revelling 
at this feast seven years have gone by. When will the 
feast come to an end ? " He answered, " My good friends, 
all this while my son has never once laughed. So soon 
as he shall laugh, we will disperse again." Then the 
crowd went beating the drum and gathered the tumblers 
and jugglers together. Thousands of tumblers were 
gathered, and they divided themselves into seven bands 

1 The celestial architect. 



and danced ; but they could not make the prince laugh. 
Of course he that had seen the dancing of dancers divine 
could not care for such dancers as these. Then came 
two clever jugglers, Bhandu-kanna and Pandu-kanna, 
Crop-ear and Yellow-ear, and said they, "We will make 
the prince laugh." Bhandu-kanna made a great mango 
tree, which he called Sanspareil, grow before the palace 
door: then he threw up a ball of string, and made it 
catch on a branch of the tree, and then up he climbed 
into the Mango Sanspareil. Now the Mango Sanspareil 
they say is Vessavana's mango 1 . And the slaves of 
Vessavana took him, as usual, chopt him up limb-meal 
and threw down the bits. The other jugglers joined the 
pieces together, and poured water upon them. The man 
donned upper and under garments of flowers, and rose 
up and began dancing again. Even the sight of this did 
not make the prince laugh. Then Pandu-kanna had 
some fire-wood piled in the courtyard and went into the 
fire with his troop. When the fire was burnt out, the 
people sprinkled the pile with water. Pandu-kanna 
with his troop rose up dancing with upper and under 
garments of flowers. When the people found they could 
not make him laugh, they grew angry. Sakka, perceiving 
this, sent down a divine dancer, bidding him make prince 
Maha-panada laugh. Then he came and remained poised 
in the air above the royal courtyard, and performed what 
is called the Half-body dance: one hand, one foot, one 
eye, one tooth, go a-dancing, throbbing, flickering to and 
fro, all the rest stone still. Maha-panada, when he saw 
this, erave a little smile. But the crowd roared and roared 

' O 

with laughter, could not cease laughing, laughed them- 

1 The juggling trick here described is spoken of by mediaeval travellers. See 
Yule's Marco Polo, vol. i. p. 308 (ed. 2). (Dr Rouse.) 


selves out of their wits, lost control of their limbs, rolled 
over and over in the royal courtyard. That was the end 
of the festival. The rest of it- 
Great Panada, mighty king, 
With his palace all of gold, 

must be explained in the Maha-panada Birth 1 . 

King Maha-panada did good and gave alms, and at his 
life's end went to the w r orld of gods. 

Of. Grimm 4, Anm., One who went out to learn what fear was. Sakka's inability 
to give a sou unconditionally resembles the beginning of Tib. T. ix. He appeals to 
Brahma, but all he can do is to induce a god, whose life is coming to an end, to go 
and be born, as he does also in the Kusa-Jataka, p. 429. Similarly in Jat. 220 
Sakka is unable to make a man with all four virtues (p. 187). 


Once upon a time, in the realm of Avanti, and the city 
of Ujjeni, reigned a great king named Avanti. At that 
time, a Candala village lay outside Ujjeni, and there the 
Great Being was born. Another person w r as born the son 
of his mother's sister. The one of these two was named 
Citta, and the other Sambhuta. 

These two when they grew up, having learnt what is 
called the art of sweeping in the Candala breed, thought 
one day they would go and shew off this art at the city 
gate. So one of them shewed off at the north gate, and 
one at the east. Now in this city were two women wise in 
the omens of sight, the one a merchant's daughter and the 
other a family priest's. These went forth to make merry 
in the park, having ordered food to be brought hard and 
soft, garlands and perfumes ; and it so happened that one 
went out by the northern gate and one the eastern. 
Seeing the two young Candalas shewing their art, the 

1 This is merely a short summary. 


girls asked "Who are these?" Candalas, they were 
informed. "This is an evil omen to see!" they said, 
and after washing their eyes with perfumed water, they 
returned back. Then the multitude cried, "O vile outcasts, 
you have made us lose food and strong drink which would 
have cost us nothing!" They belaboured the two kins- 
men, and did them much misery and mischief. When they 
recovered their senses, up they got and joined company, 
and told each the other what woe had befallen him, 
weeping and wailing, and wondering what to do now. "All 
this misery has come upon us," they thought, "because 
of our birth. We shall never be able to play the part of 
Candalas ; let us conceal our birth, and go to Takkasila 
in the disguise of young brahmins, and study there." 
Having made this decision, they went thither, and fol- 
lowed their studies in the law under a far-famed master. 
A rumour was blown abroad over India, that two young 
Candalas were students, and had concealed their birth. 

The wise Citta was successful in his studies, but Samb- 
huta not so. 

One day a villager invited the teacher, intending to 
offer food to the brahmins. Now it happened that rain 
fell in the night, and flooded all the hollows in the road. 
Early in the morning the teacher summoned wise Citta, 
and said, " My lad, I cannot go, do you go with the young 
men, and pronounce a blessing, eat what you get for your- 
self and bring home what there is for me." Accordingly 
he took the young brahmins, and went. While the young 
men bathed, and rinsed their mouths, the people prepared 
rice porridge, which they set ready for them, saying, " Let 
it cool." Before it was cool, the young men came and sat 
down. The people gave them the water of offering, and 
set the bowls in front of them. Sambhuta's wits were 


somewhat muddled, and imagining it to be cool, took up 
a ball of the rice and put it in his mouth, but it burnt him 
like a red-hot ball of metal. In his pain he forgot his 
part altogether, and glancing at wise Citta, he said, in the 
Candala dialect, "Hot, ain't it?" The other forgot himself 
too, and answered in their manner of speech, "Spit it out, 
spit it out." At this the young men looked at each other, 
and said, "What kind of language is this?" Wise Citta 
pronounced a blessing. 

When the young men came home, they gathered in 
little knots and sat here and there discussing the words 
used. Finding that it was the dialect of the Candalas, 


they cried out on them, "O vile outcasts ! you have been 
tricking us all this while, and pretending to be brahmins!" 
And they beat them both. One good man drove them 
out, saying, "Away! the blot's in the blood. Be off! Go 
somewhere and become ascetics." The young brahmins 
told their teacher that these two were Candalas. 

The pair went out into the woods, and there took up 
the ascetic life, and after no long time died, and were born 
again as the young of a doe on the banks of the Neranjara. 
From the time of their birth they always went about 
together. One day, when they had fed, a hunter espied 
them under a tree ruminating and cuddling together, very 
happy, head to head, nozzle to nozzle, horn to horn. He 
cast a javelin at them, and killed them both by one blow. 

After this they were born as the young of an osprey, 
on the bank of Nerbudda. There too, when they grew 
up, after feeding they would cuddle together, head to 
head and beak to beak. A bird snarer saw them, caught 
them together, and killed them both. 

Next the wise Citta was born at Kosambi, as the son 
of a family priest ; the wise Sambhuta was born as the 


son of the king of Uttarapaucala. From their name-days 
they could remember their former births. But Sambhuta 
was not able to remember all without breaks, and all he 
could remember was the fourth or Candala birth ; Citta 
however remembered all four in due order. When Citta 
was sixteen years old, he went away and became an ascetic 
in Himalaya, and developed the Faculty of the religious 
ecstasy, and dwelt in the bliss of ecstatic trance. Wise 
Sambhuta after his father's death had the Umbrella 
spread over him, and on the very day of the umbrella 
ceremony, in the midst of a great concourse, made a 
ceremonial hymn, and uttered two stanzas in aspiration. 
When they heard this, the royal wives and the musicians 
all chanted them, saying, "Our king's own coronation 
hymn ! " and in course of time all the citizens sang it, as 
the hymn which their king loved. Wise Citta, in his 
dwelling place in Himalaya, wondered whether his brother 
Sambhuta had assumed the Umbrella, or not. Perceiving 
that he had, he thought, "I shall never be able to instruct 
a young ruler ; but when he is old, I will visit him, and 
persuade him to be an ascetic." For fifty years he went 
not, and by that time the king was increased with sons 
and daughters; then by his supernatural power, he went, 
and alighted in the park, and sat down on the seat of 
ceremony like an image of gold. Just then a lad was 
picking up sticks, and as he did so he sang that hymn. 
Wise Citta called him to approach ; he came up with an 
obeisance, and waited. Citta said to him, "Since early 
morning you have been singing that hymn; do you know 
no other?" -"Oh yes, sir, I know many more, but these 
are the verses the king loves, that is why I sing no 
others."- -"Is there any one who can sing a refrain to the 
kings hymn?" "No, sir." "Could you?" "Yes, if I am 


taught one." -" Well, when the king chants these two 
verses, you sing this by way of a third," and he recited 
a hymn. "Now," said he, "go and sing this before the 
king, and the king will be pleased with you, and make 
much of you for it." The lad went to his mother quickly, 
and got himself drest up spick and span; then to the 
king's door, and sent in word that a lad would sing him 
a refrain to his hymn. The king said, " Let him approach." 
When the lad had come in, and saluted him, quoth the 
king, " They say you will sing me an answering refrain to 
my hymn?" "Yes, my lord," said he, "bring in the whole 
court to hear." As soon as the court had assembled, the 
lad said, "Sing your hymn, my lord, and I will answer with 
mine." The king repeated a pair of stanzas : 

Every good deed bears fruit or soon or late, 
No deed without result, aud nothing- vain: 

I see Sambhuta mighty grown and great, 
Thus do his virtues bear him fruit again. 

Every good deed bears fruit or soon or late, 
No deed without result, and nothing vain. 

Who knows if Citta also may be great, 
And like myself, his heart have brought him gain? 

At the end of this hymn, the lad chanted the third 
stanza : 

Every good deed bears fruit or soon or late, 
No deed without result, and nothing vain. 

Behold, my lord, see Citta at thy gate, 
And like thyself, his heart has brought him gain. 

On hearing this the king repeated the fourth stanza: 

Then art thou Citta, or the tale didst hear 
From him, or did some other make thee know? 

Thy hymn is very sweet: I have no fear; 
A village and a bounty 1 I bestow. 

1 Lit. a hundred (pieces of money): or (with the scholiast) "A hundred villages I 
do bestow." 


Then the lad repeated the fifth stanza: 

I am not Citta, but I heard the thing. 

It was a sage laid ou me this command 
Go and recite an answer to the king, 

And be rewarded by his grateful hand. 

Hearing this, the king thought, " It must be my brother 
Citta; now I'll go and see him"; then he laid his bidding 
upon his men in the words of these two stanzas : 

Come, yoke the royal chariots, so finely wrought and made : 
Gird up with girths the elephants, in necklets bright arrayed. 

Beat drums for joy, and let the conchs be blown, 

Prepare the swiftest chariots I own: 

For to that hermitage I will away, 

To see the sage that sits within, this day. 

So he spoke; then mounting his fine chariot, he went 
swiftly to the park gate. There he checked his chariot, 
and approached wise Citta with an obeisance, and sat 
down on one side ; greatly pleased, he recited the eighth 
stanza : 

A precious hymn it was I sang so sweet 

While thronging multitudes around me pressed; 

For now this holy sage I come to greet 

And all is joy and gladness in my breast. 

Happy from the instant he saw wise Citta, he gave all 
necessary directions, bidding prepare a seat for his brother, 
and repeated the ninth stanza: 

Accept a seat, and for your feet fresh water: it is right 
To offer gifts of food to guests: accept, as we invite. 

After this sweet invitation, the king repeated another 
stanza, offering him the half of his kingdom : 

Let them make glad the place where thou shalt dwell, 
Let throngs of waiting women wait on thee; 

let me shew thee that I love thee well, 
And let us both kings here together be. 


When he had heard these words, wise Citta discoursed 
to him in six stanzas: 

Seeing the fruit of evil deeds, king-, 
Seeing 1 what profit deeds of goodness bring-, 
I fain would exercise stern self-control, 
Sons, wealth, and cattle cannot charm my soul. 

Ten decades has this mortal life, which each to each succeed : 
This limit reached, man withers fast like to a broken reed. 

Then what is pleasure, what is love, wealth-hunting what to me? 
What sons and daughters? know, O king, from fetters I am free. 

For this is .true, I know it well death will not pass me by: 

And what is love, or what is wealth, when you must come to die ? 

The lowest race that go upon two feet 
Are the Candalas, meanest men on earth, 

When all our deeds were ripe, as guerdon meet 
We both as young Candalas had our birth. 

Candalas in Avanti land, deer by Neranjara, 

Ospreys by the Nerbudda, now brahmin and Khattiya. 

Having thus made clear his mean births in time past, 
here also in this birth he declared the impermanency of 
things created, and recited four stanzas to arouse an 

effort : 

Life is but short, and death the end must be: 
The aged have no hiding where to flee. 
Then, Pancala, what I bid thee, do: 
All deeds which grow to misery, eschew. 

Life is but short, and death the end must] be: 
The aged have no hiding where to flee. 
Then, Pancala, what I bid thee, do: 
All deeds whose fruit is misery, eschew. 

Life is but short, and death the end must be: 
The aged have no hiding where to flee. 
Then, Pancala, what I bid thee, do: 
All deeds that are with passion stained eschew. 

Life is but short, and death the end must be: 
Old age will sap our strength, we cannot flee. 
Then, O Paficala, what I bid thee, do: 
All deeds that lead to lowest hell, eschew. 


The king rejoiced as the Great Being spoke and 
repeated three stanzas: 

True is that word, Brother! which you say, 
You like a holy saint your words dictate : 

But my desires are hard to cast away 
By such as I am ; they are very great. 

As elephants deep sunken in the mire 
Cannot climb out, although they see the land: 

So, sunken in the slough of strong desire 
Upon the Brethren's Path I cannot stand. 

As father or as mother would their son 
Admonish, good and happy how to grow: 

How happiness after this life is won 
Tell me, and by which way I ought to go. 

Then the Great Being said to him: 

lord of men! thou canst not cast away 
These passions which are common to mankind: 

Let not thy people unjust taxes pay, 
Equal and righteous ruling let them find. 

Send messengers to north, south, east, and west 

The brahmins and ascetics to invite: 
Provide them food and drink, a place to rest, 

Clothes, and all else that may be requisite. 

Give thou the food and drink which satisfies 

Sages and holy brahmins, full of faith : 
Who gives and rules as well as in him lies 

Will go to heaven all blameless after death. 

But if, surrounded by thy womankind 
Thou feel thy passion and desire too strong, 

This verse of poetry then bear in mind 
And sing it in the midst of alL the throng : 

No roof to shelter from the sky, amid the dogs he lay, 

But mother nursed him as she walked: but he's a king to-day. 

Such was the Great Being's advice. Then he said, 
"I have given you my counsel. And now do you become 
an ascetic or not, as you think fit ; but I will follow up the 


ripening of my own deeds." Then he rose up in the air, 
and shook off the dust of his feet over him, and departed to 
Himalaya. And the king saw it, and was greatly moved ; 
and relinquishing his kingdom to his eldest son, he called 
out his army, and set his face in the direction of Himalaya. 
When the Great Being heard of his coming, he went with 
his attendant sages and received him, and ordained him 
to the holy life, and taught him the means of inducing 
mystic ecstasy. He developed the Faculty of mystical 
meditation. Thus these two together became destined for 
Brahma's world. 

See Leumann in Vienna Or. J. v. Ill ff., who discusses three Jain versions. It 
is essentially a folktale of two friends, who discover each other by means of a 
refrain, and may once have stood in a vedic purana or itihasa. Damayanti similarly 
sends out messengers who repeat a verse in order to discover her lost husband Nala, 
Mbh. in. ch. 53-79, and king Arindama in Jat. 529, p. 420. Cf. the legend of Blondel, 
the minstrel of Richard III, who discovered him imprisoned by the Emperor in 
the castle of Diirrenstein. 


Once upon a time, when the mighty King Sivi reigned 
in the city of Aritthapura in the kingdom of Sivi, the Great 
Being was born as his son. They called his name Prince 
Sivi. When he grew up, he went to Takkasila and studied 
there ; then returning, he proved his knowledge to his 
father the king, and by him was made viceroy. At his 
father's death he became king himself, and, forsaking the 
ways of evil, he kept the Ten Royal Virtues and ruled in 
righteousness. He caused six alms-halls to be builded, at 
the four gates, in the midst of the city, and at his own 
door. He was munificent in distributing each day six 
hundred thousand pieces of money. On the eighth, four- 
teenth, and fifteenth days he never missed visiting the 
alms-halls to see the distribution made. 


Once on the day of the full moon, the state umbrella 
had been uplifted early in the morning, and he sat on 
the royal throne thinking over the gifts he had given. 
Thought he to himself, "Of all outside things there is 
nothing I have not given ; but this kind of giving does 
not content me. I want to give something which is a 
part of myself. Well, this day when I go to the alms-hall, 
I vow that if any one ask not something outside me, but 
name what is part of myself, if he should mention my 
very heart, I will cut open my breast with a spear, and as 
though I were drawing up a water-lily, stalk and all, from 
a calm lake, I will pull forth my heart dripping with 
blood-clots and give it him : if he should name the flesh 
of my body, I will cut the flesh off my body and give it, 
as though I were graving with a graving tool: let him 
name my blood, I will give him my blood, dropping it in 
his mouth or filling a bowl with it : or again, if one say, I 
can't get my household work done, come and do me a 
slave's part at home, then I will leave my royal dress and 
stand without, proclaiming myself a slave, and slave's 
work I will do : should any men demand my eyes, I will 
tear out my eyes and give them, as one might take out 
the pith of a palm-tree." Thus he thought within him : 

If there be any human gift that I have never made, 
Be it my eyes, I'll give it now, all firm and unafraid. 

Then he bathed himself with sixteen pitchers of per- 
fumed water, and adorned him in all hfs magnificence, 
and after a meal of choice food he mounted upon an 
elephant richly caparisoned and went to the alms-hall. 

Sakka, perceiving his resolution, thought, "King Sivi 
has determined to give his eyes to any chance comer who 
may ask. Will he be able to do it, or no?" He deter- 
mined to try him ; and, in the form of a brahmin old and 


blind, he posted himself on a high place, and when the 
king came to his alms-hall he stretched out his hand and 
stood crying, " Long live the king ! " Then the king drove 
his elephant towards him, and said, "What do you say, 
brahmin ? " Sakka said to him, " O great king ! in all the 
inhabited world there is no spot where the fame of your 
munificent heart has not sounded. I am blind, and you 
have two eyes." Then he repeated the first stanza, asking 
for an eye: 

To ask an eye the old man comes from far, for I have none: 
give me one of yours, I pray, then we shall each have one. 

When the Great Being heard this, thought he, " Why 
that is just what I w r as thinking in my palace before I 
came! What a fine chance! My heart's desire will be 
fulfilled to-day; I shall give a gift which no man ever 
gave yet." And he recited the second stanza: 

Who taught thee hitherward to wend thy way, 
O mendicant, and for an eye to pray? 

The chiefest portion of a man is this, 
And hard for men to part with, so they say. 

(The succeeding stanzas are to be read two and two, 
as may easily be seen.) 

Sujampati among the gods, the same 
Here among men called Maghava toy name, 

He taught me hitherward to wend my way, 
Begging, and for an eye to urge my claim. 

'Tis the all-chiefest gift for which I pray. 
Give me an eye! do not say me nay! 

Give me an eye, that chiefest gift of gifts, 
So hard for men to part with, as they say! 

The wish that brought thee hitherward, the wish that did arise 
Within thee, be that wish fulfilled. Here, brahmin, take my eyes. 

One eye thou didst request of rue: behold, I give thee two! 
Go with good sight, in all the people's view; 
So be thy wish fulfilled and now come true. 


So much the king said. But, thinking it not meet that 
he should root out his eyes and bestow them there and 
then, he brought the brahmin indoors with him, and sitting 
on the royal throne, sent for a surgeon named Slvaka. 
"Take out my eye," he then said. 

Now all the city rang with the news, that the king 
wished to tear out his eyes and give them to a brahmin. 
Then the Commander-in-chief, and all the other officials, 
and those beloved of the king, gathered together from 
city and harem, and recited three stanzas, that they might 
turn the king from his purpose : 

do not give thine eye, my lord; desert us not, O king! 
Give money, pearls and coral give, and many a precious thing: 

Give thoroughbreds caparisoned, forth be the chariots rolled, 
king, drive up the elephants all fine with cloth of gold: 

These give, O king ! that we may all preserve thee safe and sound, 
Thy faithful people, with our cars and chariots ranged around. 

Hereupon the king recited three stanzas: 

The soul which, having sworn to give, is then unfaithful found, 
Puts his own neck within a snare low hidden on the ground. 

The soul which, having sworn to give, is then unfaithful found, 
More sinful is than sin, and he to Yama's house is bound. 

That which is asked I give, and not the thing he asketh not, 
This therefore which the brahmin asks, I give it on the spot. 

Then the courtiers asked, "What do you desire in 
giving your eyes?" repeating a stanza: 

Life, beauty, joy or strength what is the prize, 
king, which motive for your deed supplies ? 
Why should the king of Sivi-land supreme 
For the next world's sake thus bestow his eyes? 

The king answered them in a stanza : 

In giving thus, not glory is my goal, 

Not sons, not w r ealth, or kingdoms to control: 

This is the good old way of holy men ; 
Of giving gifts enamoured is my soul. 


To the Great Being's words the courtiers answered 
nothing ; so the Great Being addressed Sivaka the surgeon 
in a stanza: 

A friend and comrade, Sivaka, art thou : 
Do as I bid thee thou hast skill enow- 
Take out my eyes, for this is my desire, 
And in the beggar's hands bestow them now. 

But Sivaka said, " Bethink you, my lord ! to give one's 
eyes is no light thing." " Sivaka, I have considered ; don't 
delay, nor talk too much in my presence." Then he 
thought, "It is not fitting that a skilful surgeon like me 
should pierce a king's eyes with the lancet," so he pounded 
a number of simples, rubbed a blue lotus with the powder, 
and brushed it over the right eye : round rolled the eye, 
and there was great pain. " Reflect, my king, I can make 
it all right." -" Go on, friend, no delay, please." Again 
he rubbed in the powder, and brushed it over the eye: 
the eye started from the socket, the pain was worse than 
before. " Reflect, my king, I can still restore it." -" Be 
quick with the job ! " A third time he smeared a sharper 
powder, and applied it : by the drug's power round went 
the eye, out it came from the socket, and hung dangling 
at the end of the tendon. "Reflect, my king, I can yet 
restore it again."- -" Be quick." The pain was extreme, 
blood was trickling, the king's garments were stained with 
the blood. The king's women and the courtiers fell at 
his feet, crying, "My lord, do not sacrifice your eyes!" 
loudly they wept and wailed. The king endured the pain, 
and said, "My friend, be quick." "Very well, my lord," 
said the physician ; and with his left hand grasping the 
eyeball took a knife in his right, and severing the tendon, 
laid the eye in the Great Being's hand. He, gazing with 
his left eye at the right and enduring the pain, said, 

F. & T. 25 


"Brahmin, come here." When the brahmin came near, 
he went on " The eye of omniscience is dearer than this 
eye a hundred fold, aye a thousand fold: there you have 
my reason for this action," and he gave it to the brahmin, 
who raised it and placed it in his own eye socket. There 
it remained fixt by his power like a blue lotus in bloom. 
When the Great Being with his left eye saw that eye in 
his head, he cried "Ah, how good is this my gift of an 
eye!" and thrilled straightway with the joy that had arisen 
within him, he gave the other eye also. Sakka placed this 
also in the place of his own eye, and departed from the 
king's palace, and then from the city, with the gaze of the 
multitude upon him, and went away to the world of gods. 

In a short while the king's eyes began to grow; as 
they grew, and before they reached the top of the holes, 
a lump of flesh rose up inside like a ball of wool, filling 
the cavity; they were like a doll's eyes, but the pain 
ceased. The Great Being remained in the palace a few 
days. Then he thought, "What has a blind man to do 
with ruling ? I will hand over my kingdom to the courtiers, 
and go into my park, and become an ascetic, and live as 
a holy man." He summoned his courtiers, and told them 
what he intended to do. " One man," said he, " shall be 
with me, to wash my face, and so forth, and to do all that 
is proper, and you must fasten a cord to guide me to the 
retiring places." Then calling for his charioteer, he bade 
him prepare the chariot. But the courtiers would not 
allow him to go in the chariot ; they brought him out in 
a golden litter, and set him down by the lake side, and 
then, guarding him all around, returned. The king sat in 
the litter thinking of his gift. 

At that moment Sakka's throne became hot; and he 
pondering perceived the reason. " I will offer the king a 


boon," thought he, " and make his eye well again." So to 
that place he came ; and not far off from the Great Being, 
he walked up and down, up and down. 

" Who is that ? " cried the Great Being, when he heard 
the sound of the footsteps. Sakka repeated a stanza : 

Sakka, the king of gods, am I; to visit thee I came: 

Choose thou a boon, royal sage ! whate'er thy wish may name. 

The king replied with another stanza : 

Wealth, strength, and treasure without end, these I have left 

behind : 
Sakka, death and nothing more I want: for I am blind. 

Then Sakka said, "Do you ask death, King Sivi, be- 
cause you wish to die, or because you are blind?" 
" Because I am blind, my lord." -" The gift is not every- 
thing in itself, your majesty, it was made with a view to 
the future. Yet there is a motive relating to this visible 
world. Now you were asked for one eye, and gave two ; 
make an Act of Truth about it." Then he began a stanza : 

O warrior, lord of biped kind, declare the thing that's true: 
If you the truth declare, your eye shall be restored to you. 

On hearing this, the Great Being replied, " If you wish 
to give me an eye, Sakka, do not try any other means, 
but let my eye be restored as a consequence of my gift." 
Sakka said, "Though they call me Sakka, king of the 
gods, your majesty, yet I cannot give an eye to anyone 
else ; but by the fruit of the gift by thee given, and by 
nothing else, your eye shall be restored to you." Then 
the other repeated a stanza, maintaining that his gift was 
well given: 

Whatever sort, whatever kind of suitor shall draw near, 

Whoever comes to ask of me, he to my heart is dear: 

If these my solemn words be true, now let my eye appear! 



Even as he uttered the words, one of his eyes grew up 
in the socket. Then he repeated a couple of stanzas to 
restore the other : 

A brahmin came to visit me, one of my eyes to crave: 
Unto that brahmin mendicant the pair of them I gave. 

A greater joy and more delight that action did afford. 

If these my solemn words be true, be the other eye restored! 

On the instant appeared his second eye. But these 
eyes of his were neither natural nor divine. An eye 
given by Sakka as the brahmin, cannot be natural, we 
know ; on the other hand, a divine eye cannot be pro- 
duced in anything that is injured. But these eyes are 
called the eyes of the Attainment of Truth. At the 
time when they came into existence, the whole royal 
retinue by Sakka's power was assembled ; and Sakka 
standing in the midst of the throng, uttered praise in a 
couple of stanzas : 

fostering King of Sivi laud, these holy hymns of thine 
Have gained for thee as bounty free this pair of eyes divine. 
Through rock and wall, o'er hill and dale, whatever bar may be, 
A hundred leagues on every side those eyes of thine shall see. 

Having uttered these stanzas, poised in the air before 
the multitude, with a last counsel to the Great Being that 
he should be vigilant, Sakka returned to the world of 
gods. And the Great Being, surrounded by his retinue, 
went back in great pomp to the city, and entered the 
palace called Candaka, the Peacock's Eye. The news 
that he had got his eyes again spread abroad all through 
the Kingdom of Sivi. All the people gathered together 
to see him, with gifts in their hands. " Now all this multi- 
tude is come together," thought the Great Being, " I shall 
praise my gift that I gave." He caused a great pavilion 
to be put up at the palace gate, where he seated himself 


upon the royal throne, with the white umbrella spread 
above him. Then the drum was sent beating about the 
city, to collect all the trade guilds. Then he said, "O 
people of Sivi ! now you have beheld these divine eyes, 
never eat food without giving something away!" and he 
repeated four stanzas, declaring the Law : 

Who, if he's asked to give, would answer no, 
Although it be his best and choicest prize? 

People of Sivi thronged in concourse, ho! 
Come hither, see the gift of God, my eyes! 

Through rock and wall, o'er hill and dale, whatever bar may be, 
A hundred leagues on every side these eyes of mine can see. 

Self-sacrifice in all men mortal living, 

Of all things is most fine: 
I sacrificed a mortal eye; and giving, 

Received an eye divine. 

See, people! see, give ere ye eat, let others have a share. 
This done with your best will and care, 
Blameless to heaven you shall repair. 

In these four verses he declared the Law; and after 
that, every fortnight, on the holy day, even every fifteenth 
day, he declared the Law in these same verses without 
cessation to a great gathering of people. Hearing which, 
the people after giving alms and doing good deeds, 
attained to heaven. 

The form of the tale of Sivi, iu which the king gives his flesh to savo a dove from 
Indra (Sakka) disguised as a hawk, occurs in P. (T.) in. 7, Mbh. in. ch. 13Q, 131, 
Som. vu. 88 (L 45), Schmidt p. 17. A buddhist origin of it, as Franke says, is neither 
provable nor probable. Som. has a variant of buddhist form (a jataka), The holy 
Boar LXXII. (ii. 176). In the Jdtakamdld n. and Avaddna-Cataka iv. 4 (34), ed. 
Feer, the king, after having distributed all his wealth, has nothing to give to small 
creatures, so slashes his body and exposes it to the mosquitoes. Sakka then appears 
as a vulture, and the king offers his body. Thereupon Sakka becomes a brahmin and 
demands the king's eyes. The tale of the king's eyes occurs, as in this jataka, in 
Car. Pit. vin., and is referred to in the Questions of Milinda iv. 1. 42 (tr. p. 179). 
A Jain version is given in J. J. Meyer's Hindu Tales 301, London, 1909. It is 
illustrated on the Bharhut Stupa, pi. XLVIII. 2. Illustrations of both tales were found 
by the Prussian Turfan expeditions (1906 7) in the caves of a rock temple. 


Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was ruling- in 
Benares, a forester, named Sura, who dwelt in the 
kingdom of Kasi, went to the Himalayas, to seek for 
articles of merchandise. There was a certain tree there 
that sprang up to the height of a man with his arms 
extended over his head, and then divided into three 
parts. In the midst of its three forks was a hole as big 
as a wine jar, and when it rained this hole was filled with 
water. Round about it grew two myrobalan plants and 
a pepper shrub ; and the ripe fruits from these, when they 
were cut down, fell into the hole. Not far from this tree 
was some self-sown paddy. The parrots would pluck the 
heads of rice and eat them, perched on this tree. And 
while they were eating, the paddy and the husked rice fell 
there. So the water, fermenting through the sun's heat, 
assumed a blood-red colour. In the hot season flocks 
of birds, being thirsty, drank of it, and becoming intoxi- 
cated fell down at the foot of the tree, and after sleeping 
awhile flew away, chirping merrily. And the same thing 
happened in the case of wild dogs, monkeys and other 
creatures. The forester, on seeing this, said, "If this were 
poison they would die, but after a short sleep they go 
away as they list ; it is no poison." And he himself drank 
of it, and becoming intoxicated he felt a desire to eat 
flesh, and then making a fire he killed the partridges and 
cocks that fell down at the foot of the tree, and roasted 
their flesh on the live coals, and gesticulating with one 
hand, and eating flesh with the other, he remained one or 
two days in the same spot. Now not far from here lived 
an ascetic, named Varuna. The forester at other times 
also used to visit him, and the thought now struck him, 


"I will drink this liquor with the ascetic." So he filled 
a reed-pipe with it, and taking it together with some roast 
meat he came to the hut of leaves and said, " Holy sir, 
taste this liquor," and they both drank it and ate the 
meat. So from the fact of this drink having been dis- 
covered by Sura and Varuna, it was called by their names 
(surd and vdrum). They both thought, " This is the way 
to manage it," and they filled their reed-pipes, and taking 
it on a carrying-pole they came to a neighbouring village, 
and sent a message to the king that some wine merchants 
had come. The king sent for them and they offered him 
the drink. The king drank it two or three times and got 
intoxicated. This lasted him only one or two days. Then 
he asked them if there was any more. " Yes, sir," they 
said. " Where ? " " In the Himalayas, sir." " Then bring 
it here." They went and fetched it two or three times. 
Then thinking, "We can't always be going there," they 
took note of all the constituent parts, and, beginning 
with the bark of the tree, they threw in all the other 
ingredients, and made the drink in the city. The men 
of the city drank it and became idle wretches. And the 
place became like a deserted city. Then these wine 
merchants fled from it and came to Benares, and sent 
a message to the king, to announce their arrival. The 
king sent for them and paid them money, and they made 
wine there too. And that city also perished in the same 
way. Thence they fled to Saketa, and from Saketa they 
came to Savatthi. At that time there was a king named 
Sabbamitta in Savatthi. He shewed favour to these men 
and asked them what they wanted. When they said, 
" We Avant the chief ingredients and ground rice and five 
hundred jars," he gave them everything they asked for. 
So they stored the liquor in the five hundred jars, and, to 


guard them, they bound cats, one to each jar. And, when 
the liquor fermented and began to escape, the cats drank 
the strong drink that flowed from the inside of the jars, 
and getting intoxicated they lay down to sleep ; and rats 
came and bit off the cats' ears, noses, teeth and tails. 
The king's officers came and told the king, "The cats 
have died from drinking the liquor." The king said, 
"Surely these men must be makers of poison," and he 
ordered them both to be beheaded, and they died, crying 
out, "Give us strong drink, give us mead." The king, 
after putting the men to death, gave orders that the jars 
should be broken. But the cats, when the effect of the 
liquor wore off, got up and walked about and played. 
When they saw this, they told the king. The king said, 
" If it were poison, they would have died ; it must be 
mead ; we will drink it." So he had the city decorated, 
and set up a pavilion in the palace yard and taking his 
seat in this splendid pavilion on a royal throne with a 
white umbrella raised over it, and surrounded by his 
courtiers, he began to drink. Then Sakka, the king of 
the gods, said, " Who are there that in the duty of service 
to mother and the like diligently fulfil the three kinds 
of right conduct ? " And, looking upon the world, he saw 
the king seated to drink strong drink and he thought, 
" If he shall drink strong drink, all India will perish : 
1 will *ee that he shall not drink it." So, placing ajar full 
of the liquor in the palm of his hand, he went, disguised 
as a brahmin, and stood in the air, in the presence of the 
king, and cried, " Buy this jar, buy this jar." King 
Sabbamitta, on seeing him standing in the air and 
speaking after this manner, said, "Whence can this 
brahmin come ? " and conversing with him he repeated 
three stanzas : 


Who art thou, Being' from on high, 
Whose form emits bright rays of light, 

Like levin flash athwart the sky, 
Or moon illuming darkest night? 

To ride the pathless air upon, 

To move or stand in silent space- 
Real is the power that thou hast won, 

And proves thou art of godlike race. 

Then, brahmin, who thou art declare, 

And what within thy jar may be, 
That thus appearing in mid air, 

Thou fain wouldst sell thy wares to me. 

Then Sakka said, " Hearken then to me," and, ex- 
pounding the evil qualities of strong drink, he said: 

This jar nor oil nor ghee doth hold, 

No honey or molasses here, 
But vices more than can be told 

Are stored within its rounded sphere. 

Who drinks will fall, poor silly fool, 

Into some hole or pit impure, 
Or headlong sink in loathsome pool 

And eat what he w r ould fain abjure. 
Buy then, king, this jar of mine, 
Full to the brini of strongest wine 1 

And after drinking this, I ween, 

Andhakavenhu's mighty race, 
Koaining along the shore, were seen 

To fall, each by his kinsman's mace. 
Buy then etc. 

The Asuras made drunk with wine 

Fell from eternal heaven, O king, 
With all their magic pow r er divine: 

Then who would taste the accursed thing? 
Buy then etc. 

Nor curds nor honey sweet is here, 

But evermore remembering 
What's stored within this rounded sphere, 

Buy, prithee, buy my jar, king. 

1 19 stanzas describing the evil effects of strong drink are omitted. 


On hearing this the king, recognizing the misery 
caused by drink, was so pleased with Sakka that he 
sang his praises in two stanzas : 

No parents had I sage to teach, like thee, 
But thou art kind and merciful, I see; 
A seeker of the Highest Truth alway; 
Therefore I will obey thy words to-day. 

Lo! five choice villages I own are thine, 
Twice fifty handmaids, seven hundred kine, 
And these ten cars with steeds of purest blood, 
For thou hast counselled me to mine own good. 

Sakka on hearing this revealed his godhead and 
made himself known, and standing in the air he repeated 
two stanzas : 

These hundred slaves, king, may still be thine, 
And eke the villages and herds of kiiie; 
No chariots yoked to high-bred steeds I claim; 
Sakka, chief god of Thirty Three, my name. 

Enjoy thy ghee, rice, milk and sodden meat, 
Still be content thy honey cakes to eat. 
Thus, king, delighting in the Truths I've preached, 
Pursue thy blameless path, till Heaven is reached. 

Thus did Sakka admonish him and then returned to 
his abode in Heaven. And the king, abstaining from 
strong drink, ordered the drinking vessels to be broken. 
And undertaking to keep the precepts and dispensing 
alms, he became destined to Heaven. But the drinking 
of strong drink gradually developed in India. 

The version in Jatakamdla xvn. does not give the legend of the origin of strong 
drink. Like this tale it retains the puranic version of the destruction of the 
sons of Andhakavenhu (the ten slave brethren) by strong drink, as against the form 
of the story in Jilt. 454, p. 323. 


Once upon a time eight thousand royal elephants, by 
the exercise of supernatural powers moving through the 
air, dwelt near lake Chaddanta in the Himalayas. At 
this time the Bodhisatta came to life as the son of the 
chief elephant. He was a pure white, with red feet and 
face. By and by, when grown up, he was eighty-eight 
hands high, one hundred and twenty hands long. He had 
a trunk like to a silver rope, fifty-eight hands long, and 
tusks fifteen hands in circumference, thirty hands long, and 
emitting six-coloured rays. He was the chief of a herd 
of eight thousand elephants and paid honour to pacceka 
buddhas. His two head queens were Cullasubhadda and 
Mahasubhadda. The king elephant, with his herd num- 
bering eight thousand, took up his abode in a Golden 
Cave. Now lake Chaddanta was fifty leagues long and 
fifty broad. In the middle of it, for a space extending 
twelve leagues, no sevala or panaka plant is found, and 
it consists of water in appearance like a magic jewel. 
Next to this, encircling this water, w r as a thicket of pure 
white lilies, a league in breadth. Next to this, and en- 
circling it, w r as a thicket of pure blue lotus, a league in 
extent. Then came white and red lotuses, red and white 
lilies, and white esculent lilies, each also a league in extent 
and each encircling the one before. Next to these seven 
thickets came a mixed tangle of white and other lilies, 
also a league in extent, and encircling all the preceding- 
ones. Next, in water as deep as elephants can stand in, 
was a thicket of red paddy. Next, at the edge of the 
water, was a grove of small shrubs, abounding in delicate 
and fragrant blossoms of blue, yellow, red and white. So 


these ten thickets were each a league in extent. Next 
came a thicket of various kinds of kidney beans. Next 
came a tangle of convolvulus, cucumber, pumpkin, gourd 
and other creepers. Then a grove of sugar-cane of the 
size of the areca-nut tree. Then a grove of plantains with 
fruit as big as elephant's tusks. Then a field of paddy. 
Then a grove of bread-fruit of the size of a water jar. 
Next a grove of tamarinds with luscious fruit. Then a 
grove of elephant-apple trees. Then a great forest of 
different kinds of trees. Then a bamboo grove. Such 
at this time was the magnificence of this region its 
present magnificence is described in the Samyutta Com- 
mentary but surrounding the bamboo grove were seven 
mountains. Starting from the extreme outside first came 
Little Black Mountain, next Great Black Mountain, then 
Water Mountain, Moon Mountain, Sim Mountain, Jewel 
Mountain, then the seventh in order Golden Mountain. 
This was seven leagues in height, rising all round the lake 
Chaddanta, like the rim of a bowl. The inner side of it 
was of a golden colour. From the light that issued from 
it lake Chaddanta shone like the newly risen sun. But 
of the outer mountains, one was six leagues in height, one 
five, one four, one three, one two, one a single league in 
height. Now in the north-east corner of the lake, thus 
girt about with seven mountains, in a spot where the wind 
fell upon the water, grew a big banyan tree. Its trunk 
was five leagues in circumference and seven leagues in 
height. Four branches spread six leagues to the four 
points of the compass, and the branch which rose straight 
upwards was six leagues. So from the root upwards it 
Avas thirteen leagues in height, and from the extremity of 
the branches in one direction to the extremity of the 
branches in the opposite direction it was twelve leagues. 


And the tree was furnished with eight thousand shoots 
and stood forth in all its beauty, like to the bare Jewel 
Mount. But on the west side of lake Chaddanta, in the 
Golden Mount, was a golden cave, twelve leagues in 
extent. Chaddanta the elephant king, with his following 
of eight thousand elephants, in the rainy season lived in 
the golden cave; in the hot season he stood at the foot 
of the great banyan tree, amongst its shoots, welcoming 
the breeze from off the water. Now one day they told 
him, " The great Sal grove is in flower." So attended by 
his herd he was minded to disport himself in the Sal 
grove, and going thither he struck with his frontal globe 
a Sal tree in full bloom. At that moment Cullasubhadda 
stood to windward, and dry twigs mixed with dead leaves 
and red ants fell upon her person. But Mahasubhadda 
stood to leeward, and flowers with pollen and stalks and 
green leaves fell on her. Thought Cullasubhadda, "He 
let fall on the wife dear to him flowers and pollen and 
fresh stalks and leaves, but on my person he dropped a 
mixture of dry twigs, dead leaves and red ants. Well, 
I shall know what to do ! " And she conceived a grudge 
against the Great Being. Another day the king elephant 
and his attendant herd went down to lake Chaddanta to 
bathe. Then two young elephants took bundles of uslra 
root in their trunks and gave him a bath, rubbing him 
down as it were mount Kelasa. And when he came out 
of the water, they bathed the two queen elephants, and 
they too came out of the water and stood before the 
Great Being. Then the eight thousand elephants entered 
the lake and, disporting themselves in the water, plucked 
various flowers from the lake, and adorned the Great 
Being as if it had been a silver shrine, and afterwards 
adorned the queen elephants. Then a certain elephant, 


as he swam about the lake, gathered a large lotus with 
seven shoots and offered it to the Great Being. And he, 
taking it in his trunk, sprinkled the pollen on his fore- 
head and presented the flower to the chief elephant, 
Mahasubhadda. On seeing this her rival said, "This 
lotus with seven shoots he also gives to his favourite 
queen and not to me," and again she conceived a grudge 
against him. Now one day when the Bodhisatta had 
dressed luscious fruits and lotus stalks and fibres with the 
nectar of the flower, and was entertaining five hundred 
pacceka buddhas, Cullasubhadda offered the wild fruits 
she had got to the pacceka buddhas, and she put up a 
prayer to this effect : " Hereafter, when I pass hence, may 
I be re-born as the royal maiden Subhadda in the Madda 
king's family, and on coming of age may I attain to the 
dignity of queen consort to the king of Benares. Then 
I shall be dear and charming in his eyes, and in a position 
to do what I please. So I will speak to the king and 
send a hunter with a poisoned arrow to wound and slay 
this elephant. And thus may I be able to have brought 
to me a pair of his tusks that emit six-coloured rays." 
Thenceforth she took no food and pining away in no long 
time she died, and came to life again as the child of the 
queen consort in the Madda kingdom, and was named 
Subhadda. And when she was of a suitable age, they 
gave her in marriage to the king of Benares. And she 
was dear and pleasing in his eyes, and the chief of sixteen 
thousand wives. And she recalled to mind her former 
existences and thought, " My prayer is fulfilled ; now will 
I have this elephant's tusks brought to me." Then she 
anointed her body with common oil, put on a soiled robe, 
and lay in bed pretending to be sick. The king said, 
"Where is Subhadda?" And hearing that she was sick, 


he entered the royal closet and sitting on the bed he 
stroked her back and uttered the first stanza : 

Large-eyed and peerless one, my queen, so pale, to grief a prey, 
Like wreath that's trampled under foot, why fadest thou away ? 

On hearing this she spoke the second stanza : 

As it would seem, all in a dream, a longing- sore I had; 
My wish is vain this boon to gain, and that is why I'm sad. 

The king, on hearing this, spoke a stanza : 

All joys to which in this glad world a mortal may aspire, 
Whate'er they want is mine to grant, I give thee thy desire. 

On hearing this the queen said, " Great king, my desire 
is hard to attain ; I will not now say what it is, but I would 
have all the hunters that there are in your kingdom 
gathered together. Then will I tell it in the midst of 
them." And to explain her meaning, she spoke the next 
stanza : 

Let hunters all obey thy call, within this realm who dwell, 
And what I fain from them would gain, I'll in their presence tell. 

The king agreed, and issuing forth from the royal 
chamber he gave orders to his ministers, saying, "Have 
it proclaimed by beat of drum that all the hunters that 
are in the kingdom of Kasi, three hundred leagues in 
extent, are to assemble." They did so, and in no long 
time the hunters that dwelt in the kingdom of Kasi, 
bringing a present according to their means, had their 
arrival announced to the king. Now they amounted in 
all to about sixty thousand. And the king, hearing that 
they had come, stood at an open window and stretching 
forth his hand he told the queen of their arrival and said: 

Here then behold our hunters bold, well trained in veuery, 
Theirs is the skill wild beasts to kill, and all would die for me. 


The queen, on hearing this, addressed them and spoke 
another stanza : 

Ye hunters bold, assembled here, 
Unto my words, I pray, give ear: 
Dreaming, methought an elephant I saw, 
Six-tusked 1 and white without a flaw: 
His tusks I crave and fain would have ; 
Nought else avails my life to save. 

The hunters, on hearing this, replied : 

Ne'er did our sires in times of old 
A six-tusked elephant behold : 
Tell us what kind of beast might be 
That which appeared in dreams to thee. 

After this still another stanza was spoken by them : 

Four points, North, South, East, West, one sees, 

Four intermediate are to these, 

Nadir and zenith add, and then 

Say at which point of all the ten 

This royal elephant might be, 

That in a dream appeared to thee. 

After these words Subhadda, looking at all the hunters, 
spied amongst them one that was broad of foot, with a 
calf swollen like a food basket, big in the knee and ribs, 
thick-bearded, with yellow teeth, disfigured with scars, 
head and shoulders above all, an ugly, hulking fellow, 
named Sonuttara, who had once been an enemy of the 
Great Being. And she thought, "He will be able to do 
my bidding," and with the king's permission she took him 
with her and, climbing to the highest floor of the seven- 
storeyed palace, she threw open a window to the North, 
and stretching forth her hand towards the Northern 
Himalayas she uttered four stanzas: 

1 The Scholiast explains chal>l>ix<~iii (Sanskrit x/i<i<//-i.*fitlna\ six-tusked, as 
chabbanna-risdna, six-coloured tusks, perhaps more completely to identify the hero 
of the story with the Buddha, The halo of the Buddha was of six-coloured rays. 


Due north, beyond seven mountains vast, 
One conies to Golden Cliff at last, 
A height by goblin forms possessed 
And bright with flowers from foot to crest. 

Beneath this goblin peak is seen 
A cloud-shaped mass of darkest green, 
A royal banyan tree whose roots 
Yield vigour to eight thousand shoots. 

There dwells invincible in might 
This elephant, six-tusked and white, 
With herd eight thousand strong for fight. 
Their tusks to chariot-poles are like, 
Wind-swift are they to guard or strike. 

Panting and grim they stand and glare, 
Provoked by slightest breath of air, 
If they one born of man should see, 
Their wrath consumes him utterly. 

Souuttara on hearing this was terrified to death and 


Turquoise or pearls of brilliant sheen, 
With many a gold adornment, queen, 
In royal houses may be seen. 
What wouldst thou then with ivory do, 
Or wilt thou slay these hunters true? 

Then the queen spoke a stanza : 

Consumed with grief and spite am I, 
When I recall my injury. 
Grant me, hunter, what I crave, 
And five choice hamlets thou shalt have. 

And with this she said, "Friend hunter, when I gave 
a gift to the pacceka buddhas, I offered up a prayer that 
I might have it in my power to kill this six-tusked elephant 
and get possession of a pair of his tusks. This was not 
merely seen by me in a vision, but the prayer that I 
offered up will be fulfilled. Do thou go and fear not." 
And so saying she reassured him. And he agreed to her 

F. & T. 26 


words and said, "So be it, lady; but first make it clear 
to me and tell me where is his dwelling-place," and en- 
quiring of her he spoke this stanza : 

Where dwells he? Where may he be found? 
What road is his, for bathing bound? 
Where does this royal creature swim ? 
Tell us the way to capture him. 

Then by recalling her former existence she clearly saw 
the spot and told him of it in these two stanzas : 

Not far this bathing-place of his, 

A deep and goodly pool it is, 

There bees do swarm and flowers abound, 

And there this royal beast is found. 

Now lotus-crowned, fresh from his bath, 
He gladly takes his homeward path, 
As lily-white and tall he moves 
Behind the queen he fondly loves. 

Sonuttara on hearing this agreed, saying, " Well, lady, 
I will kill the elephant and bring you his tusks." Then 
in her joy she gave him a thousand pieces and said, " Go 
home meanwhile, and at the end of seven days you shall 
set out thither," and dismissing him she summoned smiths 
and gave them an order and said, "Sirs, we have need 
.of an axe, a spade, an auger, a hammer, an instrument 
for cutting bamboos, a grass-cutter, an iron staff, a peg, 
an iron three-pronged fork ; make them with all speed 
and bring them to us." And sending for workers in 
leather, she charged them, saying, " Sirs, you must make 
us a leather sack, the size of a hogshead measure; we 
need leather ropes and straps, shoes big enough for 
an elephant, and a leather parachute: make them with 
all speed and bring them to us." And both smiths and 
workers in leather quickly made everything and brought 
and offered them to her. Having provided everything 


requisite for the journey, together with fire-drills and the 
like, she put all the appliances and necessaries for the 
journey, such as baked meal and so forth, in the leather 
sack. The whole of it came to about a hogshead in size. 
And Sonuttara, having completed his arrangements, 
arrived on the seventh day and stood respectfully in the 
presence of the queen. Then she said, " Friend, all ap- 
pliances for your journey are completed : take then this 
sack." And he being a stout knave, as strong as five 
elephants, caught up the sack as if it had been a bag of 
cakes, and placing it on his hips, stood as it were with 
empty hands. Cullasubhadda gave the provisions to the 
hunter's attendants and, telling the king, dismissed Sonut- 
tara. And he, with an obeisance to the king and queen, 
descended from the palace and, placing his goods in a 
chariot, set out from the city with a great retinue, and 
passing through a succession of villages and hamlets 
reached the frontiers. Then he turned back the people 
of the country and went on with the dwellers on the 
borders till he entered the forest, and passing beyond 
the haunts of men he sent back the border people too, 
and proceeded quite alone on a road to a distance of 
thirty leagues, traversing a dense growth of kusa and 
other grasses, thickets of basil, reeds and rest-harrow, 
clumps of thick-thorn and canes, thickets of mixed growth, 
jungles of reed and cane, dense forest growth, impenetrable 
even to a snake, thickets of trees and bamboos, tracts of 
mud and water, mountain tracts, eighteen regions in all, 
one after another. The jungles of grass he cut with a 
sickle, the thickets of basil and the like he cleared with 
his instrument for cutting bamboos, the trees he felled 
with an axe, and the oversized ones he first pierced with 
an auger. Then, pursuing his way, he fashioned a ladder 



in the bamboo grove and climbing to the top of the 
thicket, he laid a single bamboo, which he had cut, over 
the next clump of bamboos, and thus creeping along on 
the top of the thicket he reached a morass. Then he 
spread a dry plank on the mud, and stepping on it he 
threw another plank before him and so crossed the morass. 
Then he made a canoe and by means of it crossed the 
flooded region, and at last stood at the foot of the moun- 
tains. Then he bound a three-pronged grappling-iron 
with a rope and flinging it aloft he caused it to lodge fast 
in the mountain. Then climbing up by the rope he drilled 
the mountain with an iron staff tipped with adamant, 
and knocking a peg into the hole he stood on it. Then 
drawing out the grappling-iron he once more lodged it 
high up on the mountain, and from this position letting 
the leather rope hang down, he took hold of it and 
descended and fastened the rope on the peg below. Then 
seizing the rope with his left hand and taking a hammer 
in his right he struck a blow on the rope, and having 
thus pulled out the peg he once more climbed up. In 
this way he mounted to the top of the first mountain and 
then commencing his descent on the other side, having 
knocked as before a peg into the top of the first mountain 
and bound the rope on his leather sack and wrapped it 
round the peg, he sat within the sack and let himself 
down, uncoiling the rope like a spider letting out his 
thread. Then letting his leather parachute catch the 
wind, he went down like a bird so at least they say. 
(Thus did the Master tell how in obedience to Subhadda's 
words the hunter sallied forth from the city and traversed 
seventeen different tracts till he reached a mountainous 
region, and how he there crossed over six mountains and 
climbed to the top of Golden Cliff: 


The hunter hearing, unalarmed, 
Set forth with bow and quiver armed, 
And crossing o'er seven mountains vast 
Beached noble Golden Cliff at last. 

Gaining the goblin-haunted height, 

What cloud-shaped mass bursts on his sight? 

A royal banyan 'tis whose roots 

Support eight thousand spreading shoots. 

There stood invincible in might 

An elephant six-tusked and white, 

With herd eight thousand strong for fight; 

Their tusks to chariot-poles are like: 

Wind-swift are they to guard or strike. 

Hard by a pool 'tis full to the brim, 
Fit place for royal beast to swim; 
Its lovely banks with flowers abound 
And buzzing bees swarm all around. 

Marking the way the creature went 
Whene'er on bathing thought intent, 
He sunk a pit, to deed so mean 
Urged by the wrath of spiteful queen.) 

Here continues the regular story: the hunter, it is 
said, after seven years, seven months and seven days, 
having reached the dwelling-place of the Great Being in 
the manner related above, took note of his dwelling-place 
and dug a pit there, thinking, " I will take my stand here 
and wound the lord of elephants and bring about his 
death." Thus did he arrange matters and went into the 
forest and cut down trees to make posts and prepared a 
lot of kusa-grass. Then when the elephants went to bathe, 
in the spot where the king elephant used to stand, he dug 
a square pit with a huge mattock, and the soil that he dug 
out he sprinkled on the top of the water, as if he were 
sowing seed, and on the top of stones like mortars he fixed 
posts, and fitted them with weights and ropes and spread 
planks over them. Next he made a hole of the size of an 


arrow and threw on the top earth and rubbish, and on one 
side he made an entrance for himself, and so, when the pit 
was finished, at break of day he fastened on a false top 
knot and donned robes of yellow and, taking his bow and 
a poisoned arrow, he went down and stood in the pit. 

(The Master, to make the whole thing clear, said 1 : 

The pit with planks he first did hide, 
Then bow in hand he got inside, 
And as the elephant passed by, 
A mighty shaft the wretch let fly. 

The wounded beast loud roared with pain, 
And all the herd roared back again: 
Crushed boughs and trampled grass betray 
Where panic flight directs their way. 

Their lord had well nigh slain his foe, 
So mad with pain was he, when lo! 
A robe of yellow met his eyes, 
Emblem of sainthood, sage's guise 
And deemed inviolate by the wise.) 

The Great Being, falling into conversation with the 
hunter, spoke a couple of stanzas: 

Whoso is marred with sinful taint 
And void of truth and self-restraint, 
Though robed in yellow he may be, 
The yellow dress deserves not he. 

But one that's free from sinful taint, 
Endued with truth and self-restraint, 
And firmly fixed in righteousness, 
Deserves to wear the yellow dress. 

So saying, the Great Being, extinguishing all feeling 
of anger towards him, asked him, saying, "Why did you 
wound me ? Was it for your own advantage or were you 
suborned by some one else ? " 

1 The commentator adds this to make it clear that the verses that follow are part 
of the narrative, and not spoken by characters in the tale. Similarly on p. 405. 


Then the hunter told him and uttered this^stanza : 

The king- of Kasi's favoured queen 
Subhadda told me she had seen 
Thy form in dreams, "and so," said she, 
" I want his tusks ; go, bring 1 them me." 

Hearing- this, and recognizing- that this was the work 
of Cullasubhadda, he bore his sufferings patiently and 
thought, "She does not want my tusks; she sent him 
because she wished to kill me," and, to illustrate the 
matter, he uttered a couple of stanzas : 

Rich store of goodly tusks have I, 
Relics of my dead ancestry, 
And this well knows that wrathful dame, 
'Tis at my life the wretch doth aim. 

Rise, hunter, and or ere I die, 

Saw off these tusks of ivory: 

Go bid the shrew be of good cheer, 

"The beast is slain; his tusks are here." 

Hearing his words the hunter rose up from the place 
where he was sitting and, saw in hand, came close to him 
to cut off his tusks. Now the elephant, being eighty-eight 
hands high, like a mountain, was not thrown down. Hence 
the man could not reach to his tusks. So the Great 
Being, bending his body towards him, lay with his head 
down. Then the hunter climbed up the trunk of the 
Great Being, pressing it with his feet as though it were 
a silver rope, and stood on his forehead as if it had been 
Kelasa peak. Then he inserted his foot into his mouth, 
and striking the fleshy part of it with his knee, he climbed 
down from the beast's forehead and thrust the saw into 
his mouth. The Great Being suffered excruciating pain 
and his mouth was charged with blood. The hunter, 
shifting about from place to place, was still unable to cut 
the tusks with his saw. So the Great Being letting the 


blood drop from his mouth, resigning himself to the 
agony, asked, saying, " Sir, cannot you cut them ? " And 
on his saying "No," he recovered his presence of mind 
and said, "Well then, since I myself have not strength 
enough to raise my trunk, do you lift it up for me and let 
it seize the end of the saw/' The hunter did so : and the 
Great Being seized the saw with his trunk and moved it 
backwards and forwards, and the tusks were cut oft* as it 
were sprouts. Then bidding him take the tusks, he said, 
" I don't give you these, friend hunter, because I do not 
value them, nor as one desiring the position of Sakka, 
Mara or Brahma, but the tusks of omniscience are a 
hundred thousand times dearer to me than these are, 
and may this meritorious act be to me the cause of 
attaining Omniscience." And as he gave him the tusks, 
he asked, " How long were you coining here ? " " Seven 
years, seven months, and seven days." " Go then by the 
magic power of these tusks, and you shall reach Benares 
in seven days." And he gave him a safe conduct and let 
him go. And after he had sent him away, before the other 
elephants and Subhadda had returned, he was dead. 

When he was gone, the herd of elephants not finding 
their enemy came back. 

And with them also came Subhadda, and they all then 


and there with weeping and lamentation betook them to 
the pacceka buddhas who had been so friendly to the 
Great Being, and said, "Sirs, he who supplied you with 
the necessaries of life has died from the wound of a 
poisoned arrow. Come and see where his dead body is 
exposed. " And the five hundred pacceka buddhas passing 
through the air alighted in the sacred enclosure. At that 
moment two young elephants, lifting up the body of the 
king elephant with their tusks, and so causing it to do 


homage to the pacceka buddhas, raised it aloft on a pyre 
and burned it. The pacceka buddhas all through the 
night rehearsed scripture texts in the cemetery. The 
eight thousand elephants, after extinguishing the flames, 
first bathed and then, with Subhadda at their head, 
returned to their place of abode. 

And Sonuttara within seven davs reached Benares 


with his tusks. 

Now in offering them to the queen, he said, " Lady, the 
elephant, against whom you conceived a grudge in your 
heart for a trifling offence, has been slain by me." "Do 
you tell me that he is dead?" she cried. And he gave 
her the tusks, saying, " Be assured that he is dead : here 
are his tusks." She received the tusks adorned with six 
different coloured rays on her jewelled fan, and, placing 
them on her lap, gazed at the tusks of one who in a former 
existence had been her dear lord and she thought, " This 
fellow has come with the tusks he cut from the auspicious 
elephant that he slew with a poisoned shaft." And at the 
remembrance of the Great Being she was filled with so 
great sorrow that she could not endure it, but her heart 
then and there was broken and that very day she died. 

Feer in Journ. As. 1895, N. S. v. p. 31 ff. gives a study of this jataka comparing 
it with Jat. 72, 122, 267, 455, Jatakamdla xxxi, and five versions. See a description 
of the mountain climbing in The Earliest Rock-Climb by Mrs Rhys Davids, Alpine 
Journ. May 1891 (JPTS. 18971901, p. 80 ff.). It is illustrated on the Bharhut 
Stupa, pi. xxvi. 6. 


Once upon a time Brahmadatta ruled in Benares and 
had no heir, and his prayer for a son or daughter was not 
answered. Now one day he went with a large escort to 
his park and after amusing himself a part of the day in 


the grounds he had a couch spread for him at the foot of 
the royal sal tree, and after a short nap he awoke and, 
looking up to the sal tree, he beheld a bird's nest in it, and 
at the sight of it a desire to possess it sprang up in his 
heart, and summoning one of his attendants he said, 
" Climb the tree and see if there is anything in the nest 
or not." The man climbed up and finding three eggs in 
it told the king. "Then mind vou do not breathe over 


them," he said, and, spreading some cotton in a casket, he 
told the man to come down gently, and place the eggs in 
it. When they had been brought down, he took up the 
casket and asked his courtiers to what bird these eggs 
belonged. They answered, " We do not know : hunters 
will know." The king sent for the hunters and asked 
them. " Sire," said they, " one is an owl's egg, another is 
a maynah bird's, and the third is a parrot's." " Pray are 
there eggs of three different birds in one nest ? " " Yes, 
Sire, when there is nothing to fear, what is carefully 
deposited does not perish." The king being pleased said, 
" They shall be my children," and committing the three 
eggs to the charge of three courtiers, he said, " These shall 
be my children. Do you carefully watch over them and 
when the young birds come out of the shell, let me know." 
They took good care of them. First of all the owl's egg 
was hatched, and the courtier sent for a hunter and said, 
" Find out the sex of the young bird, whether it is a cock 
or a hen bird," and when he had examined it and declared 
it to be a cock bird, the courtier went to the king and said, 
" Sire, a son is born to you." The king was delighted and 
bestowed much wealth on him and saying, " Watch care- 
fully over him and call his name Vessantara," he sent him 
away. He did as he was told. Then a few days afterwards 
the egg of the maynah bird was hatched, and the second 


courtier likewise, after getting the huntsman to examine 
it, and hearing it was a hen bird, went to the king and 
announced to him the birth of a daughter. The king was 
delighted, and gave to him also much treasure and saying, 
"Watch carefully over my daughter and call her name 
Kundalim," he sent him away. He also did what he was 
told. Then after a few days the parrot's egg w T as hatched 
and the third courtier, when told by the huntsman who 
examined it that it was a cock bird, went and announced 
to the king the birth of a son. The king was delighted 
and paying him liberally said, " Hold a festival in honour 
of my son with great pomp, and call his name Jambuka," 
and then sent him aw r ay. He too did as he was told. 
And these three birds grew up in the houses of the three 
courtiers with all the ceremony due to princes. The king 
spoke of them habitually, as ' my son ' and ' my daughter.' 
His courtiers made merry, one with another, saying, " Look 
at what the king does : he goes about speaking of birds as 
his son and his daughter." The king thought, "These 
courtiers do not know the extent of my children's wisdom. 
I will make it evident to them." So he sent one of his 
ministers to Vessantara to say, " Your father wishes to ask 
you a question. When shall he come and ask it ? ' The 
minister came and bowing to Vessantara delivered the 
message. Vessantara sent for the courtier who looked 
after him and said, "My father," they tell me, "wants to 
ask me a question. When he comes, we must shew him 
all respect," and he asked " When is he to come ? " The 
courtier said, "Let him come on the seventh dav from 


this." Vessantara on hearing this said, "Let my father 
come on the seventh day from this," and with these words 
he sent the minister away. He w r ent and told the king. 
On the seventh day the king ordered a drum to be beaten 


through the citv and went to the house where his son 


lived. Vessantara treated the king with great respect 
and had great respect paid even to the slaves and hired 
servants. The king, after partaking of food in the house 
of Vessantara, and enjoying great distinction, returned to 
his own dwelling-place. Then he had a big pavilion 
erected in the palace-yard, and, having made proclamation 
by beating a drum through the city, he sat in his magni- 
ficent pavilion surrounded by a great retinue and sent 
word to a courtier to conduct Vessantara to him. The 
courtier brought Vessantara on a golden stool. The bird 
sat on his father's lap and played with his father, and then 
went and sat on the stool. Then the king in the midst of 
the crowd of people questioned him as to the duty of 
a king and spoke the first stanza: 

'Tis this I ask Vessantara clear bird, mayst thou be blest- 

To one that's fain o'er men to reign, what course of life is best ? 

Vessantara, without answering the question directly, 
reproved the king for his carelessness and spoke the 
second stanza: 

Kamsa my sire, who Kiisi won, so careless long ago, 

Urged me his son, though full of zeal, still greater zeal to shew. 

Rebuking the king in this stanza and saying, "Sire, 
a king ought to rule his kingdom righteously, abiding in 
the three truths," and telling of a king's duty he spoke 
these stanzas : 

First of all should a king put away all falsehood and anger and scorn : 
Let him do what a king has to do, or else to his vow be forsworn. 

By passion and sin led astray, should he err in the past, it is plain 
He will live to repent of the deed, and will learn not to do it again. 

When a prince in his rule groweth slack, untrue to his name and 

his fame, 
Should his wealth all at once disappear, of that prince it is counted 

as shame. 


'Tis thus that Good Fortune and Luck, when asked, this answer 

have told, 
"I delight in a man from jealousy free, energetic and bold." 

Ill luck, ever wrecking good fortune, delighteth in men of ill deeds, 
The hard-hearted creatures in whom a spirit of jealousy breeds. 

To all, great king, be a friend, so that all may thy safety insure, 
111 Luck put away, but to Luck that is good be a dwelling secure. 

The man that is lucky and bold, thou that o'er Kasi dost reign, 
"Will destroy root and branch his foes, and to greatness will surely 

For Sakka himself, king, in energy wearieth not; 

In virtue he firmly hath stood, through energy such is his lot. 

Gandharvas, the fathers, and gods, are refreshed by such zeal of a king, 
And spirits appearing stand by, of his vigour and energy sing. 

Be zealous to do what is right, nor, however reviled, yield to sin, 
Be earnest in efforts for good no sluggard can bliss ever win. 

Herein is the text of thy duty, to teach thee the way thou shouldst go : 
'Tis enough to win bliss for a friend or to work grievous ill for a foe. 

Thus did the bird Vessantara in a single stanza rebuke 
the carelessness of the king, and then in telling the duty 
of a king in eleven stanzas answered his question with all 
the charm of a Buddha. The hearts of the multitude were 
filled with wonder and amazement and innumerable shouts 
of applause were raised. The king was transported with 
joy and addressing his courtiers asked them what was to 
be done for his son, for having spoken thus. " He should 
be made a general in the army, Sire." "Well, I give him 
the post of general," and he appointed Vessantara to 
the vacant post. Thenceforth placed in this position he 
carried out his father's wishes. Here ends the storv of 


Vessantara's question. 

Again the king after some days, just as before, sent 
a message to KundalinI, and on the seventh day he paid 
her a visit and returning home again he seated himself in 
the centre of a pavilion and ordered KundalinI to be 


brought to him, and when she was seated on a golden 
stool, he questioned her as to the duty of a king and 
spoke this stanza: 

Kuiidalini, of kshatriya birth, couldst thou resolve my quest, 

To one that's fain o'er men to reign, what course of life is best? 

When the king thus asked her as to the duties of a 
king, she said, " I suppose, Sir, you are putting me to the 
test, thinking ' What will a woman be able to tell me 1 ' so 
I will tell you, putting all your duty as a king into just 
two maxims," and she repeated these stanzas : 

The matter, my friend, is set forth in a couple of maxims quite plain- 
To keep whatsoever one has, and whatever one ha.s not to gain. 

Take as counsellors men that are wise, thy interests clearly to see, 
Not given to riot and waste, from gambling and drunkenness free. 

Such a one as can guard thee aright and thy treasure with all 

proper zeal, 
As a charioteer guides his car, he with skill steers the realm's 

common weal. 

Keep ever thy folk well in hand, and duly take stock of thy pelf. 
Ne'er trust to another a loan or deposit, but act for thyself. 

What is done or undone to thy profit and loss it is well thou shouldst 

Ever blame the blame-worthy and favour on them that deserve it 


Thou thyself, great king, shouldst instruct thy people in every 

good way, 
Lest thy realm and thy substance should fall to unrighteous officials 

a prey. 

See that nothing is done by thyself or by others with overmuch 

For the fool that so acts without doubt will live to repent of the 


To wrath one should never give way, nor let it due bounds overflow; 
It has led to the ruin of kings and the proudest of houses laid low. 
Betray none, in that thou art lord, to aught that is useless and vain, 
Nor become thou to women and men the cause of their sorrow and 


When a king from all caution is free, and the pleasures of sense 

are his aim, 
Should his riches and all disappear, to that king it is counted as 


Herein is a text of thy duty, to teach thee the way thou shouldst go, 
Be an adept in every good work, to excess and to riot a foe, 
Study virtue, for vice ever leads to a state full of suffering and woe. 

Thus did Kundalini also teach the king his duty in 
eleven stanzas. The king was delighted and addressing 
his courtiers asked them, saying, " What is to be given to 
my daughter as a reward for her having spoken thus?" 
" The office of treasurer, Sire." " Well then, I grant her 
the post of treasurer," and he appointed Kundalini to the 
vacant post. Thenceforth she held the office and acted 
for the king. Here ends the story of the question of 

Again the king after the lapse of a few days, just as 
before, sent a messenger to the wise Jambuka, and going- 
there on the seventh day and being magnificently enter- 
tained he returned home and in the same manner took 
his seat in the centre of a pavilion. A courtier placed 
the wise Jambuka on a stool bound with gold, and came 
bearing the stool on his head. The wise bird sitting on 
his father's lap and playing with him at length took his 
seat on the golden stool. Then the king, asking him a 
question, spoke this stanza: 

We've Questioned both thy brother owl, and also fair Kundalini; 
Now, Jambuka, do thou in turn the highest power declare to me. 

Thus did the king, in asking a question of the Great 
Being, not ask him in the way in which he had asked the 
others, but asked him in a special way. Then the wise 
bird said to him, " Well, Sire, listen attentively, and I will 
tell you all," and like a man placing a purse containing 


a thousand pieces of money into an outstretched hand, he 
began his exposition of a king's duty : 

Amidst the great ones of the earth a fivefold power we see; 
Of these the power of limbs is, sure, the last in its degree, 
And power of wealth, mighty lord, the next is said to be. 

The power of counsel third in rank of these, king, I name; 
The power of caste without a doubt is reckoned fourth in fame, 
And all of these a man that's wise most certainly will claim. 

Of all these powers that one is best, as power of wisdom known, 
By strength of this a man is wise and makes success his own. 

Should richest realm fall to the lot of some poor stupid wight, 
Another will by violence seize it in his despite. 

However noble be the prince, whose lot it is to rule, 
He is hard put to live at all, if he should prove a fool. 

'Tis wisdom tests reports of deeds and makes men's fame to grow, 
Who is with wisdom gifted still finds pleasure e'en in woe. 

None that are heedless in their ways to wisdom can attain, 
But must consult the wise and just, or ignorant remain. 

Who early rising shall betimes unweariedly give heed 
To duty's varied calls, in life is certain to succeed. 

No one that's bent on hurtful things or acts in listless mood 
In aught that he may undertake will come to any good. 

But one that will unweariedly a rightful course pursue, 
Is sure to reach perfection in whatever he may do. 

To safeguard one's store is to gain more and more, 
And these are the things I would have thee to mind ; 

For the fool by ill deeds, like a house built of reeds, 
Collapses and leaves rack and ruin behind. 

Thus did the Bodhisatta in all these points sing the 
praises of the five powers, and exalting the power of 
wisdom, like to one striking the orb of the moon with his 
words, he admonished the king in ten stanzas : 

Unto thy parents, warrior king, do righteously; and so 

By following a righteous life to heaven thou, sire, shalt go.... 


After uttering ten stanzas about the way of righteous- 
ness, still further admonishing the king he spoke the 
concluding stanza: 

Herein is the text of thy duty, to teach thee the way thou shouldst go : 
Follow wisdom and ever be happy, the Truth in its fulness to know. 

Thus did the Great Being, as though he were letting 
down the heavenly Ganges, teach the Law with all the 
charm of a Buddha. And the multitude paid him great 
honour and raised innumerable shouts of applause. The 
king was delighted and addressing his councillors asked, 
" How ought my son, wise Jambuka, with a beak like the 
fresh fruit of the rose-apple, to be rewarded for having 
spoken thus?" "With the post of commander-in-chief, 
Sire." " Then I offer him this post," he said, and appointed 
him to the vacant office, and thenceforth in the position of 
commander-in-chief he carried out the orders of his father. 
Great honour was paid to the three birds, and all three of 
them gave instruction in temporal and spiritual matters. 
The king, abiding in the admonition of the Great Being, 
by almsgiving and other good works became destined to 
heaven. The councillors after performing the king's 
obsequies, speaking to the birds said, "My lord, Jambu, 
the king ordered the royal umbrella to be raised over 
you." The Great Being said, "I have no need of the 
kingdom, do you exercise rule with all vigilance," and 
after establishing the people in the moral law, he said, 
"Execute justice," and he had righteous judgment in- 
scribed on a golden plate and disappeared in the forest. 
And his admonition continued in force forty thousand 

See On Talking Birds in Hindu Fiction ( Windisch Festschrift, p. 349), by 
M Bloomfield, who does not recognise the owl as a talking bird. Cf. the talking 
parrot, above, pp. 74, 167; the "heron," p. 243, is probably a kind of sparrow 
(pujani). The goose, p. 117, belongs rather to the talking animals of fable. 

F. &T. 27 


Once upon a time, the Magadha king reigned in 
Rajagaha. The Bodhisatta was born to his chief queen 
and on his naming-day they called him prince Arindama. 
On the very day of his birth a son was also born to the 
royal chaplain, and to him they gave the name of young 
Sonaka. The two lads grew up together and when they 
were of age they were exceedingly handsome, in appear- 
ance not to be distinguished one from another, and they 
went to Takkasila and, after being trained in all sciences, 
they left that place with the intention of learning the 
practical uses of arts and local observances, and gradually 
in the course of their wanderings found their way to 
Benares. There they took up their abode in the royal 
park and next day entered the city. That very day 
certain men being minded to make an offering of food 
to brahmins provided some rice-porridge and arranged 
seats, and on seeing these youths approach they brought 
them into the house and made them sit upon the seats 
they had prepared. On the seat allotted to the Bodhisatta 
a white cloth was spread, on that assigned to Sonaka a red 
woollen rug. On seeing this omen Sonaka at once under- 
stood that this day his dear friend Arindama would become 
king in Benares, and that he would offer him the post of 
commander-in-chief. After they had finished their meal 
they returned together to the park. Now it was the 
seventh day since the king of Benares had died and the 
royal house was without an heir. So the councillors and 
the rest after washing themselves, head and all, assembled 
together and saying, " Thou art to go to the house of the 
man that is worthy to be king," they started the festal car. 
On leaving the city it gradually approached the park and 


stopping at the park gate it stood there, ready for anyone 
to mount upon it. The Bodhisatta lay, with his outer 
robe wrapped about his head, on the royal slab of stone, 
while the lad Sonaka sat near him. On hearing the sound 
of musical instruments Sonaka thought, " Here comes the 
festal car for Arindama. To-day he will be made king and 
he will offer me the post of commander. But verily I have 
no desire for rule : when he is gone away, I will leave the 
world and become an ascetic," and he stood on one side in 
concealment. The chaplain on entering the park saw the 
Great Being lying there and ordered his trumpets to be 
sounded. The Great Being woke up and after turning 
over and lying for a while he rose up and sat cross- 
legged on the stone seat. Then the chaplain clasping his 
arms in a suppliant attitude cried, "The kingdom, Sire, 
comes to you." "Why, is there no heir to the throne?" 
"Even so, Sire." "Then it is well," he said. So they 
sprinkled him to be king then and there. And mounting 
him on the car they brought him with a vast escort into 
the city. After a rightwise procession round the city he 
ascended to his palace and in the greatness of his glory he 
forgot all about young Sonaka. But when the king was 
gone, Sonaka returned and sat on the stone seat, and so 
it was that a withered leaf of a sal tree fell from its stalk 
in front of him, and on seeing it he cried, "Even as this 
leaf, so will my body fall into decay," and acquiring super- 
natural insight by reflecting on the impermanence of all 
things he attained to the state of a pacceka buddha, and 
at this very instant his characteristic as a layman vanished, 
and the marks of an ascetic became visible, and making 
the solemn utterance, "There is no more re-birth for 
me," he set out for the cave of Nandamula. And the 
Great Being after the lapse of forty years remembered 



Sonaka and said, " Where in the world can Sonaka be ? " 
And time after time calling him to mind he found no one 
to tell him saying, " I have heard of him or I have seen 
him." And sitting cross-legged on a royal throne upon a 
magnificent dais, surrounded by a company of minstrels 
and mime dancers, in the enjoyment of his glory, he said, 
" Whosoever shall hear from someone that Sonaka dwells 
in such and such a place and shall repeat it to me, to him 
I promise a hundred pieces of money, but whosoever shall 
see him with his own eyes and shall tell me, to him I 
promise a thousand pieces of money," and giving expres- 
sion to this inspired utterance, in the form of a song, he 
repeated the first stanza : 

A thousand crowns for one that sees my friend and playmate dear, 
A hundred lo! I give if one of Souaka should hear. 

Then a nautch girl, catching it up, as it were, from his 
very mouth, sang the words, and then another and another 
took it up till the whole harem, thinking it was a favourite 
air of the king's, all sang it. And gradually both towns- 
people and country-folk sang the same song and the king 
too constantly sang it. At the end of fifty years the king 
had many sons and daughters, and the eldest son was 
called prince Dighavu. At this time the pacceka buddha 
Sonaka thought, "King Arindaina is anxious to see me. 
I will go and explain to him the misery of desires and the 
blessing of Renunciation, and will shew him the way to 
become an ascetic. And by his supernatural power he 
conveyed himself thither and took a seat in the park. At 
that moment a boy seven years old, wearing his hair in 
five knots, was sent there by his mother, and as he was 
gathering sticks in the park garden he sang over ami over 
again this song. Sonaka called the boy to him and asked 
him saying, "Why, my lad, do you always sing the same 


song and never sing anything else? Do you not know 
any other song?" "I know others, holy Sir, but this is 
our king's favourite song, and so I constantly sing it." 
" Has any one been found to sing a refrain to this song ? " 
"No, Sir." "I will teach you one and then you can go 
and sing the refrain before the king." " Yes, Sir." So he 
taught him the refrain " The thousand give " and the rest 
of it, and when the boy had mastered it, he sent him off, 
saying, " Go, my lad, and sing this refrain before the king 
and he will grant you great power. What have you to do 
with gathering sticks? Be off with you as quick as you 
can." " Very well," said the boy, and having mastered the 
refrain and saluted Sonaka he said, "Holy Sir, until I 
bring the king, do you remain here." With these words 
he went off as fast as he could to his mother and said to 
her, " Dear mother, give me a bath and dress me in my 
best clothes: to-day will I free you from your poverty." 
And when he had taken a bath and was smartly dressed, 
he went to the door of the palace and said, "Porter, go 
and tell the king and say, 'A certain lad has come and 
even now stands at the door, prepared to sing a song with 
you.' ' So the porter made haste and told the king. The 
king summoned him to his presence and said, "Friend, 
would you sing a song with me?" "Yes, Sire." "Then 
sing it." "My lord, I will not sing it here, but have a 
drum beaten through the city and bid the people assemble 
together. I will sing before the people." The king ordered 
this to be done, and, taking his seat in the middle of 
a couch under a magnificent pavilion and assigning a 
suitable seat to the boy, he said, "Now then sing your 
song." " Sire," he said, " you sing first and then I will sing 
a refrain to it." Then the king sang first, repeating this 
stanza : 


A thousand crowns for one that sees my friend and playmate dear, 
A hundred lo! I give if one of Sonaka should hear. 

(Then the Master, to make it clear that the boy with 
his hair dressed in five knots sang a refrain to the song 
begun by the king, in his state as perfect Buddha 
repeated two lines:) 

Then up and spake that little boy five tang-led locks he wore 
" The thousand give to me who saw, who heard a hundred more : 
I'll tell thee news of Sonaka, thy playfellow- of yore." 

The verses that follow are to be taken in their obvious 
connexion : 

Pray in what country, realm, or town hast thou a-wandering been, 
And where was Sonaka, my friend, I prithee tell me, seen? 

Within this realm, in thine own park is many a big sal tree 
With leaves dark green and stems so straight, a pleasant sight to 

see ; 

Their branches densely interlaced, cloud-like, to heaven they rise, 

And at their foot lo! Sonaka in meditation lies, 

Filled with the Arhat's holy calm, when human passion dies. 

The king then started in full force and levelling the road 
He made his way straight to the place of Sonaka's abode. 

There wandering midst an ample grove within his pleasure ground, 
All passionless, in saintly bliss, his friend at rest he found. 

Without saluting him he sat on one side and, by reason 
of his being himself given up to evil passion, he fancied he 
was some poor wretch and addressed him in this stanza : 

His parents dead, with shaven head, clad in monk's robe I see 
A wretched Brother in a trance, stretched here beneath this tree. 

On hearing this said Sonaka, " He is no wretched wight 
Who in his every action, Sire, has aye attained to right. 

Nay rather wretched those who right neglect and practise ill, 
For evil doer evil doom is destined to fulfil." 

Thus did he rebuke the Bodhisatta, and he pretending 
not to know he was being rebuked, talking in a friendly 


way with him, declared his name and family and spoke 
this stanza: 

As king of Kasi I am known, Ariudama niy name, 

Since coming here, Sir, hast thon met with aught deserving blame ? 

Then the pacceka bucldha said, "Not merely while 
dwelling here but nowhere else have I met with any 
discomfort," and he began to tell in verse the blessings 
of the monk : 

'Mougst blessings of poor homeless monk I ever count it one, 

In store-room jar or granary he has hoarded none, 

But only craves what others leave and lives content thereon. 

The next of all his blessings this is one deserving praise, 

He free from blame enjoys his food and no one him gainsays. 

Third blessing of the monk I hold is this, that all his days 
He eats his food, desires extinct, and no one him gainsays. 

The fourth of all his blessings is that wheresoe'er he goes, 

He wanders free throughout the realm and no Attachment knows. 

Fifth blessing this that should the town, wherever he may be, 
Perish in flames, he suffers not, for nought to burn has he. 

The sixth of all the blessings he may reckon to his lot, 
That if the realm should be despoiled, he suffers not a jot. 

The seventh of the blessings that to poverty he owes, 

Though robbers should his path beset, and many dangerous foes, 

With bowl and robe the holy man ever in safety goes. 

Last blessing this that wheresoe'er our wanderer may fare, 
Homeless and poor, he journeys on without regret or care. 

Thus did the pacceka buddha Sonaka tell of the eight 
blessings of the monk, and even beyond this he could 
have told of a hundred, nav a thousand immeasurable 


blessings, but the king being given up to sensual desires 
cut short his speech, saying, " I have no need of monkish 
blessings," and to make it clear how devoted he was to 
evil passions he said : 


Thy many blessings thou mayst praise but what am I to do 
Who worldly pleasures, Sonaka, so greedily pursue? 

Dear are all human joys to me and heavenly joys as well, 
But how to gain both worlds at once, to me, I prithee, tell. 

Then the pacceka buddha answered him : 

Who greedily on pleasure bent their worldly lusts would sate, 
Work wickedness awhile, to be re-born in woeful state. 

But they who leave desire behind through life all fearless go, 
And reaching concentration pure are ne'er re-born to woe. 

Here tell I thee a parable; Arindama, give heed, 

Some that are wise through parable my meaning best may read. 

See! borne along on Ganges' flooded tide a carcase vast, 
A foolish crow thought to himself as it was floating past, 

"Oh what a carriage I have found and goodly store of food, 
Here will I stay both night and day, enjoying blissful mood." 

So eats he flesh of elephant and drinks from Granges' stream, 
And budging not sees grove and shrine pass by him in a dream. 
Thus heedless and on carrion vile so all intent was he, 
The Ganges swept him headlong to the perils of the sea. 

But when with food exhausted he, poor bird, essayed a flight, 
Nor east nor west nor south nor north was any land in sight. 

Far out at sea, so weak was he, long ere he reached the shore, 
Midst countless perils of the deep he fell to rise no more. 
For crocodiles and monster fish, where our poor flutterer lay, 
Came ravening all around and quick devoured their quivering prey. 
So thou and all that greedily pleasures of sense pursue 
Are deemed as wise as was this crow, till ye all lusts eschew. 

My parable proclaims the Truth. To it, king,' give heed, 
Thy fame for good or ill will grow according to thy deed. 

Thus by means of this parable did he admonish the 
king and, in order to fix it firmly in his mind, he repeated 
this stanza : 

In pity once, nay even twice, utter the warning word, 
But keep not on repeating it, like slave before his lord. 

Thus in his wisdom infinite did Sonaka the seer 

Instruct the king, and then in space straightway did disappear. 

(This stanza was uttered by the Master as Buddha.) 


And the Bodhisatta stood gazing on him as he passed 
through the air, so long as he remained within the range 
of his vision, but when he had passed out of sight, he was 
greatly agitated and thought, "This brahmin, low-born 1 
fellow that he is, after scattering the dust from his feet 
upon my head, though I am sprung from an unbroken 
line of nobles, has disappeared in the sky : I must to-day 
renounce the world and become a religious. So in his 
desire to join the religious and give up his kingdom he 
repeated a couple of stanzas: 

Where are my charioteers, despatched a worthy king to find? 
I would not longer reign ; henceforth my crown I have resigned. 

To-morrow one may die, who knows ? I'll be ordained to-day, 
Lest, like the foolish crow, I fall 'neath passion's baneful sway. 

On hearing him thus abdicate his throne his councillors 

Thou hast a son, Dlghfivu named, a goodly prince is he, 

By sprinkling raise him to the throne, for he our king shall be. 

Then, beginning with the stanza spoken by the king, 
the verses in due order are to be understood in their 
obvious connexion : 

Then quickly bring Dighavu here, a goodly prince is he, 

By sprinkling raise him to the throne, for he your king shall be. 

When they had brought Dighavu there, their nursing king to be, 
His sire addressed his darling boy an only son was he. 

Full sixty thousand villages I once did claim as mine, 

Take them, my son, to thee henceforth my kingdom I resign. 

To-morrow one may die, who knows ? I'll be ordained to-day ; 
Lest, like the foolish crow, I fall 'neath passion's baneful sway. 

Lo! sixty thousand elephants with splendour all bedight, 
With girths of gold, caparisoned with trappings golden-bright, 

Each ridden by his own mahout, with spiked hook in hand, 
Take them, my son, I give them thee as ruler of the land. 

1 On a brahmin being called hlna-jacco see Buddhist India by R. Davids, p. 60. 


To-morrow one may die, who knows ? I'll be ordained to-day ; 
Lest, like the foolish crow, I fall 'neath passion's baneful sway. 
Lo! sixty thousand horses here, bedecked in bright array 
Sindh horses, all of noble breed and fleet of foot are they- 
Each ridden by a henchman bold, with sword and bow in hand, 
Take them, niy son, I give them thee as ruler of the land. 
To-morrow one may die, who knows? I'll be ordained to-day; 
Lest, like the foolish crow, I fall 'neath passion's baneful sway. 
Lo! sixty thousand cars all yoked, with banners flying free, 
With tiger skin and panther hide, a gorgeous sight to see, 
Each driven by mailed charioteers, all armed with bow in hand, 
Take them, my son, I give them thee, as ruler of the land. 
To-morrow one may die, who knows? I'll be ordained to-day; 
Lest, like the foolish crow, I fall 'neath passion's baneful sway. 
Lo! sixty thousand kine so red, with bulls on every hand, 
Take them, my son, I give them thee as ruler of the land. 

To-morrow one may die, who knows? I'll be ordained to-day; 
Lest, like the foolish crow, I fall 'neath passion's baneful sway. 

Here twice eight thousand maidens fair in goodly vesture stand, 
With many a jewelled bracelet decked and rings upon each hand, 
Take them, my son, I give them thee, as ruler of the land. 
To-morrow one may die, who knows? I'll be ordained to-day; 
Lest, like the foolish crow, I fall 'neath passion's baneful sway. 
z They say to me, "Thy mother dear, alas! poor boy, is dead," 

1 cannot live without thee too. All joy from life is fled. 

As close behind old elephant a young one oft is found 
Moving through mountain-pass or wood, o'er rough or level ground, 
So bowl in hand I'll follow thee, wherever thou niayst lead, 
Nor shalt thou find me burdensome or difficult to feed. 

2 As oft some ship of merchants seeking gain at any cost 

Is swallowed by a whirlpool 3 and both ship and crew are lost. 
So lest I find a stumbling-block in this unlucky boy, 
Instal him in my palace there all pleasures to enjoy 

With maids whose hands caressing him with gleaming gold are 

Like Sakka midst his nymphs divine, he'll ever take delight. 

1 This and the two following stanzas are spoken by the young prince. 

2 This and the two following stanzas are spoken by king Arindama. 

3 The commentary explains eohara as a " monster fish " or " whirlpool." 


Then brought they prince Dighavu to the palace, home of joy, 
And seeing him these maidens fair addressed the royal boy. 

" Art thon a god, or bard divine, or Sakka known to fame, 
Dispensing alms in every town? We fain would learn thy name." 

No god am I, nor bard divine, nor Sakka known to fame, 
But heir to king of Kasi, prince Dighavu is my name. 
So cherish me and happy be: each one as wife I claim. 

Then thus unto Dighavu, their liege lord, these maidens said; 
"Where has the king a refuge gained, and whither is he fled?" 

The king escaped from miry ways is safe upon dry ground, 
From thorns and jungle free at last the high road he has found. 

But I am set upon a path that leads to woeful state, 
Through thorns and jungle on I press to reach an awful fate. 

Welcome to us, as lion is to cubs in mountain lair, 

Bear sway henceforth, our sovereign lord, the true and rightful heir. 

And having so spoken they all sounded their musical 
instruments and all manner of song' and dance took place, 
and so great was his glory that the prince intoxicated by 
it forgot all about his father, but exercising his rule with 
justice he fared according to his deeds. But the Bodhi- 
satta developed the supernatural faculty resulting from 
Meditation and passed away to the Brahma world. 

Car. Pit. in. 5. The episode of the prince chosen king by the festal car occurs 
in Jat. 445, 539, and K. D. (Arab.) xvin. The king's Son and his Companions, in 
which also occurs the events of Jat. 4. Parallels to the discovery of a lost friend by 
means of a refrain are given on p. 381. 


Once upon a time, in the Malla kingdom, in the 
royal city of Kusavati, king Okkaka ruled his kingdom 
righteously. Amongst his sixteen thousand wives the 
chief was Silavati, his queen consort. I^ow she had neither 
son nor daughter, and the men of the city and all his 
subjects assembled at the door of the palace, complaining 


that the realm would utterly perish. The king opened 
his window and said, "Under my rule no man worketh 
iniquity. Wherefore do ye reproach me ? " " True, sire," 
they answered, "no one worketh iniquity, but no son is 
born to you, to perpetuate the race : a stranger will seize 
upon the kingdom and destroy it. Therefore pray for a 
son who can rule your kingdom righteously." "In my 
desire for a son, what am I to do ? " " First of all send 
out into the streets for a whole week a band 1 of dancing- 
women of low degree giving the act a religious sanction 
-and if one of them shall give birth to a son, well and 
good. Otherwise send out a company of fairly good 
standing, and finally a band of the highest rank. Surely 
amongst so many one woman will be found of sufficient 
merit to bear a son." The king did as they bade him, and 
every seventh day he inquired of all such as had returned, 
after taking their fill of pleasure, whether any of them 
had conceived. And when they all answered, "No, sire," 
the king was now in despair and cried, "Xo son will be 
born to me." The men of the city again reproached him 
as before. The king said, " Why do ye reproach me ? At 
your bidding companies of women were exposed in the 
streets, and no one of them has conceived. What now am 
I to do ? " " Sire," they answered, " these women must be 
immoral and void of merit. They have not sufficient merit 
to conceive a son. But because they do not conceive, you 

seems to be used in this passage of a band of dancing girls, like the use 
of Kvpos of a "band of revellers." The epithets *//</, majjjhima,jettha, cannot well 
apply to the age of the women ; more probably to their degrees of rank, or perhaps 
merit, as in the case of cidla-majjhinieMnahd-sllam. The women are no doubt in 
same way attached t<> the king's court or members of his harem : otherwise he could 
scarcely look upon a son born to any of them as his heir. As to the licentious 
observances connected with the desire to remove the sterility of women, the reader 
may consult Coleman's Mythol'xjii <>f tin' lint Itt.<, p. ,S~8, and Duboisand Beauchamp'* 
Hindu Manners and Customs, Pt. in. Ch. iv. p. 600. 


are not to relax your efforts. The queen consort, Silavati, 
is a virtuous woman. Send her out into the streets. A son 
will be born to her." The king readily assented, and pro- 
claimed by beat of drum that on the seventh day from 
that time the people were to assemble and the king* would 
expose Silavati giving the act a religious character. And 
on the seventh day he had the queen magnificently arrayed 
and carried down from the palace and exposed in the 
streets. By the power of her virtue the abode of Sakka 
manifested signs of heat. Sakka, considering what this 
might mean, found that the queen was anxious for a son 
and thought, "I must grant her a son," and, while 
wondering whether there was anyone in the world of gods 
worthy to be her son, he beheld the Bodhisatta. At this 
time, it is said, having passed through his existence in the 
heaven of the Thirty-three, he was longing to be born in 
a higher world. Sakka, coming to the door of his dwelling- 
place, summoned him forth, saying, " Sir, you are to go to 
the world of men, and to be conceived as the child of 
Okkaka's chief consort," and then he gained the consent 
of another divine being and said, "And you too shall be 
her son," and that no man might make a breach in her 
virtue, Sakka went disguised as an aged brahmin to the 
door of the palace. The people, after washing and 
adorning themselves, each being minded to possess the 
queen, assembled at the royal entrance, but at the sight 
of Sakka they laughed, asking him why he had come. 
Sakka said, " Why blame me ? If I am old in person, my 
passions are unabated, and I am come with the hope of 
carrying off Silavati with me, should I get her." And 
with these words, by his divine power he got in front of 
them all, and by reason of the majesty that was in him no 
man could stand before him, and as the queen stepped 


forth from the palace, arrayed in all her glory, he took 
her bv the hand and made off with her. Then such as 


stood there abused him, saying, "Fie on him, an old 
brahmin is gone off with a queen of peerless beauty : he 
knows not what is becoming to him." The queen too 
thought, " An old man is carrying me off." And she was 
vexed and angry, nay disgusted. The king standing at 
the open window, looking to see who might carry off the 
queen, on seeing who it was, was highly displeased. Sakka, 
escaping with her by the city gate, miraculously caused a 
house to appear close at hand, with its door open and 
a bundle of sticks laid out ready. " Is this your abode ? " 
she asked. " Yes, lady, hitherto I have been alone : now 
there are two of us. I will go my rounds and bring home 
some husked rice. Do you meanwhile lie down on this 
heap of sticks." And so saying, he gently stroked her with 
his hand, and causing her to thrill with the divine touch, 
he then and there laid her down, and at his touch she 
lost consciousness. Then by his supernatural power he 
transported her to the heaven of the Thirty-three and set 
her down on a heavenly couch in a magnificent palace. 
On the seventh day waking up, she beheld this splendour 
and knew that this was no brahmin, but must be Sakka 
himself. At this moment Sakka was seated at the foot of 
a coral-tree, surrounded by heavenly dancers. Rising 
from her couch, she approached and saluted the god and 
stood respectfully on one side. Then Sakka said, " I give 
thee a boon : choose what it shall be." " Then grant me, 
sire, a son." " Not merely one, lady. I will grant you two. 
One of them shall be wise but ugly, the other shall be 
handsome but a fool. Which of them will vou have 


first?" "The wise one," she answered. "Good," said 
he, and he presented her with a piece of kusa-grass, 


a heavenly robe and sandal-wood, the flower of the 
coral-tree and a Kokanada lute. Then he transported 
her into the king's bedchamber and laid her down on the 
same couch with the king, and touched her person 1 with 
his thumb, and at that moment the Bodhisatta was con- 
ceived. And Sakka straightway returned to his own abode. 
The wise queen knew that she had conceived. Then the 
king, waked, and seeing her said, "Who brought you here?" 
" Sakka, sire." " Why ! with my own eyes I saw an aged 
brahmin carry you off. Why do you deceive me?" "Believe 
me, sire, Sakka took me with him to the world of gods." 
" Lady, I do not believe you." Then she shewed him the 
kusa-grass which Sakka had given her, saying, "Now 
believe me." The king thought, " Kusa-grass is to be got 
anywhere," and still disbelieved her. Then she shewed 
him her heavenly robes. On seeing these the king believed 
her arid said, " Dear lady, granted that Sakka carried you 
off, but are you with child ? " " Yes, sire, I have conceived." 
The king was delighted and performed the ceremony 
due to her state 2 . In ten months' time she gave birth 
to a son. Giving him no other name, they called him 
merely after the grass, Kusa. About the time that prince 
Kusa could run alone, a second heavenly being was con- 
ceived. To him they gave the name of Jayampati. The 
boys were brought up with great state. The Bodhisatta 
was so wise that, without learning aught from his teacher, 
he by his own ability attained to proficiency in all liberal 
arts. So when he was sixteen years old, the king being 
anxious to make over the kingdom to him, addressing the 
queen, said, " Lady, in making over the kingdom to your 
son, we would institute dramatic festivities, and in our 
lifetime we would see him established on the throne. If 

1 nabhim. 2 See note 1, p. 131. 


there is any king's daughter in all India you would like, on 
his bringing her here we will make her his queen consort. 
Sound him as to what king's daughter he affects." She 
readily agreed and sent a handmaid to report the matter 
to the prince and to ascertain his views. She went and 
told the prince the state of affairs. On hearing her the 
Great Being thought, " I am not well-favoured. A lovely 
princess, even if she is brought here as my bride, on seeing 
me, will say, ' What have I to do with this ugly fellow ? ' 
and will run away, and we shall be put to shame. What 
have I to do with household life ? I will foster my parents 
as long as they live, and at their death I will renounce the 
world and become an ascetic." So he said, "What need 
have I of a kingdom or festivities? When my parents 
die, I will adopt the ascetic life." The maid returned and 
told the queen what he had said. The king was greatly 
distressed and after a few days again sent a message, but 
he still refused to listen to it. After thrice rejecting the 
proposal, on the fourth occasion he thought, " It is not 
fitting to be in complete opposition to one's parents : I will 
devise something." So he summoned the chief smith, and, 
giving him a quantity of gold, bade him go and make a 
female image. When he was gone, he took more gold 
and himself fashioned it into the figure of a woman. 
Verily the purposes of Bodhisattas succeed. The figure 
was beautiful beyond the power of tongue to tell. Then the 
Great Being had it robed in linen and placed in the royal 
chamber. On seeing the image brought by the chief gold- 
smith, he found fault with it and said, " Go and fetch the 
figure placed in our royal chamber." The man went into 
the room, and on seeing it thought, " This surely must be 
some heavenly nymph, come to take her pleasure with the 
prince," and he left the room without having the courage 


to stretch forth his hand towards it, and he said, "Sire, 
standing in your royal chamber is a noble daughter of the 
gods : I dare not approach her." " Friend, 1 ' he said, " go 
and fetch the golden image," and being charged a second 
time he brought it. The prince ordered the image that 
the smith had wrought to be thrown into the golden 
chamber, and that which he himself had made he had 
adorned and placed in a car and sent it to his mother, 
saying, " When I find a woman like this, I will take her to 
wife." His mother summoned her councillors and ad- 
dressed them, saying, "Friends, our son is possessed of 
great merit and is the gift of Sakka; he must find a 
princess worthy of him. Do you then have this figure 
placed in a covered carriage and traverse the length and 
breadth of India, and whatsoever king's daughter you see 
like this image, present it to that king and say, ' King 
Okkaka will contract a marriage with your daughter.' 
Then arrange a day for your return and come home." 
They said, " It is well," and took the image and set out 
with a vast retinue. And in their journeyings, to what- 
ever royal city they come, there at eventide wheresoever 
the people gather together, after decking out this image 
with robes, flowers and other adornments, they mount it 
upon a golden car and leave it on the road leading to the 
bathing-place, and step back and stand on one side to 
listen to what all such as pass by had to say. The people 
on seeing it, not dreaming that it was a golden image, said, 
" This, though really only a woman, is very beautiful, like 
some divine nymph. Why in the world is she stationed 
here, and whence does she come? We have no one to 
compare with her in our city," and after thus praising her 
beauty, they went their ways. The councillors said, "If 
there were any girl like it here, they would say, ' This is 

F. & T. - s 


like so and so, the king's daughter, or like so and so, the 
minister's daughter ' ; verily there is no such maiden here." 
And they go off with it to some other city. So in their 
wanderings they reach the city of Sagala in the kingdom 
of Madda. Now the king of Madda had seven daughters, 
of extraordinary beauty, like to nymphs of heaven. The 
eldest of them was called Pabhavati. From her person 
stream forth rays of light, as it were of the newly-risen 
sun. When it is dark in her closet, measuring four cubits, 
there is no need of anv lami). The whole chamber is one 

. j 

blaze of light Xow she had a humpbacked nurse, who, 
when she had supplied Pabhavati with food, intending to 
wash her head, at eventide going forth to fetch water with 
eight slave-girls carrying each a waterpot, on the way to 
the bathing-place saw this image and, thinking it to be 
Pabhavati, exclaimed, "The ill-behaved girl, pretending 
she would have her head washed, sent us to fetch water, 
and, stealing a march upon us, is standing there in the 
road," and being in a rage she cried, " Fie, you are a dis- 
grace to the family : there you stand, getting here before 
us. Should the king hear of it, he will be the death of 
us, v and with these words she struck the image on the 
cheek, and a space as big as the palm of her hand was 
broken. Then discovering it was a golden image she 
burst out laughing, and going to the slave-girls said, " See 
what I have done. Thinking it was my foster daughter, 
I struck it. AVhat is this image worth in comparison with 
my child ? I have only hurt my hand for my pains." 
Then the king's emissaries took hold of her and said, 
" What is this story you tell us, saying that your daughter 
is fairer than this image ? " "I mean Pabhavati, the Madda 
king's daughter. This image is not worth a sixteenth 
fraction of her." Glad at heart, they sought the entrance 


to the palace, and had themselves announced to the king, 
sending in word that kingOkkaka's emissaries were standing 
at his door. The king arose from his seat and, standing 
up, ordered them to be admitted. On entering they 
saluted the king and said, " Sire, our king inquires after 
your health," and meeting with a hospitable reception, 
when asked why they had come, they replied, " Our king 
has a son, the bold prince Kusa : the king is anxious to 
make over his kingdom to him, and has sent us to ask you 
to give him your daughter Pabhavati in marriage and to 

^5 v 

accept as a present this golden figure," and with these 
words they offered him the image. He gladly agreed, 
thinking an alliance with so noble a king would be an 
auspicious one. Then the envoys said, "Sire, we cannot 
tarrv here : we will go and tell our king that we have 

t/ C2 

secured the hand of the princess, and then he will come 
and fetch her." The king agreed to this, and having 
hospitably entertained them let them go. On their 
return they made their report to the king and queen. 
The king with a great retinue set out from KusavatI and 
in course of time reached the city of Sagala. The Madda 
king came out to meet him, brought him into the citv and 

~ ' CU v 

paid him great honour. Queen Sllavati, being a wise 
woman, thought, "What will be the issue of all this?" 
At the end of one or two days she said to the king, " We 
are anxious to see our daughter-in-law." He readily 
assented and sent for his daughter. Pabhavati, magnifi- 
cently dressed and surrounded by a band of her atten- 
dants, came and saluted her mother-in-law. On seeing 
her the queen at once thought, "This maiden is very 
lovely and my son is ill-favoured. Should she see him, 

t/ / 

she will not stay a single day but will run away. I must 
devise some scheme." Addressing the Madda king she 



said, "My daughter-in-law is quite worthy of my son: 
howbeit we have an hereditary observance in our family. 
If she will abide by this custom, we will take her to be his 
bride." "What is this observance of yours?" "In our 
family a wife is not allowed to see her husband by day- 
light until she has conceived. If she will act up to 
this, we will take her." The king asked his daughter, " My 
dear, will you be able to act thus ? " " Yes, dear father," 
she replied. Then king Okkaka bestowed much gear on 
the Madda king and departed with her. And the Madda 
king despatched his daughter with a vast retinue. Okkaka, 
on reaching KusavatI, gave orders for the city to be 
decorated, all prisoners to be released, and after sprinkling 
his son as king and creating Pabhavat! his chief consort, 
he proclaimed by beat of drum the rule of king Kusa. 
And all the kings throughout India who had daughters 
sent them to the court of king Kusa, and all who had 
sons, desiring friendship with him, sent their sons to be 
his pages. The Bodhisatta had a large company of dancers 
and ruled with great state. But he is not allowed to see 
PabhavatI by day, nor may she see him, but at night they 
have free access one to another. At that time there is an 
extraordinary effulgence from the person of PabhavatI, 
but the Bodhisatta leaves the roval chamber while it is 


still dark. After a few davs he told his mother he longed 


to see PabhavatI by day. She refused his request, saying, 
" Let not this be thy good pleasure, but wait until she has 
conceived." Again and again he besought her. So she 
said, "Well, go to the elephant-stall and stand there dis- 
guised as an elephant-keeper. I will bring her there, so 
that you may have your fill of gazing at her, but see that 
you do not make yourself known to her." He agreed to 
this and went to the elephant-stall. The queen-mother 


proclaimed an elephant-festival and said to Pabhavati, 
" Come, we will go and see your lord's elephants." Taking 
her there, she pointed out this and that elephant by name. 
Then, as Pabhavati was walking behind his mother, the 
king struck her in the back with a lump of elephant-dung. 
She was enraged and said, "I will get the king to cut 
your hand oif," and by her words she vexed the queen- 
mother, who appeased her by rubbing her back. A second 
time the king was anxious to see her, and, disguised as a 
groom in the horse-stable, just as before, he struck her 
with a piece of horse-dirt, and then too when she was 
angry her mother-in-law appeased her. Again, one day 
Pabhavati told her mother-in-law 7 she longed to see the 
Great Being, and when her request was refused by her 
mother, who said, "Nay, let not this be your pleasure," 
she besought her again and again, so at last she said, 
"Well, to-morrow my son will be making a solemn pro- 
cession through the city. You can open your window and 
see him." And after so saying, on the next day she had 
the city decked out, and ordered prince Jayampati, clad 
in a royal robe and mounted on an elephant, to make a 
triumphal procession through the city. Standing at the 
window 7 with Pabhavati, she said, "Behold the glory of 
your lord." She said, "I have got a husband not un- 
worthy of me," and she was highly elated. But that very 
day the Great Being, disguised as an elephant-keeper, was 
seated behind Jayampati, and gazing at Pabhavati as 
much as he would, in the joy of his heart he disported 
himself by gesticulating with his hands. When the 
elephant had passed them, the queen-mother asked her 
if she had seen her husband. "Yes, lady, but seated 
behind him was an elephant-keeper, a very ill-conducted 
fellow, who gesticulated at me with his hands. Why do 


they let such an ugly, ill-omened creature sit behind the 
king ? ' " It is desirable, my dear, to have a guard sit 
behind the king." "This elephant-keeper," she thought, 
" is a bold fellow, and has no proper respect for the king. 
Can it be that he is king Kusa ? No doubt he is hideous, 
and that is why they do not let me see him." So she 
whispered to her humpbacked nurse, "Go, my dear, at 
once and make out whether it was the king who sat in 
front or behind." " How am I to find this out ? " " If he 
be the king he will be the first to alight from the elephant : 
you are to know by this token." She went and stood at a 
distance and saw the Great Being alight first, and after- 
wards prince Jayampati. The Great Being looking about 
him, first on one side and then on the other, seeing the 
humpbacked old woman, knew at once why she must have 
come, and, sending for her, straitly charged her not to 
reveal his secret, and let her go. She came and told her 
mistress, " The one that sat in front was the first to alight," 
and PabhavatI believed her. Once more the king longed 
to see her and begged his mother to arrange it. She could 
not refuse him and said, " Well then, disguise yourself and 
go to the garden." He went and hid himself up to his 
neck in the lotus-pool, standing in the water with his head 
shaded by a lotus-leaf and his face covered by its flower. 
And his mother brought PabhavatI in the evening to the 
garden, and saying, " Look at these trees, or look at these 
birds or deer," thus tempted her on till she came to the 
bank of the lotus-pond. When she saw the pond covered 
with five kinds of lotus, she longed to bathe and went 
down to the water's edge with her maidens. While dis- 
porting herself she saw that lotus and stretched forth her 
hand, eager to pluck it. Then the king, putting aside the 
lotus-leaf, took her by the hand, saying, " I am king Kusa." 


On seeing his face she cried, "A goblin is catching hold of 
me," and then and there swooned away. So the king let 
go her hand. On recovering consciousness she thought, 
" King Kusa, they say, caught me by the hand, and he it 
was that hit me in the elephant-stall with a piece of 
elephant-dirt, and in the horse-stable with a piece of 
horse- dirt, and he it was that sat behind on the elephant 
and made game of me. What have I to do with such an 
ugly, hideous husband? If I live, I will have another 
husband." So she summoned the councillors who had 
escorted her hither and said, "Make ready my chariot. 
This very day I will be off'." They told this to the king 
and he thought, " If she cannot get away, her heart will 
break: let her go. By my own power I will bring her 
back again." So he allowed her to depart, and she 
returned straight to her father's city. And the Great 
Being passed from the park into the city and climbed up 
to his splendid palace. Verily it was in consequence of an 
aspiration in a previous existence that she disapproved of 
the Bodhisatta, and it was owing to a former act of his 
that he was so ugly. Of old, they say, in a suburb of 
Benares, in the upper and lower street, one family had two 
sons and another had one daughter. Of the two sons the 
Bodhisatta was the younger, and the maiden was wedded 
to the elder son, but the younger, being unmarried, con- 
tinued to live with his brother. NOAV one day in this 
house they baked some very dainty cakes, and the Bodhi- 
satta was away in the forest ; so putting aside a cake for 
him they distributed and ate the rest. At that moment a 


pacceka buddha came to the door for alms. The Bodhi- 
satta's sister-in-law thought she would bake another cake 
for young master and took and gave his cake to the 
pacceka buddha, and at that very instant he returned from 


the forest. So she said, "My lord, do not be angry, but 
I have given your portion to the pacceka buddha." He 
said, " After eating your own portion you give mine away, 
and you will make me another cake forsooth ! " And he 
was angry and went and took the cake from the beggar's 
bowl. She went to her mother's house and took some 
fresh-melted ghee, in colour like the champak flower, and 
filled the bowl with it, and it sent forth a blaze of light. 
On seeing this she put up a prayer : " Holy sir, wherever 
I am born, may my body give forth a light and may I be 
very lovely, and nevermore may I have to dwell in the 
same place with this lewd fellow." Thus as the result of 
this prayer of old she would have none of him. And the 
Bodhisatta, in dropping the cake again into the bowl, put 
up a prayer : " Holy sir, though she should live a hundred 
leagues away, may I have the power to carry her off as my 
bride." In that he was angry and took the cake, as the 
result of this act of old he was born so ugly. 

Kusa was so overwhelmed with sorrow when Pabhavati 
left him that the other women, though ministering to him 
with all kinds of service, had not the heart to look him in 
the face, and all his palace, bereft of Pabhavati, seemed 
as it were desolate. Then he thought, " By this time she 
will have reached the city Sagala," and at break of day 
he sought his mother and said, "Dear mother, I will go 
and fetch Pabhavati. You are to rule my kingdom," and 
he uttered the first stanza : 

This realm with joy and bliss untold, 
Trappings of state and wealth of gold, 
This realm, I say, rule thon for me: 
I go to seek Pabhavati. 

His mother, on hearing what he had to say, replied, 
" Well, my son, you must exercise great vigilance : women, 


verily, are impure-minded creatures," and she filled a 
golden bowl with all manner of dainty food, and saying, 
'This is for you to eat on the journey," she took leave 
of him. Taking it he made a rightwise circuit thrice 
round his mother, and cried, " If I live, I will see you 
again," and so withdrew to the royal chamber. Then he 
girded himself with the five sorts of weapons and putting 
a thousand pieces of money in a bag he took his bowl of 
food and a Kokanada lute and leaving the city set out on 
his journey. Being very strong and vigorous by noon- 
time he had travelled fifty leagues and, after eating his 
food, in the remaining half-day he made up another fifty 
leagues, and so in the course of a single day he accom- 
plished a journey of a hundred leagues. In the evening- 
he bathed and then entered the city of Sagala. No 
sooner did he set foot in the place than Pabhavati by 
the power of his majesty could no longer rest quietly on 
her couch but got out of bed and lay upon the ground. 
The Bodhisatta was thoroughly exhausted with his 
journey, and being seen by a certain woman, as he was 
wandering about the street, was invited by her to rest 
in her house, and after first bathing his feet she offered 
him a bed. While he was asleep, she prepared him some 
food and then waking him up gave it him to eat. He 
was so pleased with her that he presented her with the 
thousand pieces of money and the golden bowl. Leaving 
there his five sorts of weapons, he said, "There is some 
place I must go to," and taking his lute he repaired to 
an elephant-stall and cried to the elephant-keepers, " Let 
me stay here and I will make music for you." They 
allowed him to do so and he went apart and lay down. 
When his fatigue had passed off, he rose up and un- 
strapping his lute he played and sang, thinking that all 


who dwelt in the city should hear the sound of it. 
PabhavatI, as she lay on the ground, heard it and thought, 
" This sound can come from no lute but his," and felt sure 
that king Kusa had come on her account. The king of 
Madda too on hearing it thought, " He plays very sweetly. 
To-morrow I will send for him and make him mv minstrel.'' 


The Bodhisatta thinking, " It is impossible for me to get 
sight of PabhavatI, if I stay here : this is the wrong place 
for me," sallied forth quite early and after taking his 
morning meal in an eating-house he left his lute and went 
to the king's potter and became his apprentice. One day 
after he had filled the house with potter's clay he asked 
if he should make some vessels, and when the potter 
answered, "Yes, do so," he placed a lump of clay on the 
wheel and turned it. When once it was turned, it went 
on swiftly till mid-day. After moulding all manner of 
vessels, great and small, he began making one specially 
for PabhavatI with various figures on it. Verily the 
purposes of Bodhisattas succeed. He resolved that 
PabhavatI was to see these figures. When he had dried 
and baked his vessels, the house was full of them. The 
potter went to the palace with various specimens. The 
king on seeing them asked who had made them. " I did, 
sire." " I am sure you did not make them. Who did ? " 
" My apprentice, sire." " Not your apprentice, your master 
rather. Learn vour trade from him. Henceforth let him 


make vessels for my daughters." And he gave him a 
thousand pieces of money, saying, "Give him this, and 
present all these small vessels to my daughters." He 
took the vessels to them and said, "These are made for 
your amusement." They were all present to receive 
them. Then the potter gave PabhavatI the vessel which 
the Great Being had made specially for her. Taking 


it she at once recognised her own likeness and that of 
the humpbacked nurse and knew it could be the handi- 
work of no one but king Kusa, and being angry she said, 
" I do not want it : give it to those that wish for it." Then 
her sisters perceiving that she was in a rage laughed and 
said, " You suppose it is the work of king Kusa. It was 
the potter, not he, that made it. Take it." She did not 
tell them that he had come there and had made it. The 
potter gave the thousand pieces of money to the Bodhi- 
satta and said, "My son, the king is pleased with you. 
Henceforth you are to make vessels for his daughters 
and I am to take them to them." He thought, " Although 
I go on living here, it is impossible for me to see Pabha- 
vatI," and he gave back the money to him and went to 
a basket maker who served the king, and becoming his 
apprentice he made a palm-leaf fan for PabhavatI, and 
on it he depicted a white umbrella (as an emblem of 
royalty), and taking as his subject a banquet-hall, amongst 
a variety of other forms he represented a standing figure 
of PabhavatI. The basket maker took this and other 
ware, the workmanship of Kusa, to the palace. The king- 
on seeing them asked who had made them and just as 
before presented a thousand pieces of money to the man, 
saying, "Give these specimens of wicker work to my 
daughters." And he gave the fan that was specially made 
for her to PabhavatI, and in this case also no one recog- 
nised the figures, but PabhavatI on seeing them knew 
it was the king's handiwork and said, "Let those that 
w r ish for it take it," and being in a rage she threw it on 
the ground. So the others all laughed at her. The 
basket maker brought the money and gave it to the 
Bodhisatta. Thinking this was no place for him to stay 
in, he returned the money to the basket maker and went 


to the king's gardener and became his apprentice, and 
while making all sorts of garlands he made a special 
wreath for Pabhavati, picked out with various figures. 
The gardener took them to the palace. When the king 
saw them, he asked who had fashioned these garlands. 
" I did, sire." " I am sure you did not make them. Who 
did '. " " My apprentice, sire." " He is not your apprentice, 
rather is he your master. Learn your trade from him. 
Henceforth he is to weave garlands of flowers for my 
daughters, and give him this thousand pieces of money"; 
and giving him the money he said, " Take these flowers to 
my daughters." And the gardener offered to Pabhavati 
the wreath that the Bodhisatta had made specially for her. 
Here too on seeing amongst the various figures a likeness 
of herself and the king she recognised Kusa's handiwork 
and in her rage threw the wreath on the ground. All her 
sisters, just as before, laughed at her. The gardener too 
took the thousand pieces of money and gave them to the 
Bodhisatta, telling him what had happened. He thought, 
"Neither is this the place for me," and returning the 
money to the gardener he went and engaged himself 
as an apprentice to the king's cook. Now one day the 
cook in taking various kinds of victuals to the king gave 
the Bodhisatta a bone of meat to cook for himself. He 
prepared it in such a way that the smell of it pervaded 
the whole citv. The kino: smelt it and asked if he were 


cooking some more meat in the kitchen. "No, sire, but 
I did give my apprentice a bone of meat to cook. It 
must be this that you smell." The king had it brought 
to him and placed a morsel on the tip of his tongue and 
it woke up and thrilled the seven thousand nerves of 
taste. The king was so enslaved by his appetite for 
dainties that he gave him a thousand pieces of money 


and said, " Henceforth you are to have food for me and 
my daughters cooked by your apprentice, and to bring 
mine to me yourself, but your apprentice is to bring 
theirs to my daughters." The cook went and told him. 
On hearing it he thought, "Now is my desire fulfilled: 
noAv shall I be able to see Pabhavatl." Being pleased 
he returned the thousand pieces of money to the cook 
and next day he prepared and sent dishes of food to the 
king and himself climbed up to the palace where dwelt 
Pabhavatl, taking the food for the king's daughters on 
a carrying-pole. Pabhavatl saw him climbing up with his 
load and thought, " He is doing the work of slaves and 
hirelings, work quite unsuitable for him. But if I hold 
my peace, he will think I approve of him and going 
nowhere else he will remain here, gazing at me. I will 
straightway abuse and revile him and drive him away, 
not allowing him to remain a moment here." So she 
left the door half open and, holding one hand on the 
panel, with the other pressed up the bolt, and she repeated 
the second stanza : 

Kusa, for thee by day and night 
To bear this burden is not right. 
Haste back, pray, to Kusavati; 
Thy ugly form I'm loth to see. 

He thought, " I have got speech of Pabhavatl," and 
pleased at heart he repeated three stanzas: 

Bound by thy beauty's spell, Pabhavatl, 
My native land has little charm for me; 
Madda's fair realm is ever my delight, 
My crown resigned, to live in thy dear sight. 

soft-eyed maiden, fair Pabhavatl, 

What is this madness that o'ermasters me ? 
Knowing full well the land that gave me birth, 

1 wander half distraught o'er all the earth. 

Clad in bright-coloured bark and girt with golden zone, 
Thy love, fair maid, I crave, and not an earthly throne. 


When he had thus spoken, she thought, " I revile him, 
hoping to rouse a feeling of resentment in him, but lie 
as it were tries to conciliate me by his words. Suppose 
he were to say, 'I am king Kusa,' and take me by the 
hand, who is there to prevent it ? And somebody might 
hear what we had to say." So she closed the door and 
bolted it inside. And he took up his carrying-pole and 
brought the other princesses their food. Pabhavati sent 
her humpbacked slave to bring her the food that king Kusa 
had cooked. She brought it and said, " Now eat." Pabha- 
vati said, " I will not eat what he has cooked. Do vou eat 


it and go and get your own supply of food and cook it 
and bring it here, but do not tell anyone that king Kusa 
has come." The humpback henceforth brought and ate 
the portion of the princess and gave her own portion to 
Pabhavati. King Kusa from that time being unable to 
see her thought, "I wonder whether Pabhavati has any 
affection for me or not. I will put her to the test." So 
after he had supplied the princesses with their food, he 
took his load of victuals and going out struck the floor 
with his feet by the door of Pabhavati's closet and 
clashing the dishes together and groaning aloud he fell 
all of a heap and swooned away. At the sound of his 
groans she opened her door and seeing him crushed 
beneath the load he was carrying she thought, "Here 
is a king, the chief ruler in all India, and for my sake 
he suffers pain night and day, and now, being so delicately 
nurtured, he has fallen under the burden of the victuals 
he carries. I wonder if he is still alive " : and stepping 
from her chamber she stretched forth her neck and 
looked at his mouth, to watch his breathing. He filled 
his mouth with spittle and let it drop on her person. 
She retired into her closet, reviling him, and standing 
with the door half open she repeated this stanza: 


111 luck is his that ever craves, to find his wishes spurned, 
As thou, king, dost fondly woo with love still uureturned. 

But because he was madly in love with her, however 
much he was abused and reviled by her, he shewed no 
resentment but repeated this stanza: 

Whoso shall gain what he holds dear, may loved or unloved be, 
^ iccess alone is what we praise, to lose is misery. 

While he was still speaking, without at all relenting-, 
she spoke in a firm voice, as if minded to drive him away, 
and repeated this stanza : 

As well to dig through bed of rock with brittle wood as spade, 
Or catch the wind within a net, as woo unwilling maid. 

On hearing this the king repeated three stanzas : 

Hard hearted as a stone art thou, so soft to outward view, 
No word of welcome though I've come from far thy love to sue. 

When thou dost frown regarding me, proud dame, with sullen look, 
Then I in royal Madda's halls am nothing but a cook. 

But if, queen, in pity thou shouldst deign to smile on me, 
No longer cook, once more am I lord of Kusavatl. 

On hearing his words she thought, "He is very per- 
tinacious in all that he says. I must devise some lie to 
drive him hence," and she spoke this stanza : 

If fortune tellers spoke true words, 'twas this in sooth they said, 
" Mayst thou in pieces seven be hewn, ere thou king Kusa wed." 

On hearing this the king contradicting her said, 
" Lady, I too consulted fortune tellers in my own kingdom 
and they predicted that there was no other husband for 
you save the lion-voiced lord, king Kusa, and through 
omens furnished by my own knowledge I say the same," 
and he repeated another stanza: 

If I and other prophets here have uttered a true word, 
Save me king Kusa, thou shalt hail none other as thy lord. 

On hearing his words she said, "One cannot shame 
him. What is it to me whether he runs away or not?" 


and shutting the door she refused to shew herself. And 
he took up his load and went down. From that day 
he could not set eyes on her and he got heartily sick of 
his cook's work. After breakfast he cut firewood, washed 
dishes and fetched water on his carrying-pole, and then 
lying down he rested on a heap of grain. Rising early lie 
cooked rice-gruel and the like, then took and served the 
food and suffered all this mortification by reason of his 
passionate love for Pabhavati. One day he saw the 
humpback passing by the kitchen door and hailed her. 
For fear of Pabhavati she did not venture to come near 
him, but passed on pretending to be in a great hurry. 
So he hastily ran up to her crying, "Crook-back." She 
turned and stopped, saying, " Who is here ? I cannot 
listen to what you have to say." Then he said, "Both 
you and your mistress are very obstinate. Though living 
near you ever so long, we cannot so much as get a report 
of her health." She said, "Will you give me a present?" 
He replied, " Supposing I do so, will you be able to soften 
Pabhavati and bring me into her presence?" On her 
agreeing to do so, he said, " If you can do this, I will put 
right your humpback, and give you an ornament for your 
neck," and tempting her, he spoke five stanzas : 

Necklace of gold I'll give to thee, 
On coming to KusavatI, 
If slender-limbed Pabhavati 
Should only deign to look on me. 

Necklace of gold I'll give to thee, 
On coming to KusavatI, 
If slender-limbed Pabhavati 
Should only deign to speak to me. 

Necklace of gold I'll give to thee, 
On coming to KusavatI, 
If slender-limbed Pabhavati 
Should only deign to smile on me. 


Necklace of gold I'll give to thee, 

On coming to Kusavati, 

If slender-limbed Pabhavati 

Should laugh with joy at sight of me. 

Necklace of gold I'll give to thee, 
On coming to Kusavati, 
If slender-limbed Pabhavati 
Should lay a loving hand on me. 

On hearing his words she said, " Get you gone, my 
lord: in a very few days I will put her in your power. 
You shall see how energetic I can be." 80 saying she 
decided on her course of action, and going to Pabhavati 
she made as if she would clean her room and not leaving 
a bit of dirt big enough to hit one with, and removing 
even her shoes, she swept out the whole chamber. Then 
she arranged a high seat for herself in the doorway (keeping 
well outside the threshold) and, spreading a coverlet on a 
low stool for Pabhavati, she said, "Come, my dear, and I will 
search in your head for vermin," and making her sit there 
and place her head upon her lap, after scratching her 
a little and saying, " Ho ! what a lot of lice we have here," 
she took some from her own head and put them on the 
head of the princess, and speaking in terms of endear- 
ment of the Great Being she sang his praises in this 
stanza : 

This royal dame no pleasure feels Kusa once more to see, 
Though, wanting nought, he serves as cook for simple hireling's 

Pabhavati was enraged with the humpback. So the 
old woman took her by the neck and pushed her inside 
the room, and being herself outside she closed the door 
and stood clinging to the cord which pulled the door to. 
Pabhavati, being unable to get at her, stood by the door, 
abusing her, and spoke another stanza : 

F. & T. 29 


This humpbacked slave without a doubt, 

For speaking such a word, 
Deserves to have her tongue cut out 

With keenest sharpened sword. 

So the humpback stood holding on to the rope that 
hung down and said, " You worthless, ill-behaved creature, 
what good will your fair looks do anyone? Can we live 
by feeding on your beauty ?" and so saying she pro- 
claimed the virtues of the Bodhisatta, shouting them 
aloud with the harsh voice of a humpback, in thirteen 
stanzas : 

Esteem him not, Pabhavati, by outward form or height, 
Great glory his, so do whate'er is pleasing in his sight. 

Esteem him not, Pabhavati, by outward form or height, 
Great wealth is his, so do whate'er is pleasing in his sight. 

Esteem him not, Pabhavati, by outward form or height, 
Great power is his, so do whate'er is pleasing in his sight. 

Esteem him not, Pabhavati, by outward form or height, 
Wide rule is his, so do whate'er is pleasing in his sight. 

Esteem him not, Pabhavati, by outward form or height, 
Great king is he, so do whate'er is pleasing in his sight. 

Esteem him not, Pabhavati, by outward form or height, 
Lion-voiced is he, so do whate'er is pleasing in his sight. 

Esteem him not, Pabhavati, by outward form or height, 
Clear-voiced is he, so do whate'er is pleasing in his sight. 

Esteem him not, Pabhavati, by outward form or height, 
Deep-voiced is he, so do whate'er is pleasing in his sight. 

Esteem him not, Pabhavati, by outward form or height, 
Sweet-voiced is he, so do whate'er is pleasing in his sight. 

Esteem him not, Pabhavati, by outward form or height, 
Honey-voiced is he, so do whate'er is pleasing in his sight. 

Esteem him not, Pabhavati, by outward form or height, 
A hundred arts are his, so do what's pleasing in his sight. 

Esteem him not, Pabhavati, by outward form or height, 
A warrior king is he, so do what's pleasing in his sight. 

Esteem him not, Pabhavati, by outward form or height, 
King Kusa 'tis, so do whate'er is pleasing in his sight. 


Hearing what she said, Pabhavati threatened the 
humpback, saying, "Crook-back, you roar too loud. If 
I catch hold of you, I will let you know you have a 
mistress." She replied, " In my consideration for you, 
I did not let your father know of king Kusa's arrival. 
Well, to-day I will tell the king," and speaking in a loud 
voice she cowed her. And saying, "Let no one hear of 
this," Pabhavati pacified the hunchback. And the Bodhi- 
satta not being able to get a sight of her, after seven 
months being sick of his hard bed and sorry food, 
thought, "What need have I of her? After living here 
seven months I cannot so much as get a sight of her. 
She is very harsh and cruel. I will go and see my father 
and mother." At this moment Sakka considering the 
matter found out how discontented Kusa was, and he 
thought, "After seven months he is unable even to see 
Pabhavati. I will find some way of letting him see her." 
So he sent messengers to seven kings as if they came 
from king Madda, to say, "Pabhavati has thrown over 
king Kusa and has returned home. You are to come 
and take her to wife." And he sent the same message 
to each of the seven separately. They all arrived in the 
city with a great following, not knowing one another's 
reasons for coming. They asked one the other, "Why 
have you come here ? " And on discovering ho v matters 
stood, they were angry and said, "Will he give his 
daughter in marriage to seven of us? See how ill he 
behaves. He mocks us, saying, 'Take her to wife.' Let 
him either give Pabhavati in marriage to all seven or let 
him fight us." And they sent a message to him to this 
effect and invested the city. On hearing the message, 
king Madda was alarmed and took counsel with his 
ministers, saying, " What are w r e to do ? " Then his 



ministers made answer, "Sire, these seven kings have 
come for Pabhavati. If you refuse to give her, they 
will break down the wall and enter the city, and after 
destroying us they will seize your kingdom. While the wall 
still stands unbroken, let us send Pabhavati to them " ; 
and they repeated this stanza: 

Like to proud elephants they stand in coats of mail arrayed, 
Ere yet they trample down our walls, send off in haste the maid. 

The king on hearing this said, " If I should send 
Pabhavati to any one of them, the rest will join battle 
with me. It is out of the question to give her to any 
one of them. As she has cast off the chief king in all 
India, let her receive the reward due to her return home. 
I will slay her and cutting her body into seven pieces send 
one to each of the seven kings," and so saying he repeated 
another stanza : 

In pieces seven Pabhavati to hack, it is my will, 

One piece for each of these seven kings, who came her sire to kill. 

This saying of his was noised abroad throughout the 
palace. Her attendants came and told Pabhavati, ''The 
king, they say, will cut you in seven pieces and send them 
to the seven kings." She was in fear of death and rising 
from her seat she went, accompanied by her sisters, to her 
mother's state chamber. 

She came into her mother's presence and saluting her 
broke into these lamentations: 

This face with powder beautified, here mirrored in a glass 

To ivory handle deftly fixed, so winsome now al:i>! 

With innocence and purity in every line expressed, 

By warrior princes spurned in some lone forest soon will rest. 

These locks of hair so black of hue, bound up in stately coil, 
Soft to the touch and fragrant with the finest sandal oil, 
In charuel ground though covered up the vultures soon will find 
And with their talons rend and tear and scatter to the wind. 


These arms whose finger tips are dyed, like copper, crimson red, 
In richest sandal oil oft bathed and with soft down o'erspread, 
Cut off and by proud kings in some lone forest flung aside, 
A wolf will seize and carry off where'er he's fain to hide. 

My teats are like the dates that on the palms with ripeness swell, 

Fragrant with scent of sandalwood that men of Kasi fell : 

Hanging thereon a jackal soon at them, methinks, will tug, 

Just as a little baby boy his mother's breast may hug. 

These hips of mine, well-knit and broad, cast in an ample mould, 

Encircled with a cincture gay, wrought of the purest gold, 

Cut off and by proud kings in some lone forest flung aside, 

A wolf will seize and carry off where'er he's fain to hide. 

Dogs, wolves, jackals and whatsoe'er are known as beasts of prey, 

If once they eat Pabhavati, can suffer no decay. 

Should warrior kings that come from far thy daughter's body flay, 
Then beg my bones and burn them in some sequestered way. 

And make a garden near and plant a kanikara tree, 

And when at winter's close it blooms, mother, recalling me, 

Point to the flower and say, " Just such was fair Pabhavati." 

Thus did she, alarmed with fear of death, idly lament 
before her mother. And the Madda king issued an order 
that the executioner should come with his axe and block. 
His coming was noised abroad throughout the palace. 
The queen-mother, on hearing of his arrival, arose from 
her throne and overwhelmed with sorrow came into the 
presence of the king. 

Then the queen spoke this stanza : 

With this sword will the Madda king his graceful daughter slay, 
And piecemeal send her mangled limbs to rival chiefs a prey. 

The king to make her understand said, "Lady, what 
is this you say? Your daughter rejected the chief king 
of all India on the plea of his ugliness, and, accepting 
death as her fate, returned home before the prints of her 
feet were well wiped out on the road by which she had 
gone there. Now therefore let her reap the consequences 
of the jealousy excited by her beauty." The queen, after 


hearing what he had to say, went to her daughter and 
lamenting spoke thus: 

Thou didst not hearken to my voice, when I desired thy good, 
To-day thou siuk'st to Yama's realm, thy body stained with blood. 

Such fate doth every man incur, or even a worse end, 
Who deaf to good advice neglects the warnings of a friend. 

If thou to-day a gallant prince for thy good lord shouldst wed, 
Bedight with zone of gold and gems, in land of Kusa bred, 
Thou wouldst not, served with hosts of friends, to Yama's realms 
have sped. 

When drums are beat and elephants' loud trumpetings resound, 
In royal halls, w r here in this world can greater bliss be found? 

When horses neigh and minstrels play to kings some plaintive air, 
With bliss like this in royal halls, what is there to compare? 
When too courts with the peacock's and the heron's cries resound, 
And cuckoo's call, w r here else, I pray, can bliss like this be found? 

After thus talking with her in all these stanzas she 
thought, " If only king Kusa were here to-day, he would 
put to flight these seven kings and after freeing my 
daughter from her misery he would carry her away with 
him," and she repeated this stanza: 

Where's he that crushes hostile realms and vanquishes his foes ? 
Kusa, the noble and the wise, would free us from our woes. 

Then Pabhavati thought, " My mother's tongue is not 
equal to proclaiming the praises of Kusa. I will let her 
know that he has been living here, occupied with the work 
of a cook," and she repeated this stanza : 

The conqueror w r ho crushes all his foes, lo! here is he; 
Kusa, so noble and so wise, all foes will slay for me. 

Then her mother thinking, " She is terrified with the 
fear of death and rambles in her talk," spoke this 
stanza : 

Art thou gone mad, or like a fool dost speak at random thus? 
If Kusa has returned, why, pray, didst thou not tell it us ? 


Hearing this Pabhavati thought, " My mother does not 
believe me. She does not know he has returned and 
been living here seven months. I will prove it to her"; 
and taking her mother by the hand she opened the 
window and stretching forth her hand and pointing to 
him she repeated this stanza : 

Good mother, look at yonder cook, with loins girt up right well, 
He stoops to wash his pots and pans, where royal maidens dwell. 

Then Kusa, they say, thought, " To-day my heart's 
desire will be fulfilled. Of a truth Pabhavati is terrified 
with the fear of death and will tell of my coming here. 
I will wash my dishes and put them away"; and he fetched 
water and began to wash his dishes. Then her mother 
upbraiding her spoke this stanza: 

Art thou base-horn or wouldst thou deign, a maid of royal race, 
To take a slave for thy true love, to Madda's deep disgrace? 

Then Pabhavati thought, " My mother, methinks, does 
not know that it is for my sake he has been living here 
after this manner," and she spoke another stanza : 

No low caste I, nor would I shame my royal name, I swear, 
Good luck to thee, no slave is he out king Okkaka's heir. 

And now in praise of his fame she said : 

He twenty thousand brahmins ever feeds, no slave, I swear, 
It is Okkaka's royal son whom thou seest standing there. 

He twenty thousand elephants aye yokes, no slave, 1 swear, 
It is Okkaka's royal son whom thou seest standing there. 

He twenty thousand horses ever yokes, no slave, I swear, 
It is Okkaka's royal son whom thou seest standing there. 

He tw r enty thousand chariots ever yokes, no slave, I swear, 
It is Okkaka's royal son whom thou seest standing there. 

He twenty thousand royal bulls aye yokes, no slave, I swear, 
It is Okkaka's royal son whom thou seest standing there. 

He twenty thousand royal kine aye milks, no slave, I swear, 
It is Okkaka's royal son whom thou seest standing there. 


Thus was the glory of the Great Being praised by her 
in six stanzas. Then her mother thought, "She is not 
speaking in terror. It must be so," and believing her she 
went and told the king the whole story. He came in 
great haste to Pabhavati and asked, " Is it true, what they 
say, that king Kusa has come?" "Yes, dear father. It 
is seven months to-day that he has been acting as cook 
to your daughters." Not believing her he questioned the 
hunchback, and on hearing the facts of the case from her 
he reproached his daughter and spoke this stanza : 

Like elephant as frog disguised, 
When this almighty prince came here, 

'Twas wrong of thee and ill-advised 
To hide it from thy parents dear. 

Thus did he reproach his daughter and then went 
in haste to Kusa and after the usual greetings with folded 
hands he acknowledged his offence, and repeated this 

stanza : 

In that we failed to recognise 
Your majesty in this disguise, 
If, Sire, to thee offence we gave, 
We would forgiveness humbly crave. 

On hearing this the Great Being thought, " If I should 
speak harshly to him, his heart would straightway break. 
I will speak words of comfort to him " ; and standing 
amongst his dishes he spoke this stanza: 

For me to play the scullion's part was very wrong I own, 
Be comforted, it was no fault of thine I was unknown. 

The king, after being thus addressed in kindly words, 
climbed up to the palace and summoned Pabhavati, to 
send her to ask the king's pardon, and he spoke this 
stanza : 

Go, silly girl, thy pardon from the great king Kusa crave, 

His wrath appeased he may be pleased perhaps thy life to save. 


On hearing the words of her father, she went to him, 
accompanied by her sisters and her handmaids. Standing 
just as he was in his workman's dress, he saw her coming 
towards him and thought, "To-day I will break down 
Pabhavatl's pride and lay her low at my feet in the 
mud," and, pouring on the ground all the water he had 
brought there, he trampled on a space as big as a 
threshing-floor, making it one mass of mud. She drew 
nigh and fell at his feet and grovelling in the mud asked 
his forgiveness. 

Then she spoke these stanzas : 

My days and nights apart from thee, king, have passed away: 
Behold I stoop to kiss thy feet. From anger cease, I pray. 

I promise thee, if thou to me a gracious ear shouldst lend, 
Never again in aught I do will I my lord offend. 

But if thou shouldst my prayer refuse, my father then will slay 
And send his daughter, limb by limb, to warrior kings a prey. 

On hearing this the king thought, "If I were to tell 
her, * This is for you to see to,' her heart would be broken. 
I will speak words of comfort to her," and he said : 

I'll do thy bidding, lady fair, as far as lies in me; 
No auger feel I in my heart. Fear not, Pabhavati. 

Hearken, royal maid, to me, I too make promise true; 
Never again will I offend in aught that I may do. 

Full many a sorrow I would bear, fair maid, for love of thee, 
And slay a host of Madda chiefs to wed Pabhavati. 

Kusa, swelling with princely pride at seeing as it 
were a handmaid of Sakka, king of the gods, in attendance 
upon him, thought, "While I am still alive, shall others 
come and carry off my bride?" and rousing himself, 
lion-like, in the palace-yard, he said, "Let all who dwell 
in this city hear of my coming," and dancing about, 
shouting and clapping his hands, he cried, " Now will 


I take them alive, go bid them put horses to my chariots," 
and he repeated the following stanza : 

Go, quickly yoke my well-trained steeds to many a painted car, 
And watch me swiftly sally forth, to scatter foes afar. 

He now bade good-bye to Pabhavati, saying, " The 
capture of thy enemies is my charge. Go thou and bathe 
and adorn thyself and climb up to thy palace." And the 
king of Madda sent his councillors to act as a guard of 
honour to him. And they drew a screen round about 
him at the door of the kitchen and provided barbers for 
him. And when his beard had been trimmed and his 
head shampooed and he was arrayed in all his splendour 
and surrounded by his escort, he said, "I will ascend to 
the palace," and looking about him thence in every 
direction he clapped his hands, and wheresoever he 
looked the earth trembled, and he cried out, "Now mark 
how great is my power." 

Then the Madda king sent him an elephant that had 
been trained to stand impassive under attack, richly 
caparisoned. Kusa mounted on the back of the elephant 
with a white umbrella held over him and ordered Pabha- 
vati to be conducted there, and seating her behind him 
he left the city by the east gate, escorted by a complete 
host of the four arms 1 , and as soon as he saw the forces 
of the enemy, he cried, "I am king Kusa: let all who 
value their lives lie down on their bellies," and he roared 
thrice with the roar of a lion and utterly crushed his foes. 

The king said : 

These foes are rather thine than mine. They all belong- to thee, 
Thou only art our sovereign lord, to slay or to set free. 

Being thus spoken to, the Great Being thought, "What 
can I do with these men when once dead ? Let not their 

1 Elephants, cavalry, chariots and infantry. 


coming here be without good result. PabhavatI has seven 
younger sisters, daughters of king Madda. I will bestow 
them in marriage on these seven princes," and he repeated 
this stanza : 

These daughters seven, like heavenly nymphs, are very fair to see, 
Give them, one each, to these seven king's, thy sons-in-law to be. 

Then the king said : 

O'er us and them thou art supreme, thy purpose to fulfil, 
Give them thou art our sovereign lord according to thy will. 

So he had them all beautifully attired and gave them 
in marriage, one to each king. 

A. Lang in his introduction to Cupid and Psyche, London, 1887, gives seven 
features of the tale of Beauty and the Beast. (1) The youngest daughter's beauty 
awakens jealousy, (2) marriage to a husband who must not be looked upon, 
(3) jealousy of elder sisters, (4) husband disappears when his prohibition is 
neglected, (5) search for husband, (6) jealousy of husband's mother, who sets the 
heroine dangerous tasks, (7) reconciliation with Cupid. Of these only one occurs in 
the present tale, and Lang admitted that the essential features might occur to the 
human fancy anywhere. The Pali tale has passed into Sinhalese, Kusa Jdtakaya 
(English by T. Steele, 1871), into Tibetan, Tib. T. IL, also Schmidt, p. 91, and, 
according to Benfey, into Mongolian. In the Tibetan the kusa-grass becomes a 
box of kusa-wood containing medicine sent by Indra to make the queen conceive. 
The episode of the golden image is not in the Tibetan, and may be an addition. It 
occurs in Jat. 328, p. 235, and its variant Tib. T. ix. For variants of the European tale 
see Lang (as above) and Custom and Myth, Benf. Kl. Schr. u. 3, 232 ff., Ralston in 
Tib. T. introd. xxxvu. ff., Clouston i. 205 ff., and App. v. On the myth in classical 
art see E. Pagenstecher, Eros nnd Psi/che, Heidelberg, 1911. 


1. " The piece of meat." One day when the Bodhi- 
satta was going to the play-hall, a hawk carried off a 
piece of flesh from the slab of a slaughterhouse and flew 
up into the air ; some lads, seeing it, determined to make 

1 In this birth (Jat. 546) the Bodhisatta is born as the sage Mahosadha, At the age 
of seven he builds a mansion for children to play in, and the king wishes to see him. 
This is prevented through the jealousy of the king's ministers, until he has been 
tested by the following problems. He afterwards becomes the king's minister, over- 
comes his rivals, who slander him, and saves the king from the attacks and plots of 
his enemies. 


him drop it and pursued him. The hawk flew in different 
directions, and they, looking up, followed behind and 
wearied themselves, flinging stones and other missiles and 
stumbling over one another. Then the sage said to them, 
" I will make him drop it," and they begged him to do so. 
He told them to look ; and then himself without looking 
up ran with the swiftness of the wind and trod upon the 
hawk's shadow and then clapping his hands uttered a loud 
shout. By his power that shout seemed to pierce the 
bird's belly through and through and in its terror it 
dropped the flesh; and the Great Being, knowing by 
watching the shadow that it was dropped, caught it in 
the air before it reached the ground. The people seeing 
the marvel, made a great noise, shouting and clapping 
their hands. The minister, hearing of it, sent an account 
to the king telling him how the sage had by this means 
made the bird drop the flesh. The king, when he heard 
of it, asked Senaka whether he should summon him to the 
court. Senaka reflected, " From the time of his coming 
I shall lose all my glory and the king will forget my 
existence, I must not let him bring him here " ; so in envy 
he said, " He is not a sage for such an action as this, this 
is only a small matter"; and the king being impartial, sent 
word that the minister should test him further where 
he was. 

2. "The cattle." A certain man who dwelt in the 
village of Yavamajjhaka bought some cattle from another 
village, intending to plough when the rains had fallen, 
and brought them home. The next day he took them 
to a field of grass to graze and rode on the back of one 
of the cattle. Being tired he got down and sat on the 
ground and fell asleep, and meaawhile a thief came and 
carried off' the cattle. When he woke he saw not his 


cattle, but as he gazed on every side he beheld the thief 
running away. Jumping up he shouted, " Where are you 
taking my cattle?" "They are my cattle, and I am 
carrying them to the place which I wish." A great crowd 
collected as they heard the dispute. When the sage heard 
the noise as they passed by the door of the hall, he sent 
for them both. When he saw their behaviour he at once 
knew which was the thief and which the real owner. But 
though he felt sure, he asked them what they were 
quarrelling about. The owner said, " I bought these cattle 
from a certain person in such a village, and I brought 
them home and put them in a field of grass. This thief 
saw that I was not watching and came and carried them 
off. Looking in all directions I caught sight of him and 
pursued and caught him. The people of such a village 
know that I bought the cattle and took them." The thief 
replied, " This man speaks falsely, they were born in my 
house." The sage said, "I will decide your case fairly; 
will you abide by my decision ? " and they promised so to 
abide. Then thinking to himself that he must win the 
hearts of the people he first asked the thief, " What have 
you fed these cattle with, and what have you given them 
to drink ? " " They have drunk rice-gruel and have been 
fed on sesame flour and kidney beans." Then he asked 
the real owner, who said, " My lord, how could a poor man 
like me get rice-gruel and the rest ? I fed them on grass." 
The pandit caused an assembly to be brought together 
and ordered panic seeds to be brought and ground in a 
mortar and moistened with water and given to the cattle, 
and they forthwith vomited only grass. He shewed this 
to the assembly, and then asked the thief, "Art thou the 
thief or not ? " He confessed that he was the thief. He 
said to him, " Then do not commit such a sin henceforth." 


But the Bodhisatta's attendants carried the man away and 
cut off his hands and feet and made him helpless. Then 
the sage addressed him with words of good counsel, "This 
suffering has come upon thee only in this present life, but 
in the future life thou wilt suffer great torment in the 
different hells, therefore henceforth abandon such prac- 
tices ''; he taught him the five commandments. The 
minister sent an account of the incident to the king, who 
asked Senaka, but he advised him to wait, " It is only an 
affair about cattle and anybody could decide it.'' The 

t/ ^ 

king, being impartial, sent the same command. (This is 
to be understood in all the subsequent cases, we shall 
give each in order according to the list.) 

3. "The necklace of thread 1 .'' A certain poor woman 
had tied together several threads of different colours and 
made them into a necklace, which she took off from her 
neck and placed on her clothes as she went down to 
bathe in a tank which the sage had caused to be made. 
A young woman who saw this conceived a longing for it, 
took it up and said to her, " Mother, this is a very beautiful 
necklace, how much did it cost to make? I will make 
such a one for myself. May I put it on my own neck and 
ascertain its size ? " The other gave her leave, and she put 
it on her neck and ran off. The elder woman seeing it 
came quickly out of the water, and putting on her clothes 
ran after her and seized hold of her dress, crying, " You 
are running away with a necklace which I made." The 
other replied, " I am not taking anything of yours, it is the 
necklace which I wear on my neck"; and a great crowd 
collected as they heard this. The sage, while he played 
with the boys, heard them quarrelling as they passed by 
the door of the hall and asked what the noise was about. 

1 This is Jat 110. 


When he heard the cause of the quarrel he sent for them 
both, and having known at once by her countenance which 
was the thief, he asked them whether they would abide by 
his decision. On their both agreeing to do so, he asked 
the thief, " What scent do you use for this necklace ? " 
She replied, " I always use sabbasamhdraka to scent it 
with." Now this is a scent compounded of all scents. 
Then he asked the other, who replied, " How shall a poor 
woman like me get sabbasamharakal I always scent it 
with perfume made of piyangu flowers." Then the sage 
had a vessel of water brought and put the necklace in it. 
Then he sent for a perfume-seller and told him to smell 
the vessel and find out what it smelt of. He directly 
recognised the smell of the piyangu flower, and quoted 
the stanza which has been alreadv given in the first book : 

t/ CJ 

" Sabbasamharaka 'tis not ; only the kangu smells ; 
Yon wicked woman told a lie; the truth the gammer tells." 

The Great Being told the bystanders all the circum- 
stances and asked each of them respectively, "Art thou 
the thief? Art thou not the thief?" and made the guilty 
one confess, and from that time his wisdom became known 
to the people. 

4. " The cotton thread." A certain woman who used 
to watch cotton fields was watching one day and she took 
some clean cotton and spun some fine thread and made it 
into a ball and placed it in her lap. As she went home 
she thought to herself, "I will bathe in the great sage's 
tank," so she placed the ball on her dress and went down 
into the tank to bathe. Another woman saw it, and con- 
ceiving a longing for it took it up, saying, "This is a 
beautiful ball of thread ; pray did you make it yourself ? " 
So she lightly snapped her fingers and put it in her lap as 
if to examine it more closely, and walked off with it. (This 


is to be told at full as before.) The sage asked the thief, 
" When you made the ball what did you put inside ? " She 
replied, " A cotton seed." Then he asked the other, and 
she replied, "A timbaru seed." When the crowd had 
heard what each said, he untwisted the ball of cotton and 
found a timbaru seed inside and forced the thief to confess 
her guilt. The great multitude were highly pleased and 
shouted their applause at the way in which the case had 
been decided. 

5. "The son." A certain woman took her son and 
went down to the sage's tank to wash her face. After she 
had bathed her son she laid him in her dress and having 
washed her own face went to bathe. At that moment a 
female goblin saw the child and wished to eat it, so she 
took hold of the dress and said, " My friend, this is a fine 
child, is he your son ? " Then she asked if she might give 
him suck, and on obtaining the mother's consent, she took 
him and played with him for a while and then tried to run 
off with him. The other ran after her and seized hold of 
her, shouting, " Whither are you carrying my child ? " The 
goblin replied, "Where did you get a child? this is mine." 
As they wrangled they passed by the door of the hall, and 
the sage, hearing the noise, sent for them and asked what 
w r as the matter. When he heard the story, although he 
knew at once by her red unwinking eyes that one of them 
was a goblin, he asked them whether they would abide by 
his decision. On their promising to do so, he drew a line 
and laid the child in the middle of the line and bade the 
goblin seize the child by the hands and the mother by the 
feet. Then he said to them, " Lay hold of it and pull ; the 
child is hers who can pull it over." They both pulled, and 
the child, being pained while it was pulled, uttered a loud 
cry. Then the mother, with a heart which seemed ready 


to burst, let the child go and stood weeping. The sage 
asked the multitude, " Is it the heart of the mother which 
is tender towards the child or the heart of her who is not 
the mother ? " They answered, " The mother's heart." " Is 
she the mother who kept hold of the child or she who let 
it go ?" They replied, " She who let it go." "Do you know 
who she is who stole the child?" "We do not know, 
O sage." " She is a goblin, she seized it in order to eat 
it." When they asked how he knew that he replied, 
" I knew her by her unwinking and red eyes and by her 
casting no shadow and by her fearlessness and want of 
mercy." Then he asked her what she was, and she con- 
fessed that she was a goblin. "Why did you seize the 
child?" "To eat it." "You blind fool," he said, "you 
committed sin in old time and so were born as a goblin ; 
and now you still go on committing sin, blind fool that 
you are." Then he exhorted her and established her in 
the five precepts and sent her away; and the mother 
blessed him, and saying, " May'st thou live long, my lord," 
took her son and went her way. 

6. "The black ball." There was a certain man who 
was called Golakala, now he got the name gola ' ball ' 
from his dwarfish size, and kdla from his black colour. 
He worked in a certain house for seven years and obtained 
a wife, and she was named Dlghatala. One day he said to 
her, " Wife, cook some sweetmeats and food, we will pay a 
visit to your parents." At first she opposed the plan, 
saying, "What have I to do with parents now?" but after 
the third time of asking he induced her to cook some 
cakes, and having taken some provisions and a present he 
set out on the journey with her. In the course of the 
journey he came to a stream which was not really deep, 
but they, being both afraid of water, dared not cross it and 

F. & T. 30 


stood on the bank. Now a poor man named Dighapitthi 
came to that place as he walked along the bank, and 
when they saw him they asked him whether the river was 
deep or shallow. Seeing that they were afraid of the water 
he told them that it was very deep and full of voracious 
fish. " How then will you go across it ? " "I have struck 
up a friendship with the crocodiles and monsters that live 
here, and therefore they do not hurt me." " Do take us 
with you," they said. When he consented they gave him 
some meat and drink ; and when he finished his meal he 
asked them which he should carry over first. " Take our 
friend first and then take me," said Golakala. Then the 

man placed her on his shoulders and took the provisions 
and the present and went down into the stream. When 
he had gone a little way, he crouched down and walked 
along in a bent posture. Golakala, as he stood on the 
bank, thought to himself, "This stream must indeed be 
very deep ; if it is so difficult for even such a man as 
Dighapitthi, it must be impassable for me." When the 
other had carried the woman to the middle of the stream, 
he said to her, " Lady, I will cherish you, and you shall live 
bravely arrayed with fine dresses and ornaments and men- 
servants and maid-servants ; what will this poor dwarf do 
for you? listen to what I tell you." She listened to his 
words and ceased to love her husband, and being at once 
infatuated with the stranger, she consented, saying, "If 
you will not abandon me, I will do as you say." So when 
they reached the opposite bank, they amused themselves 
and left Golakala, bidding him stay where he was. While 
he stood there looking on, they ate up the meat and drink 
and departed. When he saw it, he exclaimed, " They have 
struck up a friendship and are running away, leaving me 
here." As he ran backwards and forwards he went a little 


way into the water and then drew back again in fear, and 
then in his anger at their conduct, he made a desperate 
leap, saying, " Let me live or die," and when once fairly in, 
he discovered how shallow the water was. So he crossed 
it and pursued him and shouted, "You wicked thief, whither 
are you carrying my wife?" The other replied, "How is 
she your wife ? she is mine " ; and he seized him by the 
neck and whirled him round and threw him off. The 
other laid hold of Dlghatala's hand and shouted, "Stop, 
where are you going? you are my wife whom I got after 
working for seven years in a house " ; and as he thus 
disputed he came near the hall. A great crowd collected. 
The Great Being asked what the noise was about, and 
having sent for them and heard what each said he asked 
whether they would abide by his decision. On their both 
agreeing to do so, he sent for Dighapitthi and asked him 
his name. Then he asked the wife's name, but he, not 
knowing what it was, mentioned some other name. Then 
he asked him the names of his parents and he told them, 
but when he asked him the names of his wife's parents he, 
not knowing, mentioned some other names. The Great 
Being put his story together and had him removed. Then 
he sent for the other and asked him the names of all in 
the same way. He, knowing the truth, gave them correctly. 
Then he had him removed and sent for Dighatala and 
asked her what her name was and she gave it. Then he 
asked her her husband's name and she, not knowing, gave 
a wrong name. Then he asked her her parents' names 
and she gave them correctly, but when he asked her the 
names of her husband's parents' names, she talked at 
random and gave wrong names. Then the sage sent for 
the other two and asked the multitude, " Does the woman's 
story agree with Dighapitthi or Golakala?" They replied, 



"With Golakala." Then he pronounced his sentence, 
"This man is her husband, the other is a thief"; and 
when he asked him he made him confess that he had 
acted as the thief. 

7. "The chariot." A certain man, who was sitting in 
a chariot, alighted from it to wash his face. At that 
moment Sakka was considering and as he beheld the sage 
he resolved that he would make known the power and 
wisdom of Mahosadha the embryo Buddha. So he came 
down in the form of a man, and followed the chariot 
holding on behind. The man who sat in the chariot asked, 
" Why have you come ? " He replied, " To serve you." The 
man agreed, and dismounting from the chariot went aside 
at a call of nature. Immediately Sakka mounted in the 
chariot and went off at speed. The owner of the chariot, 
his business done, returned ; and when he saw Sakka 
hurrying away with the chariot, he ran quickly behind, 
crying, "Stop, stop, where are you taking my chariot?" 
Sakka replied, "Your chariot must be another, this is 
mine." Thus wrangling they came to the gate of the hall. 
The sage asked, " What is this ? " and sent for him : as he 
came, bv his fearlessness and his eves which winked not, 

f / 

the sage knew that this was Sakka and the other was the 
owner. Nevertheless he enquired the cause of the quarrel, 
and asked them, " Will you abide by my decision ? " They 
said, " Yes." He went on, " I will cause the chariot to be 
driven, and you must both hold on behind : the owner will 
not let go, the other will." Then he told a man to drive 
the chariot, and he did so, the others holding on behind. 
The owner went a little way, then being unable to run 
further he let go, but Sakka went on running with the 
chariot. When he had recalled the chariot, the sage said 
to the people: "This man ran a little way and let go; the 


other ran out with the chariot and came back with it, yet 
there is not a drop of sweat on his body, no panting, he is 
fearless, his eyes wink not this is Sakka, king of the gods." 
Then he asked, "Are you king of the gods?" "Yes." 
"Why did you come here?" "To spread the fame of 
your wisdom, O sage!" "Then," said he, "don't do that 
kind of thing again." Now Sakka revealed his power by 
standing poised in the air, and praised the sage, saying, 
" A wise judgment this ! " So he went to his own place. 
Then the minister unsummoned went to the king, and 
said, " O great king, thus was the Chariot Question re- 
solved: and even Sakka was subdued by him; why do 
you not recognise superiority in men?" The king asked 
Senaka, " What say you, Seuaka, shall we bring the sage 
here?" Senaka replied, "That is not all that makes a 
sage. Wait awhile: I will test him and find out." 

8. " The pole." So one day, with a view of testing the 
sage, they fetched an acacia pole, and cutting off about a 
span, they had it nicely smoothed by a turner, and sent it 
to the village of East Yavamajjhaka, with this message: 
"The people of Yavamajjhaka have a name for wisdom. 
Let them find out then which end is the top and which 
the root of this stick. If they cannot, there is a fine of a 
thousand pieces." The people gathered together but could 
not find it out, and they said to their gildmaster, "Perhaps 
Mahosadha the sage would know; send and ask him/' 
The gildmaster sent for the sage from his playground, and 
told him the matter, how they could not find it out but 
perhaps he could. The sage thought in himself, "The 
king can gain nothing from knowing which is the top arid 
which is the root; no doubt it is sent to test me." He 
said, " Bring it here, my friends, I will find out." Holding 
it in his hand, he knew which was the top and which the 


root ; yet to please the heart of the people, he sent for a 
pot of water, and tied a string round the middle of the 
stick, and holding it by the end of the string he let it 
down to the surface of the water. The root being heavier 
sank first, Then he asked the people, "Is the root of a 
tree heavier, or the top?" "The root, wise sir!" "See 
then, this part sinks first, and this is therefore the root." 
By this mark he distinguished the root from the top. The 
people sent it back to the king, distinguishing which was 
the root and which was the top. The king was pleased, 
and asked, who had found it out ? They said, " The sage 
Mahosadha, son of the gildmaster Sirivacldhi." " Senaka, 
shall we send for him ? " he asked. " Wait, my lord," he 
replied, "let us try him in another way." 

9. "The head." One day, two heads were brought, 
one a woman's and one a man's; these were sent to be 
distinguished, with a fine of a thousand pieces in case of 
failure. The villagers could not decide and asked the 
Great Being. He recognised them at sight, because, they 
say, the sutures in a man's head are straight, and in a 
woman's head they are crooked. By this mark he told 
which was which ; and they sent back to the king. The 
rest is as before. 

10. "The snake." One dav a male and a female snake 


were brought, and sent for the villagers to decide which 
was which. They asked the sage, and he knew at once 
when he saw them; for the tail of the male snake is thick, 
that of the female is thin ; the male snake's head is thick, 
the female's is long ; the eyes of the male are big, of the 
female small, the head of the male is rounded, that of 
the female cut short. By these signs he distinguished 
male from female. The rest is as before. 

11. "The cock." One day a message was sent to the 


people of the village of East Yavarnajjhaka to this effect; 
"Send us a bull white all over, Avith horns on his legs, and a 
hump on the head, which utters his voice at three times 
unfailingly; otherwise there is a fine of a thousand pieces." 
Not knowing one, they asked the sage. He said: "The 
king means you to send him a cock. This creature has 
horns on his feet, the spurs; a hump on his head, the 
crest; and crowing thrice utters his voice at three times 
unfailingly. Then send him a cock such as he describes." 
They sent one. 

1 2. " The gem." The gem which Sakka gave to King 
Kusa was octagonal. Its thread was broken, and no one 
could remove the old thread and put in a new. One day 
they sent this gem, with directions to take out the old 
thread and to put in a new ; the villagers could do neither 
the one nor the other, and in their difficultv thev told the 

V V 

sage. He bade them fear nothing, and asked for a drop 
of honey. With this he smeared the two holes in the gem, 
and twisting a thread of wool, he smeared the end of this 
also with honey, he pushed it a little way into the hole, 
and put it in a place where ants were passing. The ants 
smelling the honey came out of their hole, and eating 
away the old thread bit hold of the end of the woollen 
thread and pulled it out at the other end. When he saw 
that it had passed through, he bade them present it to the 
king, who was pleased when he heard how the thread had 
been put in. 

13. " The calving." The royal bull Avas fed up for some 
months, so that his belly swelled out, his horns were washed, 
he was anointed with oil, and bathed with turmeric, and 
then they sent him to the village of East Yavamajjhaka, with 
this message: "You have a name for wisdom. Here is the 
king's royal bull, in calf; deliver him and send him back 


with the calf, or else there is a fine of a thousand pieces." 
The villagers, perplexed what to do, applied to the sage ; 
who thought fit to meet one question with another, and 
asked, "Can you find a bold man able to speak to the 
king?'' "That is no hard matter," they replied. So they 
summoned him, and the Great Being said " Go, my good 
man, let your hair down loose over your shoulders, and go 
to the palace gate weeping and lamenting sore. Answer 
none but the king, only lament ; and if the king sends for 
you to ask why you lament, say, This seven days my father 
is in labour and cannot bring forth ; O help me ! tell me 
how I may deliver him ! Then the king will say, What 
madness ! this is impossible ; men do not bear children. 
Then you must say, If that be true, how can the people of 
East Yavamajjhaka deliver your royal bull of a calf?" As 
he was bidden, so he did. The king asked who thought of 
that counter-quip ; and on hearing that it was the sage 
Mahosadha he was pleased. 

14. "The boiled rice." Another day, to test the sage, 
this message was sent: "The people of East Yavamajjhaka 
must send us some boiled rice cooked under eight 
conditions, and these are without rice, without water, 
without a pot, without an oven, without fire, without 
firewood, without being sent along a road either by 
woman or man. If they cannot do it, there is a fine of 
a thousand pieces. The people perplexed applied to the 
sage ; who said, "Be not troubled. Take some broken 
rice, for that is not rice ; snow, for that is not water; 
an earthen bowl, which is no pot ; chop up some wood 
blocks which are no oven ; kindle fire by rubbing, instead 
of a proper fire; take leaves instead of firewood; cook 
your sour rice, put it in a new vessel, press it well down, 
put it on the head of a eunuch, who is neither man nor 


woman, leave the main road and go along a footpath, 
and take it to the king." They did so; and the king was 
pleased when he heard by whom the question had been 

15. "The sand." Another day, to test the sage, they 
sent this message to the villagers: "The king wishes to 
amuse himself in a swing, and the old rope is broken ; 
you are to make a rope of sand, or else pay a fine of 
a thousand pieces." They knew not what to do, and 
appealed to the sage, who saw that this was the place for 
a counter-question. He reassured the people ; and send- 
ing for two or three clever speakers, he bade them go tell 
the king : " My lord, the villagers do not know whether the 
sand-rope is to be thick or thin ; send them a bit of the 
old rope, a span long or four fingers ; this they will look 
at and twist a rope of the same size." If the king replied, 
"Sand-rope there never was in my house," they were to 
reply, "If your majesty cannot make a sand-rope, how can 
the villagers do so?" They did so; and the king was 
pleased on hearing that the sage had thought of this 

16. "The tank." Another day, the message was : "The 
king desires to disport him in the water ; you must send 
me a new tank covered with water lilies of all five kinds, 
otherwise there is a fine of a thousand pieces." They told 
the sage, who saw that a counter-quip Avas wanted. He 
sent for several men clever at speaking, and said to them : 
"Go and play in the water till your eyes are red, go to the 
palace door with wet hair and wet garments and your 
bodies all over mud, holding in your hands ropes, staves, 
and clods; send word to the king of your coming, and 
when you are admitted say to him, Sire, inasmuch as your 
majesty has ordered the people of East Yavamajjhaka 


to send you a tank, we brought a great tank to suit your 
taste ; but she being used to a life in the forest, no sooner 
saw the town with its walls, moats, and watch-towers, than 
she took fright and broke the ropes and off into the 
forest : we pelted her with clods and beat her with sticks 
but could not make her come back. Give us then the 
old tank which your majesty is said to have brought from 
the forest, and we will yoke them together and bring 
the other back. The king will say, I never had a tank 
brought in from the forest, and never sent a tank 
there to be yoked and bring in another! Then you 
must say, If that is so, how can the villagers send you 
a tank ?" They did so ; and the king was pleased to hear 
that the sage had thought of this. 

17. "The park." Again on a day the king sent a 
message. " I wish to disport me in the park, and my park 
is old. The people of Yavamajjhaka must send me a new 
park, filled with trees and flowers." The sage reassured 
them as before, and sent men to speak in the same 
manner as above. 

18 1 . Then the king was pleased, and said to Senaka: 
"Well, Senaka, shall we send for the sage?" But he, 
grudging the other's prosperity, said, "That is not all 
that makes a sage; wait." On hearing this the king 
thought, " The sage Mahosadha was wise even as a 
child, and took my fancy. In all these deep tests and 
counter-quips he has given answers like a Buddha. Yet 
Senaka will not let me summon such a sage as this 
to my side. What care I for Senaka? I will bring the 
man here." So with a great following he set out for the 
village, mounted upon his royal horse. But as he went 
the horse put his foot into a hole and broke his leg; so 

1 This is Jat. 111. 


the king turned back from that place to the town. Then 
Senaka entered the presence and said : " Sire, did you go 
to the village of Yavamajjhaka to bring the sage back?' 1 
"Yes, sage," said the king. "Sire," said Senaka, "you make 
me as one of no account. I begged you to wait awhile ; 
but off you went in a hurry, and at the outset your royal 
horse broke his leg." The king had nothing to say to 
this. Again on a day he asked Senaka, "Shall we send 
for the sage, Senaka?" "If so, your majesty, don't go 
yourself but send a messenger, saying, O sage! as I was 
on my way to fetch you my horse broke his leg : send us 
a mule or something more excellent. If he takes the 
first alternative he will come himself, if the second he will 
send his father. Then will be a problem to test him." 
The king sent a messenger with this message. The sage 
on hearing it recognised that the king wished to see him- 
self and his father. So he w r ent to his father, and said, 
greeting him, " Father, the king wishes to see you and me. 
You go first with a thousand merchants in attendance; 
and when you go, go not empty-handed, but take a sandal- 
wood casket filled with fresh ghee. The king will speak 
kindly to you, and offer you a householder's seat ; take it 
and sit down. When you are seated, I will come ; the king 
will speak kindly to me and offer me such another seat. 
Then I will look at you ; take the cue and say, rising from 
your seat, Son Mahosadha the wise, take this seat. Then 
the question will be ripe for solution." He did so. On 
arriving at the palace door he caused his arrival to be made 
known to the king, and on the king's invitation, he entered, 
and greeted the king, and stood on one side. The king 
spoke to him kindly, and asked where was his son the 
wise Mahosadha. " Coming after me, mv lord." The king 

v O 

was pleased to hear of his coming, and bade the father 


sit in a suitable place. He found a place and sat there. 
Meanwhile the Great Being dressed himself in all his 
splendour, and attended by the thousand youths he came 
seated in a magnificent chariot. As he entered the town 
he beheld an ass by the side of a ditch, and he directed 
some stout fellows to fasten up the mouth of the ass so 
that it should make no noise, to put him in a bag and 
carry him on their shoulders. They did so ; the Bodhisatta 
entered the city with his great company. The people could 
not praise him enough. "This," they cried, "is the wise 
Mahosadha, the merchant Sirivaddhaka's son; this they say 
is he, who was born holding a herb of virtue in his hand ; 
he it is who knew the answers to so many problems set to 
test him." On arriving before the palace he sent in word 
of his coming. The king was pleased to hear it and said, 
" Let my son the wise Mahosadha make haste to come in." 
So with his attendants he entered the palace and saluted 
the king and stood on one side. The king delighted to 
see him spoke to him very sweetly, and bade him find 
a fit seat and sit down. He looked at his father, and his 
father at this cue uprose from his seat and invited him to 
sit there, which he did. Thereupon the foolish men who 
were there, Senaka, Pukkusa, Kavinda, Devinda, and others, 
seeing him sit there, clapped their hands and laughed 
loudly and cried, " This is the blind fool they call wise ! He 
has made his father rise from his seat, and sits there himself! 
Wise he should not be called surely." The king also was 
crestfallen. Then the Great Being said, "Why, my lord! 
are you sad?" "Yes, wise sir, I am sad. I was glad to 
hear of you, but to see you I am not glad. ' "Why so?" 
" Because you have made your father rise from his seat, 
and sit there yourself." "What, my lord! do you think 
that in all cases the sire is better than the sons?" "Yes, 


sage." "Did you not send word to me to bring you a 
mule or something more excellent?" So saying he 
rose up and looking towards the young fellows said, 
"Bring in the ass you have brought." Placing this ass 
before the king he went on, "Sire, what is the price of 
this ass?" The king said, " If it be serviceable, it is worth 
eight kahapanas." " But if he get a mule colt out of a 
thorobred Sindh mare, what will the price of it be?" "It 
will be priceless." "Why do you say that, my lord? Have 
you not just said that in all cases the sire is better 
than the sons? By your own saying the ass is worth 
more than the mule colt. Now have not your wise men 
clapt their hands and laughed at me because they did 
not know that ? What wisdom is this of your wise men ! 
where did you get them?" And in contempt for all 
four of them he addressed the king in this stanza of the 
First Book: 

You smile, and think that the sire is better than the son, excellent 
king 1 . Then is yon creature better than the mule ; the ass is the mule's 

After this said, he went on, "My lord, if the sire is 
better than the son, take my sire into your service ; if the 
son is better than the sire, take me." The king was 
delighted ; and all the company cried out applauding and 
praising a thousand times "Well indeed has the wise 
man solved the question." There was cracking of fingers 
and waving of a thousand scarves: the four were crest- 

Now no one knows better than the Bodhisatta the value 
of parents. If one ask then, why he did so : it was not to 
throw contempt on his father, but when the king sent 
the message, send a mule or something more excellent, 
he did thus in order to solve that problem, and to 


make his wisdom to be recognised, and to take the shine 
out of the four sages. 

The king was pleased; and taking the golden vase filled 
with scented water, poured the water upon the merchant's 
hand, saying, "Enjoy the village of East Yavamajjhaka 
as a gift from the king. Let the other merchants," he 
went on, "be subordinate to this." This done he sent 
to the mother of the Bodhisatta all kinds of ornaments. 
Delighted as he was at the Bodhisatta's solution of the 
Ass Question, he wished to make the Bodhisatta as his own 
son, and to the father said, "Good sir, give me the Great 
Being to be my son." He replied, " Sire, very young is he 
still ; even yet his mouth smells of milk : but when he is 
old, he shall be with you." The king said however, "Good 
sir, henceforth you must give up your attachment to the 
boy; from this day he is my son. I can support my 
son, so go your ways." Then he sent him away. He did 
obeisance to the king, and embraced his son, and throw- 
ing his arms about him kissed him upon the head, and 
gave him good counsel. The boy also bade his father 
farewell, and begged him not to be anxious, and sent him 

The king then asked the sage, whether he would take 
his meals inside the palace or without it. He thinking 
that with so large a retinue it were best to have his meals 
outside the palace, replied to that effect. Then the king 
gave him a suitable house, and providing for the main- 
tenance of the thousand youths and all, gave him all that 
was needful. From that time the sage attended upon 
the king. 

19. Now the king desired to test the sage. At that 
time there was a precious jewel in a crow's nest on a palm- 
tree which stood on the bank of a lake near the southern 


gate, and the image of this jewel was to be seen reflected 
upon the lake. They told the king that there was a 
jewel in the lake. He sent for Seiiaka, saying, "They tell 
me there is a jewel in the lake ; how are we to get it ? " 
Senaka said, " The best way is to drain out the water." 
The king instructed him to do so ; and he collected a 
number of men, and got out the water and mud, and dug 
up the soil at the bottom but no jewel could he see. 
But when the lake was again full, there was the reflexion 
of the jewel to be seen once more. Again Senaka did the 
same thing, and found no jewel. Then the king sent for 
the sage, and said, "A jewel has been seen in the lake, and 
Senaka has taken out the water and mud and dug up the 
earth without finding it, but no sooner is the lake full 
than it appears again. Can you get hold of it?" He 
replied, " That is no hard task, sire, I will get it for you." 
The king was pleased at this promise, and with a great 
following he went to the lake, ready to see the might of 
the sage's knowledge. The Great Being stood on the 
bank, and looked. He perceived that the jewel was not 
in the lake, but must be in the tree, and he said aloud, 
"Sire, there is no jewel in the tank." "What! is it not 
visible in the water ? " So he sent for a pail of water, and 
said, "Now, my lord, see is not this jewel visible both in 
the pail and the lake?" "Then where can the jewel be?" 
" Sire, it is the reflexion which is visible both in the lake 
and in the pail, but the jewel is in a crow's nest in this 
palm-tree: send up a man and have it brought down." 
The king did so: the man brought down the jewel, and 
the sage put it into the king's hand. All the people 
applauded the sage and mocked at Senaka "Here's a 
precious jewel in a crow's nest up a tree, and Senaka 
makes strong men dig out the lake ! Surely a wise man 


should be like Mahosadha." Thus they praised the 
Great Being; and the king being delighted with him, 
gave him a necklace of pearls from his own neck, and 
strings of pearls to the thousand boys, and to him and his 
retinue he granted the right to wait upon him without 

A study of the type of tale in which such problems occur is given by Benfey in his 
essay Die kluge Dime (Kl. Schr. ii. 1. 156 ff.). The most important variants are Tib. T. 
VIL vin, The Story of Ahikar in Syriac, Arabic, etc. (edited by F. C. Conybeare, J. R. 
Harris, and A. Smith Lewis, 2nd ed. Cambridge, 1913), and the Life of Aesop. The 
following parallels to the problems strengthen Benfey's view that the tale is of Indian 
origin. Cf. Introd. p. 6, and the problems in Jat. 257, p. 207. 

2. The same means are used to convict the dogs in Jat. 22, p. 28, and to 
convict a rogue in Tib. T. vm, cf. Problem 6. 

5. Solomon's judgment, 1 Kings iii. 16. In Tib. T. vn. two men dispute the 
possession of a pair of boots. Visakha gives one to one man and the other to the 
other. The real owner says, " why should the boots be separated ? " and the other, 
" what good is one boot to me ? " 

6. Tib. T. vin, but there the conviction of the rogue is brought about by making 
the disputants vomit. 

7. The Bodhisatta by saying that the owner will not let go tricks Sakka into 
revealing himself. 

8. Tib. T. vn. and vm. 

10. Tib. T. vm, where the male snake is unable to endure stroking with the 
leaf of a cotton plant. 

11. A riddle of the same type as 14. 

12. In the Mohammedan legends of the visit of Bilqis, Queen of Sheba, to 
Solomon, one of the problems which she gives to the king is to thread a diamond. 
This is done by a worm creeping through the jewel. (Weil, Biblical Legends of the 
Mwsulmans, London, 1846.) 

13. Tib. T. vm. This, like 15, 16, 17, is answered by a counter-quip, another 
impossibility being retorted on the proposer. Two such occur in Ahikar, where the 
king of Egypt proposes to build a castle between earth and heaven (also in Life of 
Aesop), and when he requires a broken millstone to be sewn up. 

14. Tib. T. vin. This is a riddle which resembles the enigma given in two 
forms by the scholiast on Plato, Rep. \. 479 c. The first form is : 

A.IVOS ris (arriv, cor avrjp re KOVK avfjp 

Opflda KOVK OpVlff t'So>l T( KOVK 

firi i5Aou T( KOV v\ov Ka 

Ai'$co re KOV Ai'$&> /3(iAoi re Kov/3aAot. 

The answer being " a eunuch aimed at a bat, which he saw imperfectly sitting upon 
a reed, with a pumice-stone and missed him." (Jowett and Campbell.) 


Cf. the legend of the slaying of Namuci by Indra in the Satapatha Brdhmana, 
xn. 7, 3. Indra had sworn to Namuci, " not by day nor by night will I slay thee, 
not with stick, not with bow, not with dry, not with wet." But he slew him with a 
thunderbolt of foam. " It was not dry nor moist, with this Indra, when night was 
growing bright, and the sun was not arisen, cut off the head of Namuci, the Asura." 

15. Tib. T. vin, a counter-quip, but in Ahikar the sage makes five cables by 
boring five holes in the east wall of the palace, and scatters sand in the rays 
of light. 

16, 17. Combined in one in Tib. T. vin. Given as tasks to be actually performed 
in Jat. 220, pp. 184, 186. 

18. Tib. T. vin, is fuller and has more point. The king had sent a mule to be 
taken care of, and it was carried off. When the king maintains that the father is 
better than the son, Mahosadha offers him an ass in place of the mule. 

19. Tib. T. vin. In Julien 46 a fool thinks that he sees gold in a pool, and 
dives for it several times. His father shews him that it is reflected from a bird in 
a tree, which has the gold in its mouth. 


Page 176. See a more accurate form of the Jewish variant in the article on Ben 
Sira iu the Jewish Encyclopedia, by Dr L. Ginzberg, who shews that the author of 
the commentary on the Alphabet of Ben Sira drew it from some version of Kalilah 
and Dimnah. 

Page 409. Cf. also, Ueber den Bodhisattca als Elephant mit seeks Hauzcihnen, 
J. S. Speyer, ZDMG., 1903, pp. 305 ff. 

A ;">"> 

j j > ' 
i *'"** 

J j J i 3 

F. & T 31 


Titles of the tales are in italics 

Abhidhanappadipika 245 

Abortion, protection against 131, 370, 431 

Act of Truth 17, 24, 69, 387 

Adasamukha 197, 198 

Adventures (The) of the Prince and his 

Brother 283 
Aelian 36, 139 
Aesop 4, 6, 8, 25, 34, 36, 39, 118, 141, 156, 

171, 176, 180, 215, 220, 224, 257, 259; 

life of 480 
Aggideva 316 
Ahikar, Story of 6, 480 
Ajjuna 316 

Alambara, drum of the Titans 213 
Amkura 316 
Anaka, drum 213 
Ananda, king of the fishes 30, 214 
Andhakavenhu, slave 316 ; race of 325, 393 
Androcles and the lion 139 
Aiijanii, daughter of Devagabbha 316 
Anutlracarl, otter 267. , t , 
Archery, marvellous K? 
Arindama, prince, dirfcuveis -his' friend" 

through a song 381, 418 
Aristophanes 36 
Asadisa, prince 145 
Asitafijana, city 314 ' : 

Ass (The) in the Li oil's Skin 155 
Asuras, see Titans 
Aulus Gellius 139 
Avadana-^'ataka 389 
AvalokiteSvara 166 
Ayojjha, city 318 

Babrius 25, 34, 39, 118, 141, 156, 220, 
224, 257 

Babylon 7 

Baladeva 316, 325 

Balarama 325 

Beal, S. 166, 176 

Beauty and the Beast 459 

Benares 16, and often 

Benfey, T. 1, 2, 30, 32, 92, 158, 210, 229, 

263, 459, 480 

Berekhyah ha-Naqdan 221 
Bergmann, B., Nora. Streifereien 229 
Betrayer (The) Betrayed 253 
Bhagavata PurSna 325 
Bhandukanna, juggler 372 
Bharata, brother of Rama 326 
Bharhut Stupa 5, 32, 47, 70, 149, 173, 259, 

283, 409 

Bharukaccha (Broach) 251 
Bhlmasena 99 
Bidpai, fables of 10 
Bilad, story of 92, 145 
Bilqis, queen of Sheba 480 
Birds adopted as children 107, 410 
Blohd^l discovers King Richard 381 
Bloomfield, M., on talking birds 417 
Boileau 269 
Boro-Boedoer 167 
Brahmadatta 13, and often 
'.Brahmin (The) and the Acrobat 176 
Bwhmin (The) and the Snake 269 
Brahmin's (The) Revenge on the Monkeys 277 
Brahmin's (The) Spell 63 
Buddha, in the Jataka 3 ; interprets dreams 
79; rejects superstition of sneezing 115; 
attempt on his life 277; throne of 346; 
six-coloured rays 400 
Buddhaghosha's Parables 17, 120, 222, 

243, 325 
Buhler, G., Ritual-Litteratur 370 



Cakkadaha, wheel of empire 346 

Cakkavatti 346 

Campbell, J. F., Popular Tales of the 
W. Highlands 331 

Candadeva 316 

Candaka, palace 388 

Canura (Canura), wrestler 317 

Cariya Pitaka 9, 176, 229, 389, 427 

Castes, six 341 ; caste secrets 345 ; low 
caste disguised 374; low-born brahmin 

Cat (The) and the Cock 258 

Cento novelle antiche 52 

Ceylon 164 

Chaddanta-jataka 22, 395; lake 395 

Chalmers, Sir R., Lineage of the Proud 
King 98 

Charm to raise the dead 130; of subduing 
the world 193; to recall a Naga 259; 
to understand all sounds 260; to under- 
stand animals' cries 283; to ward off 
ill-luck 240 ; wishing jewel 296; to 
exorcise Yakkhas 303; for gathering 
fruit out of season 337; Vedabbha 47 

Chattapani 183 

Chaucer, Pardoner's Tale 9, 52 

Choice (The) of a Husband 168 

Citta and Sambhuta 373 

Cittakiita, mount 178 

Cittalata 186 

Clouston, Popular Tales and Fictions 17, 
45, 52, 70, 118, 168, 210, 218, 243 

Cock's flesh, luck in eating 216 

Cold (The) Half of the Month 20 

Coleman, C., Mythology of the Hindus 428 

Conceited (The) Mendicant 233 

Conjunction of planets 48, 341, 349, 357 

Converted (The) Miser 92 

Cophetua and beggar-maid 223 

Cowell, E. B. 10, 36 

Crab (The) and the Elephant 211 

Crab Tarn 211 

Crane (The) and the Crab 36 

Crocodik (The) and the Monkey 174 

Cullasubhadda, elephant 397 

Cunning (The) Jackal 123 

Cupid and Psyche 459 

Dadhivahana 152 

Damayanti sends messengers to discover 
her husband 381 

Danae 325 

Dantapura, city 343, 345 

Dasaratha, father of Rama 325 ; dies 327 ; 
father of Adasamukha 199 

Dasent, Popular tales from the Norse 291 

Davids, C. A. F. Rhys 63, 409 

Davids, T. W. Rhys 156, 197, 346, 425 

Defeating the King of Death 191 

Devadatta 277, 281, 283 

Devagabbha, mother of the ten slave- 
brethren 314, 325 

Devaki 325 

Dhammaddhaja, priest 183 

Dhammapada 133 

Dighatala 465 

Dighavu, prince 420 

Discontented (The) Ox 29 

Divine eye 217, 322, 388 

Divyavadana 166 

Dodsley's Fables 180, 197, 269 

Dog's teaching 29 

Douce, Illustrations of Shakespeare 229 

Dreams interpreted 78 ff. 

Dubois and Beauchamp, Hindu Manners 
and Customs 428 

Dvaravati, magic city 318 

Edenhall, luck of 219 

Elephant of uposatha stock 346 

Elephant-trainer's (The) Luck 215 

Eros and Psyche 459 

Evils (The) of strong Drink 390 

Exorcism 113, 303 

Eye, evil 153, 374; divine 217, 322, 388 

Feast (The) for the Dead 20 

Feer, L. 409 

Fick, Die soc. Gliederung im nord-6. Indien 

13, 342 

Five-sprayed garland 20, 153 
Flight (The) of the Beasts 230 
Folly (The) of Garrulity 348 
Foolhardy (The) Crow 169 
Foolhardy (The) Jackal 124 
Foolish (The) Crows 126 
Foolish (The) Friend 44 
Fowler (The) and the Quails 32 



Francke, 0. 4, 240, 293, 389 
Frazer, Sir J. G. 84, 263, 288 
Friendship of animals 141, 171, 357 

Gamani-canda 200 

Gambhlracari, otter 267 

Gaming 250, 351; circle 68; dice 251 

Garudas 250 

Gaster, M. 92 

Gesta Eomanorum 78, 118, 139, 168, 243 

Ghatapandita 316 

Ghatlkara's house, miracle of 25 

Gildmaster 13; Gildmaster Little 13 ff. 

Gipsy tales 218 

Giriya, jackal 265 

Goblin (The) City 164 

Goblins, see Yakkhas 

Goblin's (The) Gift 294 

Golakala, dwarf 465 

Golden (The) Goose 117 

Golden image, sent to discover a bride 
235, 237, 433 

Golden Land 251 

Goss, L. A. 185 

Grateful (The) Animals 72 

Grateful beasts 78, 120 

Grateful (The) Elephant 134 

Grateful (The) Mouse 118 

Grateful (The) Parrot 291 

Great (The) Dreams 78 

Great King Goodness 52 

Greedy (The) Jackal caught 128 

Griffis, Japanese Fairy World 176 

Grimm's Tales 102, 155, 164, 210, 218, 
373 ; Deutsche My thologie 229 ; on Rein- 
hart Fuchs 357 

Griinwedel, Buddhist Art in India 5 

Guilty (The) Dogs 26 

Hand, spread, to avert evil eye 153 

Hardy, Manual of Buddhism 149, 346 

Hare in the moon 25, 229, 321 

Hare's (The) Self-sacrifice 225 

Harley, Moon Lore 229 

Hartland, E. S., Science of Fairy Tales 


Haughty (The) Slave 39 
Hausrath 32, 36, 141, 156, 257 
Hawks (The) and their Friends 357 

Herodotus 32, 72, 136 

Herondas 181 

Heron's (The) Eevenge 243 

Hero's (The) Tasks 183 

Hesiod 1, 136, 243 

Hippoclides 32 

Hitopadesa 34, 247 

Hiuen Thsang 229 

Horace 25, 156, 220 

Housse partie 314 

Hypocritical (The) Jackal 115 

Impermanence (The) of worldly Joys 234 
Incomparable (The) Archer 145 
Indasamanagotta 140 
Ingratitude punished 158 
Iron counteracts magic 319 

Jackal (The) and the Crow 219 

Jackal (The) betrayed by his Howl 143 

Jackal's (The) spell 193 

Jacobi, H. 330 

Jacobs, J. 5, 6, 32, 45, 63, 118, 127, 156, 

171, 180, 221, 224, 257, 259, 291 
Jains 2, 92, 168, 381, 389 
Jambuka, dog 309; parrot 411 
Japanese variants 176, 265 
Jara, huntsman 324 
Jason and the Hero's Tasks 1 
Jatakamfila 9, 224, 229, 283, 389, 394, 


Jayampati, prince 437 
Joseph and Potiphar's wife 336 
Judas (The) Tree 196 
Judgments (The) of King Mirror-face 198 
Jiilg, Mong. Marchen 459 
Julien, Contes et apologues indiens 34, 36, 

122, 180, 215, 247, 265, 269, 279, 357, 


Kfilaka, captain 183 

Kalamattiya, goblin 318 

Kalasena, king of Ayojjha 318 

Kaievala 134 

Kali, courtesan 351 

Kalilah and Dimuah 10, 15, 34, 39, 78, 92, 

108, 127, 129, 145, 180, 215, 240, 245, 

247, 250, 257, 357, 427 
Kalinga, king and kingdom 343 



Kamsa, king 314, 325 

Kanha, name of Ghatapandita 321 

Kanhadlpfiyana, sage 319, 322 

Kannamunda lake 153 

Kfirandavyiiha 166 

Kathasaritsagara, see Somadeva 

King (The) and the Fruit-girl 221 

King (The) and the Stick-gatherer 16 

King, chosen by festal car 418; of birds 

and of quadrupeds 30; of fishes 30, 214 
King (A) finds his Friend through a Song 


King Makhddeva's grey Hairs 18 
King Sivi 381 

King's (A) life saved by Spells 240 
Kluge (Die) Dirne 480 
Krishna legend 213, 325 
KundalinI, mayuah bird 411 
Kusa, prince 431 

La Fontaine 9, 171, 269 

Lakkhana, brother of Kama 325 

Lang, A. 1, 191, 459 

Language (The) of Animals 259 

Leasing, Fables 221 

Leumann 381 

Le"vi, S. 330 

Liebrecht, Zur Volkskunde 265 

Lion (The) and the Bull 245 

Lion (The) in bad Company 265 

Little (The) Gildmaster 13 

Loquacious (The) Brahmin 109 

Lost (The) Charm 337 

Lost (A) Friend found by a Song 373 

Lucian 156 

Luck, in sneezing 112 ; spread hand 153 ; 
things gnawed by mice unlucky 180; in 
eating cock's flesh 216; of Edenhall 
219 ; of swords 112 ; bad to see a Can- 
dala 374; bird of iU omen 172; lucky 
conjunction of planets 47, 341, 349, 357; 
place for a building 198, 370. See also 

Lucky (The) Sneeze 112 

Madda, king of Madda 434 

Magic circle 113; razor-axe, drum, milk- 
bowl 150 ; gem 150 ; treasures 269 ; 
city 318; horse 166 

Magic (The) Treasures 149 
Mahabharata 9, 17, 25, 34, 45, 111, 1.16, 

134, 240, 245, 293, 381, 389 
Mahapiugala, king 191 
Mahasagara 315 
Mahasubhadda, elephant 397 
Mahaummagga-jataka 7, 210, 277, 459 
Mahavastu 149, 176 
Mahosadha, sage 459 
Maitreya 166 
Majjhima Nikaya 19 
Makhadeva, king 18 
Mango- trick 372 
Manoja, liou 265 
Marco Polo 372 
Marie de France 221 
Martin (St) of Tours 185 
Matali, charioteer of Sakka 256 
Mathura 167 
Mayavi, jackal 267 
Melamata, goat 306 
Message sent on an arrow 149; carried by 

birds 243 

Meyer, J. J., Hindu Tales 168, 389 
Midrash Kabba 7, 30 
Miklosich, Mundarten der Zigeuner 218 
Milinda, questions of 346, 389 
Miracles, four in this era 25; when a 

universal monarch appears 346 
Mithila 368 
Moggallana 289 

Mongoose (The) and the Snake 141 
Monkeys (The) and the Ogre 23, 
Monkey's (The) heroic Self-sacrifice 279 
Morris, E., Death's Messengers 19 
Munika, pig 29 
Mutthika (Mustika), wrestler 317 

Naga island 165, 250 

Nagas, sacrifice to 126, 169 ; assume 

different shapes 259; naga-realm 335 
Nalakapana, Eeed-water 23 
Nalakara 366 

Namuci, slain by Indra 481 
Nanda, slave 39 ; cowherd 325 
Nanda, brahmin's daughter 117 
Nandagopa 315 
Nandamula cave 419 
Nandana 186 



Nandavati, brahmin's daughter 117 
Narada and Sivi 134 
Nimi, king, in puranas 19 
Nineteen (The) Problems 459 

O'Connor, Folktales from Tibet 176 

Okkaka, king 427 

Oknos 84 

Oldenberg, H. 178 

Oldest (The) of the Animals 34 

Ordeal of fire 69 

Otters (The) and the Jackal 267 

Owl (The) as King 213 

Pabhavati, princess 434 

Pacceka Buddha 190, 366, 398, 401, 419 

Paduma, prince 158, 331 

Pagenstecher, R., Eros und Psyche 459 

Pajjuna 316, 325 

Pallas, P. S., Reise 229 

Pancajana, demon slain by Krishna 213 

Pancasikha, gandharva 256 

Panchatantra 2, 9, 25, 34, 39, 41, 45, 78, 
92, 108, 111, 116, 118, 122, 127, 129, 130, 
141, 142, 143, 156, 158, 162, 164, 173, 
176, 180, 182, 215, 229, 230, 245, 247, 
250, 257, 269, 279, 309, 357, 389 ; Kash- 
mirian origin 156 ; Pahlavi version 9 

Pandukanna 372 

Panther (The) and the Goat 289 

Parantapa, slave 285 

Pasenadi, king 92, 223 

Patala, musician 299 

Pausanias 84, 344 

Peacock's (The) Wooing 30 

Penny-wise (The) Monkey 144 

Perfections, ten 24, 27 ; attainment of 
truth 388 

Persia, relations with India and Greece 6 ff . 

Pet (The) Elephant 140 

Phaedra and Hippolytus 336 

Phaedrus 39, 180, 220, 224, 257, 291 

Pigeon (The) and the Crow 41 

Pingala, courtesan 239 

Pischel 357 

Plato 156, 176, 480 

Polygnotus, painting by 84 

Potiphar's wife 336 

Potthapada 167 

Pradyumna 325 

Prayer in previous existence fulfilled 318, 

324, 401, 439 

Priest (The) in Horse-trappings 156 
Prince Five-weapons 59 
Prince (The) who could not laugh 363 
Prince's (The) Wooing and the Throne of 

the Buddhas 343 
Problems, see Questions 
Prognostication, gift of 240 
Promptuarium Exemplorum 221 
Piitimamsa, jackal 306 

Quail's (The) Friends 247 

Queen Sussondi 250 

Questions, answered by Adasamukha 200; 

by the three wise birds 412 ff. ; by 

Mahosadha 459 ff. 

Rabelais 265 

Radha, parrot 167 

Rahu 62 

Rajagaha, city 290, 418 

Rama and Sitd 325 

Ramayana 36, 71 ; Buddhist version of 330 

Rash (The) Magician 129 

Reinhart Fuchs 357 

Riddles 480 

Ring as token 16, 345 

Ritson, Fairy Tales 219 

Robbers (The) and the Treasure 47 

Robert of Normandy 72 

Rohineyya, courtier 320 

Rouse, W. H. D. 134, 153, 185, 212, 337, 

342, 344, 349 
Ruhaka, priest 156 

Sabbadatha, jackal 194 

Sabbamitta, king 391 

Sacrifices 79, 87, 169, 366; at monkey's 

tomb 283; feast for the dead 20; to 

nagas 126, 169 ; to mountain spirit 161 ; 

to tree spirit 208; to yakkhas 63, 169; 

to spirits of a city 349 ; human 349 
Sagala, city 435 
Siigara, son of Mahasagara 315 
Sage and Fool (Dsan-lun, ed. Schmidt) 

389, 459 
Sagga, minstrel 251 



Saketa 391 

Sakka induces a god to be born 367 ; 
reproves miserliness 94 ; his tbrone 
grows hot or is shaken 185, 226, 291, 
366, 371, 429 
Sakuntala 17 

Salzberger, Die Salomo-Sage 7 
Samkhya Aphorisms 240 
Sammillabhasini 235 
Samyutta Nikaya 63, 396 
Sanchi Tope 149 
Sanjiva, brahmin 130 
Satapatha Brahmana 481 
Saturn devours his children 243 
Savatthi 391 
Savitthaka, crow 170 
Schuurmann, I. N. 176 
Scott, Sir W. 72 
Senaka, king of Benares 259 ; minister 269, 


Seneca 139, 181 
Seruma island 250 
Shakspere 223, 229 
Sllavati, queen 427 
Simhasanadvatrimsika 41 
Sindibad, Book of 306 
Sita, sister of Rama 325 
Sitting in mid-air 17, 22, 98, 151, 346, 

367, 420 

Sivaka, surgeon 384 
Sivi, king 134, 381 
Slippers rule a kingdom 330 
Smith, W. Eobertson 349 
Sneezing, unlucky 112 
Solomon, Judgment of 7, 480; and Bilqis 


Somadeva 15, 25, 39, 78, 108, 116, 127, 
129, 156, 164, 169, 180, 182, 215, 230, 
247, 265, 269, 389 
Sonaka, pacceka buddha 419 
Sonuttara, hunter 400 
Sophocles 72 
Spells, see Charms 

Steele and Temple, Wideawake Stories 218 
Sterility, ceremonies to remove 428 
Stolen (The) Jewels 103 
Stolen (The) Ploughshares 180 
Story of the Present 3, 71, 78, 93, 112, 
169, 238, 243, 289, 309 

Strong drink 325; discovery of 390; evils 
of 393 ; used in sacrifice 126 

Stupid (The) Monkeys 45 

Subhadda, queen 398 

Sudhammacan, Precedents of 169 

Suja or Sujata, wife of Sakka, daughter 
of Titans 261, 292 

S"ukasaptati 70, 168, 182 

Sulpicius Severus 185 

Sumedha 364, 366 

Sundarinanda, brahmin's daughter 117 

Suriyadeva 316 

Suruci, prince 363 

Sussondi, queen 250 

Sword of knowledge 62 

Tamba, king 250 

Takkasila 60, 99, 129, 131, 141, 145, 168, 

215, 245, 253, 263, 269, 283, 381 
Tantrakhyayika 2 
Tar-baby Story 63 

Tawney, C. H. 59, 283; see also Somadeva 
Tell-tale (The) Parrot 167 
Ten (The) Slave-brethren 314 
Testing (The) of Virtue 238 
Tevijja-Sutta 180 
Theft (The) of a Smell 263 
Theocritus 36 
Theseus 344 
Three (The) Fishes 111 
Three (The) wise Birds 409 
Tibetan Tales 9, 29, 32, 36, 51, 78, 116, 

164, 210, 218, 224, 233, 237, 247, 257, 

269, 277, 279, 291, 306, 343, 373, 459, 

480, 481 
Titans, re-birth as 62; made drunk 393; 

Suja daughter of 261, 292 
Too-clever (The) Merchant 107 
Tortoise (The) and the Geese 178 
Treacherous (The) Chameleon 121 
Treasure, buried 40, 118, 209; magic 155; 

from the sky 48 
Tristram and Ysonde 70 
Tundila 351 
Tutl-nameh 168 
Two (The) good Kings 131 
Tylor, E. B. 115 

Udana 197 



Ugly (The) Bridegroom 427 
Uhland, Luck of Edenball 219 
Ujjeni, city 373 
Unasked-for Advice 229 
Ungrateful (The) Son 309 
Universal monarch 346 
Upasagara, son of Mahilsagara 315 
Upakamsa 314 

Valaha horse 164, 166, 346 

Valiant (The) Dwarf 99 

Value (The) of a Brother 70 

Varuna, ascetic 390 

Varunadeva 316 

Vasitthaka 309 

Vasudeva, ancestor of Krishna 320 

Vasudeva, eldest of the ten slave-brethren 

316, 320, 325; see Krishna 
Vedabbha charm 47 
Vedas 21, 337 ; three 20, 99, 145, 193, 198, 


Veni, jackal 306 
Vepulla jewel 346 
Vessantara, owl 410 
Vessavana, king of yakkhas 294; mango 

of 372 

VetalapancavimHatiku 9, 2'2, 130, 169 
Vinaya 36, 143 
Viraka, crow 169 
Visukha 480 

Vishnu, see Krishna 

Vishnu Purana 19, 213, 325 

Vissakamma 371 

Vitry, Jacques de, Exempla 314 

Volsunga Saga 59 

Weil, Biblical Legends 480 

Werner, A., Tar-baby Story 63 

Wheel, weapon of Vasudeva (Vishnu) 318, 

319 ; of Empire 346 
White (The) six-tusked Elephant 395 
Wicked (The) Step-mother 331 
Wise (The) Goat and the Jackal 306 
II' i^iing-cup (The) 218 
Wishing-jewel, to trace footsteps in the 

air 296 

Wolfs (The) Sabbath 220 
Woodpecker (The) and the Lion 223 
Woodpecker (The), Tortoise, and Antelope 


Yakkhas eat human flesh 56, 165, 294, 
464 ; horse-faced 294 ; change their 
shape 164 ; sacrifices to 63, 109 

Yasapani, king 183 

Yasoda 325 

Yavarnajjhaka, village 460 ff. 

Zenobius 357